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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 9 (September 2011), Pages 5461-6366

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Open AccessCommunication Selection of Candidate Housekeeping Genes for Normalization in Human Postmortem Brain Samples
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5461-5470; doi:10.3390/ijms12095461
Received: 17 June 2011 / Revised: 28 July 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 26 August 2011
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The most frequently used technique to study the expression profile of genes involved in common neurological disorders is quantitative real-time RT-PCR, which allows the indirect detection of very low amounts of selected mRNAs in tissue samples. Expression analysis by RT-qPCR requires an appropriate
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The most frequently used technique to study the expression profile of genes involved in common neurological disorders is quantitative real-time RT-PCR, which allows the indirect detection of very low amounts of selected mRNAs in tissue samples. Expression analysis by RT-qPCR requires an appropriate normalization to the expression level of genes characterized by a stable, constitutive transcription. However, the identification of a gene transcribed at a very stable level is difficult if not impossible, since significant fluctuations of the level of mRNA synthesis often accompanies changes of cell behavior. The aim of this study is to identify the most stable genes in postmortem human brain samples of patients affected by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) suitable as reference genes. The experiments analyzed 12 commonly used reference genes in brain samples from eight individuals with AD and seven controls. After a careful analysis of the results calculated by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, we found that CYC1 and EIF4A2 are the best reference genes. We remark on the importance of the determination of the best reference genes for each sample to be analyzed and suggest a practical combination of reference genes to be used in the analysis of human postmortem samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Chemical Structures of 4-Oxo-Flavonoids in Relation to Inhibition of Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-Induced Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5471-5489; doi:10.3390/ijms12095471
Received: 27 June 2011 / Revised: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 26 August 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (1025 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be the initiation step of atherosclerosis (AS), and flavonoids may play an important role in AS prevention and therapy. Twenty-three flavonoids categorized into flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, and flavanones, all with 4-oxo-pyronenucleus, were
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Vascular endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress has been demonstrated to be the initiation step of atherosclerosis (AS), and flavonoids may play an important role in AS prevention and therapy. Twenty-three flavonoids categorized into flavones, flavonols, isoflavones, and flavanones, all with 4-oxo-pyronenucleus, were examined for what structural characteristics are required for the inhibitory effects on endothelial dysfunction induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Human vascular endothelial cells EA.hy926 were pretreated with different 4-oxo-flavonoids for 2 hs, and then exposed to oxLDL for another 24 hs. Cell viability and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were measured, respectively. Then, correlation analysis and paired comparison were used to analyze the structure–activity relationships. Significant correlations were observed between the number of –OH moieties in total or in B-ring and the inhibitory effectson endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyl on B-ring, 3-hydroxyl on C-ring and 2,3-double bondwere correlated closely to the inhibitory effects of flavonolson cell viability decrease and lipid peroxidation. 5,7-meta-dihydroxyl group on A-ring was crucial for the anti-inflammatory effects of flavones and isoflavones in endothelial cells. Moreover, the substituted position of B-ring on C3 rather than C2 was important for NO release. Additionally, hydroxylation at C6 position significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of 4-oxo-flavonoids on endothelial dysfunction. Our findings indicated that the effective agents in inhibiting endothelial dysfunction include myricetin, quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, genistein and daidzein. Our work might provide some evidence for AS prevention and a strategy for the design of novel AS preventive agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Chemoenzymatic Synthesis and Chemical Recycling of Poly(ester-urethane)s
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5490-5507; doi:10.3390/ijms12095490
Received: 27 July 2011 / Revised: 21 August 2011 / Accepted: 22 August 2011 / Published: 29 August 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel poly(ester-urethane)s were prepared by a synthetic route using a lipase that avoids the use of hazardous diisocyanate. The urethane linkage was formed by the reaction of phenyl carbonate with amino acids and amino alcohols that produced urethane-containing diacids and hydroxy acids, respectively.
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Novel poly(ester-urethane)s were prepared by a synthetic route using a lipase that avoids the use of hazardous diisocyanate. The urethane linkage was formed by the reaction of phenyl carbonate with amino acids and amino alcohols that produced urethane-containing diacids and hydroxy acids, respectively. The urethane diacid underwent polymerization with polyethylene glycol and a,w-alkanediols and also the urethane-containing hydroxy acid monomer was polymerized by the lipase to produce high-molecular-weight poly(ester-urethane)s. The periodic introduction of ester linkages into the polyurethane chain by the lipase-catalyzed polymerization afforded chemically recyclable points. They were readily depolymerized in the presence of lipase into cyclic oligomers, which were readily repolymerized in the presence of the same enzyme. Due to the symmetrical structure of the polymers, poly(ester-urethane)s synthesized in this study showed higher Tm, Young’s modulus and tensile strength values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Protective Effect of Honey in Cigarette Smoke-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5508-5521; doi:10.3390/ijms12095508
Received: 13 April 2011 / Revised: 9 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 29 August 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (2207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cigarette smoke (CS) can cause testicular damage and we investigated the possible protective effect of honey against CS-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in rats. CS exposure (8 min, 3 times daily) and honey supplementation (1.2 g/kg daily) were given for 13 weeks.
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Cigarette smoke (CS) can cause testicular damage and we investigated the possible protective effect of honey against CS-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in rats. CS exposure (8 min, 3 times daily) and honey supplementation (1.2 g/kg daily) were given for 13 weeks. Rats exposed to CS significantly had smaller seminiferous tubules diameter and epithelial height, lower Leydig cell count and increased percentage of tubules with germ cell loss. CS also produced increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as reduced total antioxidant status (TAS) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). However, supplementation of honey significantly reduced histological changes and TBARS level, increased TAS level, as well as significantly restored activities of GPx, SOD and CAT in rat testis. These findings may suggest that honey has a protective effect against damage and oxidative stress induced by CS in rat testis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Isolation of Bacteria with Antifungal Activity against the Phytopathogenic Fungi Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5522-5537; doi:10.3390/ijms12095522
Received: 21 July 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 19 August 2011 / Published: 29 August 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora are the causal agents of ear rot in corn, which is one of the most destructive diseases in this crop worldwide. These fungi are important mycotoxin producers that cause different pathologies in farmed animals and represent an important
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Stenocarpella maydis and Stenocarpella macrospora are the causal agents of ear rot in corn, which is one of the most destructive diseases in this crop worldwide. These fungi are important mycotoxin producers that cause different pathologies in farmed animals and represent an important risk for humans. In this work, 160 strains were isolated from soil of corn crops of which 10 showed antifungal activity against these phytopathogens, which, were identified as: Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pantoea agglomerans by sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and the phylogenetic analysis. From cultures of each strain, extracellular filtrates were obtained and assayed to determine antifungal activity. The best filtrates were obtained in the stationary phase of B. subtilis cultures that were stable to the temperature and extreme pH values; in addition they did not show a cytotoxicity effect against brine shrimp and inhibited germination of conidia. The bacteria described in this work have the potential to be used in the control of white ear rot disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Ecology)
Open AccessArticle ZnS, CdS and HgS Nanoparticles via Alkyl-Phenyl Dithiocarbamate Complexes as Single Source Precursors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5538-5551; doi:10.3390/ijms12095538
Received: 13 June 2011 / Revised: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 9 August 2011 / Published: 29 August 2011
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (1784 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles obtained by the thermolysis of certain group 12 metal complexes as precursors is reported. Thermogravimetric analysis of the single source precursors showed sharp decomposition leading to their respective metal sulfides. The structural and optical properties of the
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The synthesis of II-VI semiconductor nanoparticles obtained by the thermolysis of certain group 12 metal complexes as precursors is reported. Thermogravimetric analysis of the single source precursors showed sharp decomposition leading to their respective metal sulfides. The structural and optical properties of the prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction pattern showed that the prepared ZnS nanoparticles have a cubic sphalerite structure; the CdS indicates a hexagonal phase and the HgS show the presence of metacinnabar phase. The TEM image demonstrates that the ZnS nanoparticles are dot-shaped, the CdS and the HgS clearly showed a rice and spherical morphology respectively. The UV-Vis spectra exhibited a blue-shift with respect to that of the bulk samples which is attributed to the quantum size effect. The band gap of the samples have been calculated from absorption spectra and werefound to be about 4.33 eV (286 nm), 2.91 eV (426 nm) and 4.27 eV (290 nm) for the ZnS, CdS and HgS samples respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Spectroscopic Behavior of Some A3B Type Tetrapyrrolic Complexes in Several Organic Solvents and Micellar Media
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5552-5564; doi:10.3390/ijms12095552
Received: 20 June 2011 / Revised: 19 August 2011 / Accepted: 26 August 2011 / Published: 30 August 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The paper presents spectral studies of some unsymmetrical A3B tetrapyrrolic, porphyrin-type complexes with Cu(II) and Zn(II) in different solvents and micellar media aimed at estimating their properties in connection with the living cell. The results indicate that the position of the
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The paper presents spectral studies of some unsymmetrical A3B tetrapyrrolic, porphyrin-type complexes with Cu(II) and Zn(II) in different solvents and micellar media aimed at estimating their properties in connection with the living cell. The results indicate that the position of the absorption and emission peaks is mostly influenced by the central metal ion and less by the environmental polarity or the peripheric substituents of the porphyrinic core. The comparison between the overall absorption and emission spectra of the compounds in methanol or cyclohexane vs. direct and reverse Triton X micellar systems, respectively, suggests for all compounds the localization at the interface between the polyethylene oxide chains and the tert-octyl-phenyl etheric residue of the Triton X-100 molecules. These findings could be important when testing the compounds embedded in liposomes or other delivery systems to the targeted cell. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle New Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Obtained from Extracted Bracts of Bougainvillea Glabra and Spectabilis Betalain Pigments by Different Purification Processes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5565-5576; doi:10.3390/ijms12095565
