Sensors 2013, 13(10), 13732-13743; doi:10.3390/s131013732
Article

Sensing Lanthanide Metal Content in Biological Tissues with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

1,2email, 3email, 2email and 1,2,3,4,* email
Received: 22 August 2013; in revised form: 22 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Resonance Sensors)
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Abstract: The development and validation of MRI contrast agents consisting of a lanthanide chelate often requires a determination of the concentration of the agent in ex vivo tissue. We have developed a protocol that uses 70% nitric acid to completely digest tissue samples that contain Gd(III), Dy(III), Tm(III), Eu(III), or Yb(III) ions, or the MRI contrast agent gadodiamide. NMR spectroscopy of coaxial tubes containing a digested sample and a separate control solution of nitric acid was used to rapidly and easily measure the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shift caused by each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide. Each BMS shift was shown to be linearly correlated with the concentration of each lanthanide ion and gadodiamide in the 70% nitric acid solution and in digested rat kidney and liver tissues. These concentration measurements had outstanding precision, and also had good accuracy for concentrations ³10 mM for Tm(III) Eu(III), and Yb(III), and ³3 mM for Gd(III), gadodiamide, and Dy(III). Improved sample handling methods are needed to improve measurement accuracy for samples with lower concentrations.
Keywords: lanthanide metals; bulk magnetic susceptibility; magnetic resonance spectroscopy; concentration measurements
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hingorani, D.V.; Gonzalez, S.I.; Li, J.F.; Pagel, M.D. Sensing Lanthanide Metal Content in Biological Tissues with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Sensors 2013, 13, 13732-13743.

AMA Style

Hingorani DV, Gonzalez SI, Li JF, Pagel MD. Sensing Lanthanide Metal Content in Biological Tissues with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Sensors. 2013; 13(10):13732-13743.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hingorani, Dina V.; Gonzalez, Sandra I.; Li, Jessica F.; Pagel, Mark D. 2013. "Sensing Lanthanide Metal Content in Biological Tissues with Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy." Sensors 13, no. 10: 13732-13743.


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