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 30 August 2011
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis’ bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both
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The performance of a new dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based in a natural dye extracted from the Bougainvillea spectabilis’ bracts, is reported. The performance of this solar cell was compared with cells prepared using extract of the Bougainvillea glabra and mixture of both extracts; in both cases the pigments were betalains, obtained from Reddish-purple extract. These dyes were purified to different extents and used for the construction of solar cells that were electrically characterized. The materials were characterized using FTIR and UV-Vis. Solar cells were assembled using TiO2 thin film on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass; a mesoporous film was sensitized with the Bougainvillea extracts. The obtained solar energy conversion efficiency was of 0.48% with a current density JSC of 2.29 mA/cm2 using an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle New User-Friendly Approach to Obtain an Eisenberg Plot and Its Use as a Practical Tool in Protein Sequence Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5577-5591; doi:10.3390/ijms12095577
Received: 25 July 2011 / Revised: 22 August 2011 / Accepted: 22 August 2011 / Published: 30 August 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (331 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The Eisenberg plot or hydrophobic moment plot methodology is one of the most frequently used methods of bioinformatics. Bioinformatics is more and more recognized as a helpful tool in Life Sciences in general, and recent developments in approaches recognizing lipid binding regions in
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The Eisenberg plot or hydrophobic moment plot methodology is one of the most frequently used methods of bioinformatics. Bioinformatics is more and more recognized as a helpful tool in Life Sciences in general, and recent developments in approaches recognizing lipid binding regions in proteins are promising in this respect. In this study a bioinformatics approach specialized in identifying lipid binding helical regions in proteins was used to obtain an Eisenberg plot. The validity of the Heliquest generated hydrophobic moment plot was checked and exemplified. This study indicates that the Eisenberg plot methodology can be transferred to another hydrophobicity scale and renders a user-friendly approach which can be utilized in routine checks in protein–lipid interaction and in protein and peptide lipid binding characterization studies. A combined approach seems to be advantageous and results in a powerful tool in the search of helical lipid-binding regions in proteins and peptides. The strength and limitations of the Eisenberg plot approach itself are discussed as well. The presented approach not only leads to a better understanding of the nature of the protein–lipid interactions but also provides a user-friendly tool for the search of lipid-binding regions in proteins and peptides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Variable Frequencies of Apolipoprotein E Genotypes and Its Effect on Serum Lipids in the Guangxi Zhuang and Han Children
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5604-5615; doi:10.3390/ijms12095604
Received: 11 July 2011 / Revised: 15 August 2011 / Accepted: 26 August 2011 / Published: 31 August 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (420 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Guangxi Zhuang, the largest ethnic minority in China, is located in the southern part of the country, and well-known to the world as the longevity village. Studies of apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism in adults suggest the lower frequencies of E4 allele and E4/E4
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Guangxi Zhuang, the largest ethnic minority in China, is located in the southern part of the country, and well-known to the world as the longevity village. Studies of apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism in adults suggest the lower frequencies of E4 allele and E4/E4 genotype may account, in part, for the favorable lipid profiles of Guangxi Zhuang. However, the effect of APOE polymorphism on serum lipids in the Guangxi Zhuang children is yet unknown to date. In the present study, genomic DNA was extracted from 278 Guangxi Zhuang and 200 Guangxi Han children. APOE genotypes were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The fasting serum lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1) and apoB were measured. Our results demonstrated that no significant differences in serum lipids were observed between the Guangxi Zhuang and Han children. The E4/E4 and E4/E3 genotypic frequencies were significantly lower in the Guangxi Zhuang children compared with the Guangxi Han children, whereas for E2/E2, E3/E2 and E4/E2 genotypic frequencies the opposite was presented. Though no significant differences in serum lipid concentrations were found for variant alleles both in the Guangxi Zhuang and Han children, the trend was observed in the association of higher levels of Lp(a), TC, TG and LDL-C with E4 allele in the Guangxi Zhuang children. In conclusion, a significant heterogeneity in APOE genetic variation indeed exists between the Guangxi Zhuang and Han ethnic group. The E4 allele may serve as a genetic marker for susceptibility to higher lipid profiles in the Guangxi Zhuang children. Lifestyle should be modified, according to APOE polymorphism even in the young children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Xylooligosaccharides of Daidzein and Their Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Allergic Activities
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5616-5625; doi:10.3390/ijms12095616
Received: 7 June 2011 / Revised: 17 August 2011 / Accepted: 18 August 2011 / Published: 31 August 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The biocatalytic synthesis of xylooligosaccharides of daidzein was investigated using cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus and Aspergillus sp. β-xylosidase. The cultured cells of C. roseus converted daidzein into its 4'-O-β-glucoside, 7-O-β-glucoside, and 7-O-β-primeveroside, which was a new
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The biocatalytic synthesis of xylooligosaccharides of daidzein was investigated using cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus and Aspergillus sp. β-xylosidase. The cultured cells of C. roseus converted daidzein into its 4'-O-β-glucoside, 7-O-β-glucoside, and 7-O-β-primeveroside, which was a new compound. The 7-O-β-primeveroside of daidzein was further xylosylated by Aspergillus sp. β-xylosidase to daidzein trisaccharide, i.e., 7-O-[6-O-(4-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl))-β-D-xylopyranosyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside, which was a new compound. The 4'-O-β-glucoside, 7-O-β-glucoside, and 7-O-β-primeveroside of daidzein exerted DPPH free-radical scavenging and superoxide radical scavenging activity. On the other hand, 7-O-β-glucoside and 7-O-β-primeveroside of daidzein showed inhibitory effects on IgE antibody production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Multilocus Phylogenetics Show High Intraspecific Variability within Fusarium avenaceum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5626-5640; doi:10.3390/ijms12095626
Received: 27 July 2011 / Revised: 16 August 2011 / Accepted: 20 August 2011 / Published: 31 August 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fusarium avenaceum is a common soil saprophyte and plant pathogen of a variety of hosts worldwide. This pathogen is often involved in the crown rot and head blight of cereals that affects grain yield and quality. F. avenaceum contaminates grain with enniatins more
[...] Read more.
Fusarium avenaceum is a common soil saprophyte and plant pathogen of a variety of hosts worldwide. This pathogen is often involved in the crown rot and head blight of cereals that affects grain yield and quality. F. avenaceum contaminates grain with enniatins more than any species, and they are often detected at the highest prevalence among fusarial toxins in certain geographic areas. We studied intraspecific variability of F. avenaceum based on partial sequences of elongation factor-1 alpha, enniatin synthase, intergenic spacer of rDNA, arylamine N-acetyltransferase and RNA polymerase II data sets. The phylogenetic analyses incorporated a collection of 63 F. avenaceum isolates of various origin among which 41 were associated with wheat. Analyses of the multilocus sequence (MLS) data indicated a high level of genetic variation within the isolates studied with no significant linkage disequilibrium. Correspondingly, maximum parsimony analyses of both MLS and individual data sets showed lack of clear phylogenetic structure within F. avenaceum in relation to host (wheat) and geographic origin. Lack of host specialization indicates no host selective pressure in driving F. avenaceum evolution, while no geographic lineage structure indicates widespread distribution of genotypes that resulted in nullifying the effects of geographic isolation on the evolution of this species. Moreover, significant incongruence between all individual tree topologies and little clonality is consistent with frequent recombination within F. avenaceum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Functionalization and Self-Assembly of DNA Bidimensional Arrays
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5641-5651; doi:10.3390/ijms12095641
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 23 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract Oligonucleotides carrying amino, thiol groups, as well as fluorescein, c-myc peptide sequence and nanogold at internal positions were prepared and used for the assembly of bidimensional DNA arrays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5652-5665; doi:10.3390/ijms12095652
Received: 20 July 2011 / Revised: 25 August 2011 / Accepted: 26 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638) using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05) as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05). These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Isolated from the Squalidus argentatus Using PCR-Based Isolation of Microsatellite Arrays (PIMA)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5666-5671; doi:10.3390/ijms12095666
Received: 28 June 2011 / Revised: 28 August 2011 / Accepted: 30 August 2011 / Published: 2 September 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (165 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Squalidus argentatus (Sauvage and Dabry de Thiersant 1874) is a small-sized freshwater fish which is distributed in Mainland China, Hainan Island and Taiwan. The populations of S. argentatus have dropped sharply probably due to overharvesting and water pollution recently. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers
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Squalidus argentatus (Sauvage and Dabry de Thiersant 1874) is a small-sized freshwater fish which is distributed in Mainland China, Hainan Island and Taiwan. The populations of S. argentatus have dropped sharply probably due to overharvesting and water pollution recently. Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the cyprinid fish S. argentatus. These new markers were tested on 43 individuals collected from Yangtze River and Qiantang River. The number of alleles, observed and expected heterozygosity per locus, in two populations ranged from 3 to 14, from 0.333 to 0.954 and from 0.480 to 0.928, respectively. Only two loci are significantly deviated from Hardy–Weinberg expectations due to the heterozygote deficiency. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between the pairwise comparisons of these loci. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will enable us to study the genetic variation, population structure, and conservation genetics of this species in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Primary Vitreoretinal Lymphoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5684-5697; doi:10.3390/ijms12095684
Received: 5 July 2011 / Revised: 17 August 2011 / Accepted: 22 August 2011 / Published: 5 September 2011
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) or primary intraocular lymphoma, a subtype of primary central nervous system lymphoma, often masquerades as uveitis. The diagnosis of PVRL requires identification of lymphoma cells inside the eye, which is often challenging due to the frequent necrosis and admixing
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Primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL) or primary intraocular lymphoma, a subtype of primary central nervous system lymphoma, often masquerades as uveitis. The diagnosis of PVRL requires identification of lymphoma cells inside the eye, which is often challenging due to the frequent necrosis and admixing of PVRL cells with reactive lymphocytes. Therefore, detection of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements provide molecular diagnosis of B- and T-cell lymphoma, respectively. We retrospectively evaluated 208 cases with a clinical diagnosis of masquerade syndrome from 1998 to 2010. In 200 cases with molecular analyses using microdissection and polymerase chain reaction, we found that 110 cases had IgH gene rearrangement, 5 cases had TCR gene rearrangement, and 85 cases were negative for these two gene arrangements. The molecular data corroborated the cytopathological diagnoses of PVRL and uveitis in the majority of cases. Cytokine above the detected levels in the specimens were also measured in 80 of the 208 cases. A ratio of vitreous IL-10 to IL-6 greater than 1, suggesting PVRL, was found in 56/80 cases; 53/56 had the correct diagnosis. A ratio less than 1, suggesting uveitis, was found in 24/80 cases; 17/24 correctly confirmed the diagnosis. Moreover, the molecular data corresponded well with the clinical course of the diseases. The sensitivity and specificity of these molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis of PVRL are higher than 95%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
Open AccessArticle KCNQ1 Haplotypes Associate with Type 2 Diabetes in Malaysian Chinese Subjects
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5705-5718; doi:10.3390/ijms12095705
Received: 13 July 2011 / Revised: 24 August 2011 / Accepted: 26 August 2011 / Published: 5 September 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (599 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Malaysian Chinese subjects. The KCNQ1 SNPs rs2237892, rs2283228 and
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes of potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Malaysian Chinese subjects. The KCNQ1 SNPs rs2237892, rs2283228 and rs2237895 were genotyped in 300 T2D patients and 230 control subjects without diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Two logistic regression models of analysis were applied, the first adjusted for age and gender while the second adjusted for age, gender and body mass index. The additive genetic analysis showed that adjusting for body mass index (BMI) even strengthened association of rs2237892, rs2283228 and rs2237895 with T2D (OR = 2.0, P = 5.1 × 10−5; OR = 1.9, P = 5.2 × 10−5; OR = 1.9, P = 7.8 × 10−5, respectively). The haplotype TCA containing the allele of rs2237892 (T), rs2283228 (C) and rs2237895 (A) was highly protective against T2D (Second model; OR = 0.17, P = 3.7 × 10−11). The KCNQ1 rs2237892 (TT), and the protective haplotype (TCA) were associated with higher beta-cell function (HOMA-B) in normal subjects (P = 0.0002; 0.014, respectively). This study found that KCNQ1 SNPs was associated with T2D susceptibility in Malaysian Chinese subjects. In addition, certain KCNQ1 haplotypes were strongly associated with T2D. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Selective Growth of α-Sexithiophene by Using Silicon Oxides Patterns
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5719-5735; doi:10.3390/ijms12095719
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 25 August 2011 / Accepted: 29 August 2011 / Published: 6 September 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1431 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A process for fabricating ordered organic films on large area is presented. The process allows growing sexithiophene ultra-thin films at precise locations on patterned Si/SiOx substrates by driving the orientation of growth. This process combines the parallel local anodic oxidation of Si/SiO
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A process for fabricating ordered organic films on large area is presented. The process allows growing sexithiophene ultra-thin films at precise locations on patterned Si/SiOx substrates by driving the orientation of growth. This process combines the parallel local anodic oxidation of Si/SiOx substrates with the selective arrangement of molecular ultra-thin film. The former is used to fabricate silicon oxide arrays of parallel lines of 400 nm in width over an area of 1 cm2. Selective growth arises from the interplay between kinetic growth parameters and preferential interactions with the patterned surface. The result is an ultra-thin film of organic molecules that is conformal to the features of the fabricated motives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2011)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasmall Peptides Self-Assemble into Diverse Nanostructures: Morphological Evaluation and Potential Implications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5736-5746; doi:10.3390/ijms12095736
Received: 1 July 2011 / Revised: 9 August 2011 / Accepted: 22 August 2011 / Published: 7 September 2011
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, we perform a morphological evaluation of the diverse nanostructures formed by varying concentration and amino acid sequence of a unique class of ultrasmall self-assembling peptides. We modified these peptides by replacing the aliphatic amino acid at the C-aliphatic terminus
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In this study, we perform a morphological evaluation of the diverse nanostructures formed by varying concentration and amino acid sequence of a unique class of ultrasmall self-assembling peptides. We modified these peptides by replacing the aliphatic amino acid at the C-aliphatic terminus with different aromatic amino acids. We tracked the effect of introducing aromatic residues on self-assembly and morphology of resulting nanostructures. Whereas aliphatic peptides formed long, helical fibers that entangle into meshes and entrap >99.9% water, the modified peptides contrastingly formed short, straight fibers with a flat morphology. No helical fibers were observed for the modified peptides. For the aliphatic peptides at low concentrations, different supramolecular assemblies such as hollow nanospheres and membrane blebs were found. Since the ultrasmall peptides are made of simple, aliphatic amino acids, considered to have existed in the primordial soup, study of these supramolecular assemblies could be relevant to understanding chemical evolution leading to the origin of life on Earth. In particular, we propose a variety of potential applications in bioengineering and nanotechnology for the diverse self-assembled nanostructures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2011)
Open AccessArticle The Antioxidant Activity of New Coumarin Derivatives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5747-5761; doi:10.3390/ijms12095747
Received: 12 July 2011 / Revised: 18 August 2011 / Accepted: 22 August 2011 / Published: 7 September 2011
Cited by 49 | PDF Full-text (691 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The antioxidant activity of two synthesized coumarins namely, N-(4,7-dioxo-2-phenyl-1,3-oxazepin-3(2H,4H,7H)-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 5 and N-(4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 6 were studied with the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radical methods and compared with the known antioxidant
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The antioxidant activity of two synthesized coumarins namely, N-(4,7-dioxo-2-phenyl-1,3-oxazepin-3(2H,4H,7H)-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 5 and N-(4-oxo-2-phenylthiazolidin-3-yl)-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetamide 6 were studied with the DPPH, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radical methods and compared with the known antioxidant ascorbic acid. Compounds 5 and 6 were synthesized in a good yield from the addition reaction of maleic anhydride or mercaptoacetic acid to compound 4, namely N'-benzylidene-2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetohydrazide. Compound 4 was synthesized by the condensation of compound 3, namely 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy) acetohydrazide, with benzaldehyde. Compound 3, however, was synthesized from the addition of hydrazine to compound 2, namely ethyl 2-(2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yloxy)acetate, which was synthesized from the reaction of ethyl bromoacetate with 4-hydroxycoumarin 1. Structures for the synthesized coumarins 26 are proposed on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Automatic Defect Detection for TFT-LCD Array Process Using Quasiconformal Kernel Support Vector Data Description
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5762-5781; doi:10.3390/ijms12095762
Received: 5 July 2011 / Revised: 8 August 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Defect detection has been considered an efficient way to increase the yield rate of panels in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing. In this study we focus on the array process since it is the first and key process in TFT-LCD
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Defect detection has been considered an efficient way to increase the yield rate of panels in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing. In this study we focus on the array process since it is the first and key process in TFT-LCD manufacturing. Various defects occur in the array process, and some of them could cause great damage to the LCD panels. Thus, how to design a method that can robustly detect defects from the images captured from the surface of LCD panels has become crucial. Previously, support vector data description (SVDD) has been successfully applied to LCD defect detection. However, its generalization performance is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel one-class machine learning method, called quasiconformal kernel SVDD (QK-SVDD) to address this issue. The QK-SVDD can significantly improve generalization performance of the traditional SVDD by introducing the quasiconformal transformation into a predefined kernel. Experimental results, carried out on real LCD images provided by an LCD manufacturer in Taiwan, indicate that the proposed QK-SVDD not only obtains a high defect detection rate of 96%, but also greatly improves generalization performance of SVDD. The improvement has shown to be over 30%. In addition, results also show that the QK-SVDD defect detector is able to accomplish the task of defect detection on an LCD image within 60 ms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Crystals 2011)
Open AccessArticle A Sweet Killer: Mesoporous Polysaccharide Confined Silver Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5782-5796; doi:10.3390/ijms12095782
Received: 12 August 2011 / Accepted: 23 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) confined within porous starch have been prepared in a simple, green and efficient manner, utilising the nanoporous structure of predominantly mesoporous starch (MS) to act as nanoparticle stabiliser, support and reducing surface. MS/AgNP materials present high surface areas (S
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Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) confined within porous starch have been prepared in a simple, green and efficient manner, utilising the nanoporous structure of predominantly mesoporous starch (MS) to act as nanoparticle stabiliser, support and reducing surface. MS/AgNP materials present high surface areas (SBET > 150 m2 g−1) and mesopore volumes (Vmeso > 0.45 cm3 g−1). The interaction of the AgNP precursor and forming nanoparticle nuclei with the mesoporous domains of the porous polysaccharide, direct porosity to increasingly narrower and more defined pore size distributions, indicative of a degree of cooperative assembly. Transmission electron microscopy images indicated the presence of spherical AgNP of a size reflective of the porous polysaccharide mesopore diameter (e.g., 5–25 nm), whilst XPS analysis confirmed the metallic Ag0 state. Materials were prepared at relatively low Ag loadings (< 0.18 mmol g−1), demonstrating excellent antimicrobial activity in solid and liquid phase testing against Gram negative (E. coli) and positive (S. aureus) model bacteria. The resulting materials are biocompatible and present a useful solid porous carbohydrate-based polymer vehicle to control the AgNP size regime and facilitate transference to a biological environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Green Chemistry and Sustainable Chemistry 2011)
Open AccessArticle Role of α-Helical Structure in Organic Solvent-Activated Homodimer of Elastase Strain K
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5797-5814; doi:10.3390/ijms12095797
Received: 18 July 2011 / Revised: 5 August 2011 / Accepted: 11 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Recombinant elastase strain K overexpressed from E. coli KRX/pCon2(3) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, with a final yield of 48% and a 25-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protein had exhibited a
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Recombinant elastase strain K overexpressed from E. coli KRX/pCon2(3) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, with a final yield of 48% and a 25-fold increase in specific activity. The purified protein had exhibited a first ever reported homodimer size of 65 kDa by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF, a size which is totally distinct from that of typically reported 33 kDa monomer from P. aeruginosa. The organic solvent stability experiment had demonstrated a stability pattern which completely opposed the rules laid out in previous reports in which activity stability and enhancement were observed in hydrophilic organic solvents such as DMSO, methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol. The high stability and enhancement of the enzyme in hydrophilic solvents were explained from the view of alteration in secondary structures. Elastinolytic activation and stability were observed in 25 and 50% of methanol, respectively, despite slight reduction in α-helical structure caused upon the addition of the solvent. Further characterization experiments had postulated great stability and enhancement of elastase strain K in broad range of temperatures, pHs, metal ions, surfactants, denaturing agents and substrate specificity, indicating its potential application in detergent formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Circular Dichroism)
Open AccessArticle Pharmacogenetics of OATP Transporters Reveals That SLCO1B1 c.388A>G Variant Is Determinant of Increased Atorvastatin Response
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5815-5827; doi:10.3390/ijms12095815
Received: 29 July 2011 / Revised: 29 August 2011 / Accepted: 30 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aims: The relationship between variants in SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 genes and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin was investigated. Material and Methods: One-hundred-thirty-six unrelated individuals with hypercholesterolemia were selected and treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks). They were genotyped with a panel of ancestry informative
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Aims: The relationship between variants in SLCO1B1 and SLCO2B1 genes and lipid-lowering response to atorvastatin was investigated. Material and Methods: One-hundred-thirty-six unrelated individuals with hypercholesterolemia were selected and treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/day/4 weeks). They were genotyped with a panel of ancestry informative markers for individual African component of ancestry (ACA) estimation by SNaPshot® and SLCO1B1 (c.388A>G, c.463C>A and c.521T>C) and SLCO2B1 (−71T>C) gene polymorphisms were identified by TaqMan® Real-time PCR. Results: Subjects carrying SLCO1B1 c.388GG genotype exhibited significantly high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol reduction relative to c.388AA+c.388AG carriers (41 vs. 37%, p = 0.034). Haplotype analysis revealed that homozygous of SLCO1B1*15 (c.521C and c.388G) variant had similar response to statin relative to heterozygous and non-carriers. A multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that c.388GG genotype was associated with higher LDL cholesterol reduction in the study population (OR: 3.2, CI95%:1.3–8.0, p < 0.05). Conclusion: SLCO1B1 c.388A>G polymorphism causes significant increase in atorvastatin response and may be an important marker for predicting efficacy of lipid-lowering therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Transport)
Open AccessArticle Efficient 1H-NMR Quantitation and Investigation of N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and N,N'-Diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc)2 from Chitin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5828-5843; doi:10.3390/ijms12095828
Received: 20 June 2011 / Revised: 22 August 2011 / Accepted: 26 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (671 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A quantitative determination method of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc)2 is proposed using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance experiment. N-acetyl groups of GlcNAc and (GlcNAc)2 are chosen as target signals, and the deconvolution
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A quantitative determination method of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and N,N'-diacetylchitobiose (GlcNAc)2 is proposed using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance experiment. N-acetyl groups of GlcNAc and (GlcNAc)2 are chosen as target signals, and the deconvolution technique is used to determine the concentration of the corresponding compound. Compared to the HPLC method, 1H-NMR spectroscopy is simple and fast. The method can be used for the analysis of chitin hydrolyzed products with real-time analysis, and for quantifying the content of products using internal standards without calibration curves. This method can be used to quickly evaluate chitinase activity. The temperature dependence of 1H-NMR spectra (VT-NMR) is studied to monitor the chemical shift variation of acetyl peak. The acetyl groups of products are involved in intramolecular H-bonding with the OH group on anomeric sites. The rotation of the acetyl group is closely related to the intramolecular hydrogen bonding pattern, as suggested by the theoretical data (molecular modeling). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Nucleated Polymerisation in the Presence of Pre-Formed Seed Filaments
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5844-5852; doi:10.3390/ijms12095844
Received: 2 August 2011 / Revised: 30 August 2011 / Accepted: 30 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We revisit the classical problem of nucleated polymerisation and derive a range of exact results describing polymerisation in systems intermediate between the well-known limiting cases of a reaction starting from purely soluble material and for a reaction where no new growth nuclei are
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We revisit the classical problem of nucleated polymerisation and derive a range of exact results describing polymerisation in systems intermediate between the well-known limiting cases of a reaction starting from purely soluble material and for a reaction where no new growth nuclei are formed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Aggregation)
Open AccessArticle Enzymatic Cross-Linking of Alkali Extracted Arabinoxylans: Gel Rheological and Structural Characteristics
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5853-5861; doi:10.3390/ijms12095853
Received: 23 June 2011 / Revised: 24 August 2011 / Accepted: 25 August 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ferulated arabinoxylans were alkali-extracted from wheat bran at different incubation times (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h). Wheat bran ferulated arabinoxylans (WBAX) arabinose-to-xylose ratio, ferulic acid content, intrinsic viscosity and viscosimetric molecular weight values decreased as the incubation time of extraction increased.
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Ferulated arabinoxylans were alkali-extracted from wheat bran at different incubation times (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h). Wheat bran ferulated arabinoxylans (WBAX) arabinose-to-xylose ratio, ferulic acid content, intrinsic viscosity and viscosimetric molecular weight values decreased as the incubation time of extraction increased. WBAX enzymatic cross-linking capability was affected by incubation time while an increase in WBAX concentration from 5 to 6% (w/v) favored gelation. The WBAX gels formed presented a macroporous structure with mesh size ranging from 40 to 119 nm and hardness values varying from 1.7 to 5 N. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Development of New Microsatellite DNA Markers from Apostichopus japonicus and Their Cross-Species Application in Parastichopus parvimensis and Pathallus mollis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5862-5870; doi:10.3390/ijms12095862
Received: 13 July 2011 / Revised: 31 August 2011 / Accepted: 7 September 2011 / Published: 9 September 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Twenty microsatellite DNA markers were developed for sea cucumber and used to investigate polymorphisms of 60 wild Apostichopus japonicus individuals collected from China. It revealed that all the markers were polymorphic. A total of 164 alleles were detected at 20 loci. The number
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Twenty microsatellite DNA markers were developed for sea cucumber and used to investigate polymorphisms of 60 wild Apostichopus japonicus individuals collected from China. It revealed that all the markers were polymorphic. A total of 164 alleles were detected at 20 loci. The number of alleles per locus varied from 3 to 17 with an average of 8.2, and the expected heterozygosities of each locus ranged from 0.03 to 0.89 with an average of 0.64. Cross-species amplification was also conducted in Parastichopus parvimensis collected from the United States and Pathallus mollis collected from Peru. The result showed that 17 loci amplified Parastichopus parvimensis DNAs while only 4 loci could amplify Pathallus mollis DNAs. All of the polymorphic markers would be useful for future genetic breeding and the assessment of genetic variation within sea cucumbers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Diagnostic Performance of 1→3-β-D-Glucan in Neonatal and Pediatric Patients with Candidemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5871-5877; doi:10.3390/ijms12095871
Received: 14 July 2011 / Revised: 1 September 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 14 September 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fungal sepsis is one of the major problems in neonatal and pediatric care unit settings. The availability of new diagnostic techniques could allow medical practitioners to rapidly identify septic patients and to improve their outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate
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Fungal sepsis is one of the major problems in neonatal and pediatric care unit settings. The availability of new diagnostic techniques could allow medical practitioners to rapidly identify septic patients and to improve their outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the 1→3-β-D-glucan (BDG), individually and in comparison with the Candida mannan (CM) antigen, in ten preterm infants and five onco-haematological pediatric patients with Candida bloodstream infections already proven by positive culture. The serum levels of BDG were >80 pg/mL on the same day as a positive blood culture in all examined patients, while CM antigen was negative in the patients with C. parapsilosis fungemia and in one further case due to C. albicans. These results suggest that a regular monitoring of serum circulating antigens (i.e., 1→3-β-D-glucan) combined with other microbiological and clinical information, may allow earlier and accurate diagnosis. However, further studies are necessary to confirm its usefulness in routine clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Diagnostics)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Proteins from Grain of Different Bread and Durum Wheat Genotypes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5878-5894; doi:10.3390/ijms12095878
Received: 22 July 2011 / Revised: 17 August 2011 / Accepted: 26 August 2011 / Published: 14 September 2011
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (357 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The classical Osborne wheat protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins), as well as several proteins from each of the four subunits of gliadin using SDS-PAGE analyses, were determined in the grain of five bread (T. aestivum L.) and five durum wheat
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The classical Osborne wheat protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins), as well as several proteins from each of the four subunits of gliadin using SDS-PAGE analyses, were determined in the grain of five bread (T. aestivum L.) and five durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) genotypes. In addition, content of tryptophan and wet gluten were analyzed. Gliadins and glutenins comprise from 58.17% to 65.27% and 56.25% to 64.48% of total proteins and as such account for both quantity and quality of the bread and durum wheat grain proteins, respectively. The ratio of gliadin/total glutenin varied from 0.49 to 1.01 and 0.57 to 1.06 among the bread and durum genotypes, respectively. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, bread wheat genotypes had a higher concentration of α + β + γ-subunits of gliadin (on average 61.54% of extractable proteins) than durum wheat (on average 55.32% of extractable proteins). However, low concentration of ω-subunit was found in both bread (0.50% to 2.53% of extractable proteins) and durum (3.65% to 6.99% of extractable proteins) wheat genotypes. On average, durum wheat contained significantly higher amounts of tryptophan and wet gluten (0.163% dry weight (d.w.) and 26.96% d.w., respectively) than bread wheat (0.147% d.w. and 24.18% d.w., respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Study on the Stability of DeoxyArbutin in an Anhydrous Emulsion Systemy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5946-5954; doi:10.3390/ijms12095946
Received: 3 August 2011 / Revised: 1 September 2011 / Accepted: 7 September 2011 / Published: 15 September 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The skin-whitening agent, deoxyArbutin, is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor that is safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. However, it is thermolabile in aqueous solutions, where it decomposes to hydroquinone. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions are normally oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) systems; however, emulsions can
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The skin-whitening agent, deoxyArbutin, is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor that is safer than hydroquinone and arbutin. However, it is thermolabile in aqueous solutions, where it decomposes to hydroquinone. Pharmaceutical and cosmetic emulsions are normally oil-in-water (o/w) or water-in-oil (w/o) systems; however, emulsions can be formulated with no aqueous phase to produce an anhydrous emulsion system. An anhydrous emulsion system could offer a stable vehicle for compounds that are sensitive to hydrolysis or oxidation. Therefore, to enhance the stability of deoxyArbutin in formulations, we chose the polyol-in-silicone, anhydrous emulsion system as the basic formulation for investigation. The quantity of deoxyArbutin and the accumulation of hydroquinone in both hydrous and anhydrous emulsions at various temperatures were analyzed through an established high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The results indicated that water increased the decomposition of deoxyArbutin in the formulations and that the polyol-in-silicone, oil-based, anhydrous emulsion system provided a relatively stable surrounding for the deoxyArbutin that delayed its degradation at 25 °C and 45 °C. Moreover, the composition of the inner hydrophilic phase, containing different amounts of glycerin and propylene glycol, affected the stability of deoxyArbutin. Thus, these results will be beneficial when using deoxyArbutin in cosmetics and medicines in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Jatropha curcas L. Kernel Meal Extract
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5955-5970; doi:10.3390/ijms12095955
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 August 2011 / Published: 15 September 2011
Cited by 38 | PDF Full-text (310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and
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Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics), rutin and myricetin (flavonoids) and daidzein (isoflavonoid). The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy) and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy), acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde) in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0–1.63 cm) at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe3+) to ferrous ion (Fe2+). Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Isolation and Characterization of Sixteen Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci in the Golden Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5993-5998; doi:10.3390/ijms12095993
Received: 4 July 2011 / Revised: 4 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences
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We report the characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers in the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata, a pest registered in the list of “100 of the world’s worst invasive alien species”. The fast isolation by AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) method was used to isolate microsatellite loci, and polymorphism was explored with 29 individuals collected in an invasive region from China. These primers showed a number of alleles per locus ranging from three to 13. The ranges of observed and expected heterozygosity were 0.310–0.966 and 0.523–0.898, respectively. These microsatellite markers described here will be useful for population genetic studies of P. canaliculata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Investigation on Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships and Pharmacophore Modeling of a Series of mGluR2 Antagonists
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5999-6023; doi:10.3390/ijms12095999
Received: 2 August 2011 / Revised: 1 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1002 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
MGluR2 is G protein-coupled receptor that is targeted for diseases like anxiety, depression, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Herein, we report the three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of a series of 1,3-dihydro-benzo[b][1,4]diazepin-2-one derivatives as mGluR2 antagonists. Two series of models using two different
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MGluR2 is G protein-coupled receptor that is targeted for diseases like anxiety, depression, Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. Herein, we report the three-dimensional quantitative structure–activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies of a series of 1,3-dihydro-benzo[b][1,4]diazepin-2-one derivatives as mGluR2 antagonists. Two series of models using two different activities of the antagonists against rat mGluR2, which has been shown to be very similar to the human mGluR2, (activity I: inhibition of [3H]-LY354740; activity II: mGluR2 (1S,3R)-ACPD inhibition of forskolin stimulated cAMP.) were derived from datasets composed of 137 and 69 molecules respectively. For activity I study, the best predictive model obtained from CoMFA analysis yielded a Q2 of 0.513, R2ncv of 0.868, R2pred = 0.876, while the CoMSIA model yielded a Q2 of 0.450, R2ncv = 0.899, R2pred = 0.735. For activity II study, CoMFA model yielded statistics of Q2 = 0.5, R2ncv = 0.715, R2pred = 0.723. These results prove the high predictability of the models. Furthermore, a combined analysis between the CoMFA, CoMSIA contour maps shows that: (1) Bulky substituents in R7, R3 and position A benefit activity I of the antagonists, but decrease it when projected in R8 and position B; (2) Hydrophilic groups at position A and B increase both antagonistic activity I and II; (3) Electrostatic field plays an essential rule in the variance of activity II. In search for more potent mGluR2 antagonists, two pharmacophore models were developed separately for the two activities. The first model reveals six pharmacophoric features, namely an aromatic center, two hydrophobic centers, an H-donor atom, an H-acceptor atom and an H-donor site. The second model shares all features of the first one and has an additional acceptor site, a positive N and an aromatic center. These models can be used as guidance for the development of new mGluR2 antagonists of high activity and selectivity. This work is the first report on 3D-QSAR modeling of these mGluR2 antagonists. All the conclusions may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of antagonism and be helpful in the design of new potent mGluR2 antagonists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry, Theoretical and Computational Chemistry)
Open AccessArticle Comparison between Wild and Hatchery Populations of Korean Pen Shell (Atrina pectinata) Using Microsatellite DNA Markers
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6024-6039; doi:10.3390/ijms12096024
Received: 2 August 2011 / Revised: 31 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pen shell (Atrina pectinata) is a popular food source with a high commercial value in a number of Asian Pacific areas. The natural A. pectinata population has been declining continuously over the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful
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Pen shell (Atrina pectinata) is a popular food source with a high commercial value in a number of Asian Pacific areas. The natural A. pectinata population has been declining continuously over the past several decades. Microsatellite DNA markers are a useful DNA-based tool for monitoring the genetic variation of pen shell populations. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite (MS) DNA markers were identified from a partial genomic pen shell DNA library enriched in CA repeats, and used to compare allelic variation between wild and hatchery pen shell populations in Korea. A total of 438 alleles were detected at the 20 MS loci in the two populations. All loci were easily amplified and demonstrated allelic variability, with the number of alleles ranging from 5 to 35 in the wild population and from 5 to 22 in the farmed population. The average observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.69 and 0.82, respectively, in the hatchery samples and 0.69 and 0.83, respectively, in the wild samples. Statistical analysis of fixation index (FST) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed minor, but significant, genetic differences between the wild and hatchery populations (FST = 0.0106, CI95% = 0.003–0.017). These microsatellite loci may be valuable for future aquaculture and population genetic studies for developing conservation and management plans. Further studies with additional pen shell samples are needed to conclusively determine the genetic diversity between the wild and hatchery populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of In Situ Polymerization and Solution-Dispersion Techniques in the Preparation of Polyimide/Montmorillonite (MMT) Nanocomposites
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6040-6050; doi:10.3390/ijms12096040
Received: 25 July 2011 / Accepted: 30 August 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, Polyimide/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites (PI/MMT NCs), based on aromatic diamine (4-Aminophenyl sulfone) (APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) were prepared using in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques. The prepared PI/MMT NCs films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared
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In this paper, Polyimide/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites (PI/MMT NCs), based on aromatic diamine (4-Aminophenyl sulfone) (APS) and aromatic dianhydride (3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride) (BTDA) were prepared using in situ polymerization and solution-dispersion techniques. The prepared PI/MMT NCs films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD results showed that at the content of 1.0 wt % Organo Montmorillonite (OMMT) for two techniques and 3.0 wt % OMMT for the in situ polymerization technique, the OMMT was well-intercalated, exfoliated and dispersed into polyimide matrix. The OMMT agglomerated when its amount exceeded 10 wt % and 3.0 wt % for solution-dispersion and in situ polymerization techniques respectively. These results were confirmed by the TEM images of the prepared PI/MMT NCs. The TGA thermograms indicated that thermal stability of prepared PI/MMT NCs were increased with the increase of loading that, the effect is higher for the samples prepared by in situ polymerization technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Academic Aspects of Lunar Water Resources and Their Relevance to Lunar Protolife
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6051-6076; doi:10.3390/ijms12096051
Received: 4 August 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
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Abstract
Water ice has been discovered on the moon by radar backscatter at the North Pole and by spectrometry at the South Pole in the Cabeus crater with an extrapolated volume for both poles of conservatively 109 metric tons. Various exogenic and endogenic
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Water ice has been discovered on the moon by radar backscatter at the North Pole and by spectrometry at the South Pole in the Cabeus crater with an extrapolated volume for both poles of conservatively 109 metric tons. Various exogenic and endogenic sources of this water have been proposed. This paper focuses on endogenic water sources by fumaroles and hot springs in shadowed polar craters. A survey of theoretical and morphological details supports a volcanic model. Release of water and other constituents by defluidization over geological time was intensified in the Hadean Eon (c.a. 4600 to 4000 My). Intensification factors include higher heat flow by now-extinct radionuclides, tidal flexing and higher core temperatures. Lesser gravity would promote deeper bubble nucleation in lunar magmas, slower rise rates of gases and enhanced subsidence of lunar caldera floors. Hadean volcanism would likely have been more intense and regional in nature as opposed to suture-controlled location of calderas in Phanerozoic Benioff-style subduction environments. Seventy-seven morphological, remote sensing and return sample features were categorized into five categories ranging from a volcano-tectonic origin only to impact origin only. Scores for the most logical scenario were 69 to eight in favor of lunar volcanism. Ingredients in the Cabeus plume analysis showed many volcanic fluids and their derivatives plus a large amount of mercury. Mercury-rich fumaroles are well documented on Earth and are virtually absent in cometary gases and solids. There are no mercury anomalies in terrestrial impact craters. Volcanic fluids and their derivatives in lunar shadow can theoretically evolve into protolife. Energy for this evolution can be provided by vent flow charging intensified in the lunar Hadean and by charge separation on freezing fumarolic fluids in shadow. Fischer-Tropsch reactions on hydrothermal clays can yield lipids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and amino acids. Soluble polyphosphates are available in volcanic fluids as well as vital catalysts such as tungsten. We conclude that the high volume of polar water resources supports the likelihood of lunar volcanism and that lunar volcanism supports the likelihood of protolife. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Origin of Life 2011)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Different Parts (Leaf, Stem and Stalk) and Seasons (Summer and Winter) on the Chemical Compositions and Antioxidant Activity of Moringa oleifera
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6077-6088; doi:10.3390/ijms12096077
Received: 16 June 2011 / Revised: 30 August 2011 / Accepted: 13 September 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the
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Moringa oleifera, Lam. (Moringaceae) is grown world-wide in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia and Africa and contains abundant various nutrients. This study describes the effect of different parts (leaf, stem and stalk) and seasons (summer and winter) on the chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of M. oleifera grown in Taiwan. The results showed that the winter samples of Moringa had higher ash (except the stalk part), calcium and phenolic compounds (except the leaf part) and stronger antioxidative activity than summer samples. The methanolic extract of Moringa showed strong scavenging effect of DPPH radicals and reducing power. The trend of antioxidative activity as a function of the part of Moringa was: leaf > stem > stalk for samples from both seasons investigated. The Moringa extract showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and high Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity except the stalk part. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Identification of a Protein with Antioxidant Activity that is Important for the Protection against Beer Ageing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6089-6103; doi:10.3390/ijms12096089
Received: 16 August 2011 / Revised: 1 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was carried out with fresh Australian lager beer which was sampled directly off the production line, the same samples aged for 12 weeks at 30 °C, and the vintage beer which was kept at 20 °C for 5 years. Characteristic Australian
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This study was carried out with fresh Australian lager beer which was sampled directly off the production line, the same samples aged for 12 weeks at 30 °C, and the vintage beer which was kept at 20 °C for 5 years. Characteristic Australian lager flavour was maintained in the fresh and vintage beers but was lost in the aged beer. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and free thiol group labelling analyses of beer proteins found that this flavour stability correlated with the presence of an unknown 10 kilodaltons (kDa) protein with a higher level of free thiols. The protein was purified by size-exclusion chromatography, then peptide sequencing and database matching identified it as the barley lipid transfer protein (LTP1). Further characterisation using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based antioxidant screening assay demonstrated that the LTP1 protein was active in DPPH reduction and antioxidant activity. The absence of free thiol in the aged beer indicates that the thiol functional groups within the LTP1 protein were saturated and suggests that it is important in the flavour stability of beer by maintaining reduction capacity during the ageing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Structure–Activity Relationship of Halophenols as a New Class of Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6104-6115; doi:10.3390/ijms12096104
Received: 25 May 2011 / Revised: 14 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of new benzophenone and diphenylmethane halophenol derivatives were prepared. Their structures were established based on 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS data. All prepared compounds were screened for their in vitro protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitory activities. The effects
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A series of new benzophenone and diphenylmethane halophenol derivatives were prepared. Their structures were established based on 1H NMR, 13C NMR and HRMS data. All prepared compounds were screened for their in vitro protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitory activities. The effects of modification of the linker, functional groups and substituted positions at the phenyl ring on PTK inhibitory activity were investigated. Twelve halophenols showed significant PTK inhibitory activity. Among them, compounds 6c, 6d, 7d, 9d, 10d, 11d and 13d exhibited stronger activities than that of genistein, the positive reference compound. The results gave a relatively full and definite description of the structure–activity relationship and provided a foundation for further design and structure optimization of the halophenols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle High-Density Real-Time PCR-Based in Vivo Toxicogenomic Screen to Predict Organ-Specific Toxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6116-6134; doi:10.3390/ijms12096116
Received: 29 April 2011 / Revised: 24 August 2011 / Accepted: 5 September 2011 / Published: 19 September 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (385 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Toxicogenomics, based on the temporal effects of drugs on gene expression, is able to predict toxic effects earlier than traditional technologies by analyzing changes in genomic biomarkers that could precede subsequent protein translation and initiation of histological organ damage. In the present study
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Toxicogenomics, based on the temporal effects of drugs on gene expression, is able to predict toxic effects earlier than traditional technologies by analyzing changes in genomic biomarkers that could precede subsequent protein translation and initiation of histological organ damage. In the present study our objective was to extend in vivo toxicogenomic screening from analyzing one or a few tissues to multiple organs, including heart, kidney, brain, liver and spleen. Nanocapillary quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was used in the study, due to its higher throughput, sensitivity and reproducibility, and larger dynamic range compared to DNA microarray technologies. Based on previous data, 56 gene markers were selected coding for proteins with different functions, such as proteins for acute phase response, inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic processes, heat-shock response, cell cycle/apoptosis regulation and enzymes which are involved in detoxification. Some of the marker genes are specific to certain organs, and some of them are general indicators of toxicity in multiple organs. Utility of the nanocapillary QRT-PCR platform was demonstrated by screening different references, as well as discovery of drug-like compounds for their gene expression profiles in different organs of treated mice in an acute experiment. For each compound, 896 QRT-PCR were done: four organs were used from each of the treated four animals to monitor the relative expression of 56 genes. Based on expression data of the discovery gene set of toxicology biomarkers the cardio- and nephrotoxicity of doxorubicin and sulfasalazin, the hepato- and nephrotoxicity of rotenone, dihydrocoumarin and aniline, and the liver toxicity of 2,4-diaminotoluene could be confirmed. The acute heart and kidney toxicity of the active metabolite SN-38 from its less toxic prodrug, irinotecan could be differentiated, and two novel gene markers for hormone replacement therapy were identified, namely fabp4 and pparg, which were down-regulated by estradiol treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicogenomics)
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Open AccessArticle Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6135-6145; doi:10.3390/ijms12096135
Received: 3 August 2011 / Revised: 25 August 2011 / Accepted: 13 September 2011 / Published: 20 September 2011
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The current study evaluated the glucose-lowering effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into four groups (8 mice per group): diabetic control group, low-dose Gl-PS treated group (50 mg/kg, Gl-PS), high-dose Gl-PS treated
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The current study evaluated the glucose-lowering effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into four groups (8 mice per group): diabetic control group, low-dose Gl-PS treated group (50 mg/kg, Gl-PS), high-dose Gl-PS treated group (150 mg/kg, Gl-PS) and positive drug control treated group (glibenclamide, 4 mg/kg), with normal mice used as the control group. Body weights, fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum insulin and blood lipid levels of mice were measured. After 28 days of treatment with Gl-PS, body weights and serum insulin levels of the Gl-PS treated groups was significantly higher than that of the diabetic control group , whereas FBG levels was significantly lower. Moreover, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of the Gl-PS treated groups had dropped, whereas the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels had increased. In addition, according to acute toxicity studies, Gl-PS did not cause behavioral changes and any death of mice. These data suggest that Gl-PS has an antihyperglycemic effect. Furthermore, considering the Gl-PS effects on lipid profile, it may be a potential hypolipidaemic agent, which will be a great advantage in treating diabetic conditions associated with atherosclerosis or hyperlipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Different Impacts of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Oxidative Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6146-6163; doi:10.3390/ijms12096146
Received: 10 June 2011 / Revised: 1 September 2011 / Accepted: 7 September 2011 / Published: 20 September 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress (OS) status in subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. With this in mind, we have studied three models of high cardiovascular risk: hypertension (HT) with and without metabolic syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and
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The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress (OS) status in subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. With this in mind, we have studied three models of high cardiovascular risk: hypertension (HT) with and without metabolic syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) with and without insulin resistance. Oxidative stress markers (oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehide) together with the activity of antioxidant enzyme triad (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and activation of both pro-oxidant enzyme (NAPDH oxidase components) and AGTR1 genes, as well as antioxidant enzyme genes (CuZn-SOD, CAT, GPX1, GSR, GSS and TXN) were measured in mononuclear cells of controls (n = 20) and patients (n = 90) by assessing mRNA levels. Activity of some of these antioxidant enzymes was also tested. An increase in OS and pro-oxidant gene mRNA values was observed in patients compared to controls. The hypertensive group showed not only the highest OS values, but also the highest pro-oxidant activation compared to those observed in the other groups. In addition, in HT a significantly reduced antioxidant activity and mRNA induction of antioxidant genes were found when compared to controls and the other groups. In FH and FCH, the activation of pro-oxidant enzymes was also higher and antioxidant ones lower than in the control group, although it did not reach the values obtained in hypertensives. The thioredoxin system was more activated in patients as compared to controls, and the highest levels were in hypertensives. The increased oxidative status in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors is a consequence of both the activation of pro-oxidant mechanisms and the reduction of the antioxidant ones. The altered response of the main cytoplasmic antioxidant systems largely contributes to OS despite the apparent attempt of the thioredoxin system to control it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants)
Open AccessArticle Difference in TRI13 Gene Sequences between the 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol Producing Fusarium graminearum Chemotypes from Canada and China
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6164-6175; doi:10.3390/ijms12096164
Received: 25 August 2011 / Revised: 9 September 2011 / Accepted: 9 September 2011 / Published: 20 September 2011
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1560 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Positive-negative PCR assays based on the genes involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis pathway are useful in assessing the risk of trichothecene contamination in grain and are important in epidemiological studies. A single PCR detection method based on the structural gene sequence of TRI13
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Positive-negative PCR assays based on the genes involved in the trichothecene biosynthesis pathway are useful in assessing the risk of trichothecene contamination in grain and are important in epidemiological studies. A single PCR detection method based on the structural gene sequence of TRI13 gene has been developed to predict the 3-ADON, 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes in China. The chemotypic differences are based on the deletions within the TRI13 gene. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of using this single primer based on the TRI13 gene to differentiate the F. graminearum chemotypes in Canada. In this study, we found that, this single PCR detection method based on the deletions in the TRI13 gene cannot be used to differentiate the 3-ADON and 15-ADON chemotypes in the Canadian F. graminearum isolates; further sequence analysis of the PCR products confirmed that both Canadian 3-ADON and 15-ADON chemotypes have the 61 bp deletion in the TRI13 gene. This 61 bp deletion was absent in the Chinese 3-ADON isolates. Therefore these findings revealed that there are genetic differences between the examined 3-ADON F. graminearum isolates from Canada and China. The observed genetic differences between the 3-ADON chemotype populations in Canada and China may be resulted from a random mutation (insertion/deletion) that took place in one of the populations and accumulated due to genetic drift and/or selection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Optical Properties of Some New Azo Photoisomerizable Bismaleimide Derivatives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6176-6193; doi:10.3390/ijms12096176
Received: 7 June 2011 / Revised: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 14 September 2011 / Published: 21 September 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel polythioetherimides bearing azobenzene moieties were synthesized from azobismaleimides and bis-2-mercaptoethylether. Kinetics of trans-cis photoisomerization and of thermal conversion of cis to trans isomeric forms were investigated in both polymer solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) doped films using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Thermal recovery kinetics
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Novel polythioetherimides bearing azobenzene moieties were synthesized from azobismaleimides and bis-2-mercaptoethylether. Kinetics of trans-cis photoisomerization and of thermal conversion of cis to trans isomeric forms were investigated in both polymer solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) doped films using electronic absorption spectroscopy. Thermal recovery kinetics is well described by a two-exponential relation both in solution and polymer matrix, while that of low molecular weight azobismaleimide fit a first-order equation. The photoinduced cis-trans isomerization by visible light of azobenzene chromophores was examined in solution and in polymer films. The rate of photoinduced recovery was very high for azobismaleimides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication, Modeling and Characterization of Multi-Crosslinked Methacrylate Copolymeric Nanoparticles for Oral Drug Delivery
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6194-6225; doi:10.3390/ijms12096194
Received: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 4 August 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2625 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and
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Nanotechnology remains the field to explore in the quest to enhance therapeutic efficacies of existing drugs. Fabrication of a methacrylate copolymer-lipid nanoparticulate (MCN) system was explored in this study for oral drug delivery of levodopa. The nanoparticles were fabricated employing multicrosslinking technology and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, morphology, structural modification, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. Chemometric Computational (CC) modeling was conducted to deduce the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis as well as to corroborate the experimental findings. The CC modeling deduced that the nanoparticles synthesis may have followed the mixed triangular formations or the mixed patterns. They were found to be hollow nanocapsules with a size ranging from 152 nm (methacrylate copolymer) to 321 nm (methacrylate copolymer blend) and a zeta potential range of 15.8–43.3 mV. The nanoparticles were directly compressible and it was found that the desired rate of drug release could be achieved by formulating the nanoparticles as a nanosuspension, and then directly compressing them into tablet matrices or incorporating the nanoparticles directly into polymer tablet matrices. However, sustained release of MCNs was achieved only when it was incorporated into a polymer matrix. The experimental results were well corroborated by the CC modeling. The developed technology may be potentially useful for the fabrication of multi-crosslinked polymer blend nanoparticles for oral drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Nanoparticles (special issue))
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Scintillating Properties of Sol-Gel Eu3+, Tb3+ Co-Doped Lu2O3 Nanopowders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6240-6254; doi:10.3390/ijms12096240
Received: 11 August 2011 / Revised: 14 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
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Abstract
Nanocrystalline Eu3+, Tb3+ co-doped Lu2O3 powders with a maximum size of 25.5 nm were prepared by the sol-gel process, using lutetium, europium and terbium nitrates as precursors, and ethanol as a solvent. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and
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Nanocrystalline Eu3+, Tb3+ co-doped Lu2O3 powders with a maximum size of 25.5 nm were prepared by the sol-gel process, using lutetium, europium and terbium nitrates as precursors, and ethanol as a solvent. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to study the chemical changes during the xerogel annealing. After the sol evaporation at 100 °C, the formed gel was annealed from 300 to 900 °C for 30 min under a rich O2 atmosphere, and the yielded product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural behavior and confirm the crystalline structure. The results showed that Lu2O3 nanopowders start to crystallize at 400 °C and that the crystallite size increases along with the annealing temperature. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of samples annealed at 700 and 900 °C was carried out in order to analyze the microstructure, as well as the size, of crystallites. Finally, in regard to scintillating properties, Eu3+ dopant (5 mol%), Tb3+ codoped Lu2O3 exhibited a typical red emission at 611 nm (Do7F2), furthermore, the effect of Tb3+ molar content (0.01, 0.015 and 0.02% mol) on the Eu3+ radioluminiscence was analyzed and it was found that the higher emission intensity corresponds to the lower Tb3+ content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Phenolic Antioxidant Extraction from Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) Pulp Using Random-Centroid Optimazation Methodology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6255-6266; doi:10.3390/ijms12096255
Received: 8 August 2011 / Revised: 4 September 2011 / Accepted: 15 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extraction optimization and composition analysis of polyphenols in the fresh pulp of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) have been investigated in this study. The extraction process of polyphenols from Wuweizi pulp was optimized using Random-Centroid Optimization (RCO) methodology. Six factors including liquid
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The extraction optimization and composition analysis of polyphenols in the fresh pulp of Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) have been investigated in this study. The extraction process of polyphenols from Wuweizi pulp was optimized using Random-Centroid Optimization (RCO) methodology. Six factors including liquid and solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH, temperature, heating time and extraction times, and three extraction targets of polyphenol content, antioxidant activity and extract yield were considered in the RCO program. Three sets of optimum proposed factor values were obtained corresponding to three extraction targets respectively. The set of optimum proposed factor values for polyphenol extraction given was chosen in further experiments as following: liquid and solid ratio (v/w) 8, ethanol 67.3% (v/v), initial pH 1.75, temperature 55 °C for 4 h and extraction repeated for 4 times. The Wuweizi polyphenol extract (WPE) was obtained with a yield of 16.37 mg/g and composition of polyphenols 1.847 mg/g, anthocyanins 0.179 mg/g, sugar 9.573 mg/g and protein 0.327 mg/g. The WPE demonstrated high scavenging activities against DPPH radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Cerebrospinal Fluid Markers in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6281-6292; doi:10.3390/ijms12096281
Received: 24 August 2011 / Revised: 16 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the commonest form of human prion diseases, accounting for about 85% of all cases. Current criteria for intra vitam diagnosis include a distinct phenotype, periodic sharp and slow-wave complexes at electroencephalography (EEG), and a positive 14-3-3-protein assay in
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Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is the commonest form of human prion diseases, accounting for about 85% of all cases. Current criteria for intra vitam diagnosis include a distinct phenotype, periodic sharp and slow-wave complexes at electroencephalography (EEG), and a positive 14-3-3-protein assay in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In sCJD, the disease phenotype may vary, depending upon the genotype at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), a site of a common methionine/valine polymorphism, and two distinct conformers of the pathological prion protein. Based on the combination of these molecular determinants, six different sCJD subtypes are recognized, each with distinctive clinical and pathologic phenotypes. We analyzed CSF samples from 127 subjects with definite sCJD to assess the diagnostic value of 14-3-3 protein, total tau protein, phosphorylated181 tau, and amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide 1-42, either alone or in combination. While the 14-3-3 assay and tau protein levels were the most sensitive indicators of sCJD, the highest sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were obtained when all the above markers were combined. The latter approach also allowed a reliable differential diagnosis with other neurodegenerative dementias. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
Open AccessArticle Probing Structural Features and Binding Mode of 3-Arylpyrimidin-2,4-diones within Housefly γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Receptor
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6293-6311; doi:10.3390/ijms12096293
Received: 1 August 2011 / Revised: 26 August 2011 / Accepted: 13 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
PDF Full-text (1148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to obtain structural features of 3-arylpyrimidin-2,4-diones emerged as promising inhibitors of insect γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, a set of ligand-/receptor-based 3D-QSAR models for 60 derivatives are generated using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA). The
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In order to obtain structural features of 3-arylpyrimidin-2,4-diones emerged as promising inhibitors of insect γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, a set of ligand-/receptor-based 3D-QSAR models for 60 derivatives are generated using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA). The statistically optimal CoMSIA model is produced with highest q2 of 0.62, r2ncv of 0.97, and r2pred of 0.95. A minor/bulky electronegative hydrophilic polar substituent at the 1-/6-postion of the uracil ring, and bulky substituents at the 3'-, 4'- and 5'-positions of the benzene ring are beneficial for the enhanced potency of the inhibitors as revealed by the obtained 3D-contour maps. Furthermore, homology modeling, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and molecular docking are also carried out to gain a better understanding of the probable binding modes of these inhibitors, and the results show that residues Ala-183(C), Thr-187(B), Thr-187(D) and Thr-187(E) in the second transmembrane domains of GABA receptor are responsible for the H-bonding interactions with the inhibitor. The good correlation between docking observations and 3D-QSAR analyses further proves the model reasonability in probing the structural features and the binding mode of 3-arylpyrimidin-2,4-dione derivatives within the housefly GABA receptor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Recognition)
Open AccessCommunication Improving Protein Crystal Quality by the Without-Oil Microbatch Method: Crystallization and Preliminary X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Glutathione Synthetase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6312-6319; doi:10.3390/ijms12096312
Received: 26 July 2011 / Revised: 5 September 2011 / Accepted: 14 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (253 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glutathione synthetases catalyze the ATP-dependent synthesis of glutathione from L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and glycine. Although these enzymes have been sequenced and characterized from a variety of biological sources, their exact catalytic mechanism is not fully understood and nothing is known about their adaptation at extremophilic
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Glutathione synthetases catalyze the ATP-dependent synthesis of glutathione from L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine and glycine. Although these enzymes have been sequenced and characterized from a variety of biological sources, their exact catalytic mechanism is not fully understood and nothing is known about their adaptation at extremophilic environments. Glutathione synthetase from the Antarctic eubacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis (PhGshB) has been expressed, purified and successfully crystallized. An overall improvement of the crystal quality has been obtained by adapting the crystal growth conditions found with vapor diffusion experiments to the without-oil microbatch method. The best crystals of PhGshB diffract to 2.34 Å resolution and belong to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.28 Å, b = 119.88 Å, c = 159.82 Å. Refinement of the model, obtained using phases derived from the structure of the same enzyme from Escherichia coli by molecular replacement, is in progress. The structural determination will provide the first structural characterization of a psychrophilic glutathione synthetase reported to date. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Low Concentration Sn Doping on Optical Properties of CdS Films Grown by CBD Technique
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6320-6328; doi:10.3390/ijms12096320
Received: 25 July 2011 / Revised: 17 August 2011 / Accepted: 18 August 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS) were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization
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Thin and transparent films of doped cadmium sulfide (CdS) were obtained on commercial glass substrates by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) technique. The films were doped with low concentration of Sn, and annealed in air at 300 °C for 45 min. The morphological characterization of the films with different amounts of dopant was made using SEM and EDAX analysis. Optical properties of the films were evaluated by measuring transmittance using the UV-vis spectrophotometer. A comparison of the results revealed that lower concentration of Sn doping improves transmittance of CdS films and makes them suitable for application as window layer of CdTe/CIGS solar cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Conventional Study on Novel Dicationic Ionic Liquid Inclusion with β-Cyclodextrin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6329-6345; doi:10.3390/ijms12096329
Received: 27 June 2011 / Revised: 25 August 2011 / Accepted: 25 August 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1532 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of the inclusion complex of β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) with dicationic ionic liquid, 3,3'-(1,4-Phenylenebis [methylene]) bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium) di(bromide) (PhenmimBr). The inclusion complex was prepared at room temperature utilizing conventional kneading technique. Proton (1H) NMR
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This study focuses on the synthesis and characterization of the inclusion complex of β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD) with dicationic ionic liquid, 3,3'-(1,4-Phenylenebis [methylene]) bis(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-3-ium) di(bromide) (PhenmimBr). The inclusion complex was prepared at room temperature utilizing conventional kneading technique. Proton (1H) NMR and 2D (1H–1H) COSY NMR were the primary characterization tools employed to verify the formation of the inclusion complex. COSY spectra showed strong correlations between protons of imidazolium and protons of β-CD which indicates that the imidazolium ring of PhenmimBr has entered the cavity of β-CD. UV absorption indicated that β-CD reacts with PhenmimBr to form a 2:1 β-CD-PhenmimBr complex with an apparent formation constant of 2.61 × 105 mol−2 L2. Other characterization studies such as UV, FT-IR, XRD, TGA, DSC and SEM studies were also used to further support the formation of the β-CD-PhenmimBr inclusion complex. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Recognition)
Open AccessArticle Fabrication and Characterization of Gelatin Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles under UV-Light
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6346-6356; doi:10.3390/ijms12096346
Received: 21 July 2011 / Revised: 18 August 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully synthesized using the UV irradiation of aqueous solutions containing AgNO3 and gelatin as a silver source and stabilizer, respectively. The UV irradiation times influence the particles’ diameter of the Ag-NPs, as evidenced from surface plasmon resonance (SPR)
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Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were successfully synthesized using the UV irradiation of aqueous solutions containing AgNO3 and gelatin as a silver source and stabilizer, respectively. The UV irradiation times influence the particles’ diameter of the Ag-NPs, as evidenced from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) bands and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. When the UV irradiation time was increased, the mean size of particles continuously decreased as a result of photoinduced Ag-NPs fragmentation. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), the UV-irradiated Ag-NPs were a face-centered cubic (fcc) single crystal without any impurity. This study reveals that the UV irradiation-mediated method is a green chemistry and promising route for the synthesis of stable Ag-NPs for several applications (e.g., medical and surgical devices). The important advantages of this method are that it is cheap, easy, and free of toxic materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)
Open AccessArticle Recognition-Mediated Assembly of Quantum Dot Polymer Conjugates with Controlled Morphology
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6357-6366; doi:10.3390/ijms12096357
Received: 28 August 2011 / Revised: 20 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (702 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have demonstrated a polymer mediated “bricks and mortar” method for the self-assembly of quantum dots (QDs). This strategy allows QDs to self-assemble into structured aggregates using complementary three-point hydrogen bonding. The resulting nanocomposites have distinct morphologies and inter-particle distances based on the
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We have demonstrated a polymer mediated “bricks and mortar” method for the self-assembly of quantum dots (QDs). This strategy allows QDs to self-assemble into structured aggregates using complementary three-point hydrogen bonding. The resulting nanocomposites have distinct morphologies and inter-particle distances based on the ratio between QDs and polymer. Time resolved photoluminescence measurements showed that the optical properties of the QDs were retained after self-assembly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Self-Assembly 2011)

Review

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Open AccessReview Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for Clinical Trials: More Pitfalls than Promises?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5592-5603; doi:10.3390/ijms12095592
Received: 14 July 2011 / Revised: 17 August 2011 / Accepted: 19 August 2011 / Published: 31 August 2011
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (321 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main and most significant polyphenol in green tea, has shown numerous health promoting effects acting through different pathways, as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic agent, showing gene expression activity, functioning through growth factor-mediated pathways, the mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway, the ubiquitin/proteasome
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main and most significant polyphenol in green tea, has shown numerous health promoting effects acting through different pathways, as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic agent, showing gene expression activity, functioning through growth factor-mediated pathways, the mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway, the ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathway, as well as eliciting an amyloid protein remodeling activity. However, epidemiological inferences are sometimes conflicting and in vitro and in vivo studies may seem discrepant. Current knowledge on how to enhance bioavailability could be the answer to some of these issues. Furthermore, dose levels, administration frequency and potential side effects remain to be examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
Figures

Open AccessReview The Important Molecular Markers on Chromosome 17 and Their Clinical Impact in Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5672-5683; doi:10.3390/ijms12095672
Received: 13 July 2011 / Revised: 16 August 2011 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 5 September 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Abnormalities of chromosome 17 are important molecular genetic events in human breast cancers. Several famous oncogenes (HER2, TOP2A and TAU), tumor suppressor genes (p53, BRCA1 and HIC-1) or DNA double-strand break repair gene (RDM1) are located on chromosome 17. We searched the literature
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Abnormalities of chromosome 17 are important molecular genetic events in human breast cancers. Several famous oncogenes (HER2, TOP2A and TAU), tumor suppressor genes (p53, BRCA1 and HIC-1) or DNA double-strand break repair gene (RDM1) are located on chromosome 17. We searched the literature on HER2, TOP2A, TAU, RDM1, p53, BRCA1 and HIC-1 on the Pubmed database. The association of genes with chromosome 17, biological functions and potential significance are reviewed. In breast cancer, the polysomy 17 (three or more) is the predominant numerical aberration. HER2 amplification is widely utilized as molecular markers for trastuzumab target treatment. Amplified TOP2A, TAU and RDM1 genes are related to a significant response to anthracycline-based chemotherapy, taxane or cisplatin, respectively. In contrast, p53, BRCA1 and HIC-1 are important tumor suppressor genes related to breast carcinogenesis. This review focused on several crucial molecular markers residing on chromosome 17. The authors consider the somatic aberrations of chromosome 17 and associated genes in breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
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Open AccessReview Looking to the Future: Biomarkers in the Management of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5895-5907; doi:10.3390/ijms12095895
Received: 5 August 2011 / Revised: 30 August 2011 / Accepted: 8 September 2011 / Published: 14 September 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (182 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The incidence and mortality of pancreas cancer converge. There has been little advancement in the treatment of pancreas cancer since the acceptance of gemcitabine as the standard therapy. Unfortunately, the efficacy of gemcitabine is dismal. While there is much discussion for the development
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The incidence and mortality of pancreas cancer converge. There has been little advancement in the treatment of pancreas cancer since the acceptance of gemcitabine as the standard therapy. Unfortunately, the efficacy of gemcitabine is dismal. While there is much discussion for the development of biomarkers to help direct therapy in this area, there is little action to move them into clinical practice. Herein, we review potential pancreatic cancer biomarkers and discuss the limitations in their implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers 2011)
Open AccessReview Molecularly Imprinted Polymers: Present and Future Prospective
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5908-5945; doi:10.3390/ijms12095908
Received: 7 June 2011 / Revised: 3 August 2011 / Accepted: 17 August 2011 / Published: 14 September 2011
Cited by 169 | PDF Full-text (790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecular Imprinting Technology (MIT) is a technique to design artificial receptors with a predetermined selectivity and specificity for a given analyte, which can be used as ideal materials in various application fields. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs), the polymeric matrices obtained using the imprinting
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Molecular Imprinting Technology (MIT) is a technique to design artificial receptors with a predetermined selectivity and specificity for a given analyte, which can be used as ideal materials in various application fields. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs), the polymeric matrices obtained using the imprinting technology, are robust molecular recognition elements able to mimic natural recognition entities, such as antibodies and biological receptors, useful to separate and analyze complicated samples such as biological fluids and environmental samples. The scope of this review is to provide a general overview on MIPs field discussing first general aspects in MIP preparation and then dealing with various application aspects. This review aims to outline the molecularly imprinted process and present a summary of principal application fields of molecularly imprinted polymers, focusing on chemical sensing, separation science, drug delivery and catalysis. Some significant aspects about preparation and application of the molecular imprinting polymers with examples taken from the recent literature will be discussed. Theoretical and experimental parameters for MIPs design in terms of the interaction between template and polymer functionalities will be considered and synthesis methods for the improvement of MIP recognition properties will also be presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imprinting Science and Technology)
Open AccessReview The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Preventing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections and Biofilm Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5971-5992; doi:10.3390/ijms12095971
Received: 21 July 2011 / Revised: 5 September 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
Cited by 68 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As a
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Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As a result, there is a continuous search to overcome or control such problems, which has resulted in antimicrobial peptides being considered as an alternative to conventional drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient host defense effector molecules in living organisms. These peptides have been identified in diverse organisms and synthetically developed by using peptidomimic techniques. This review was conducted to demonstrate the mode of action by which antimicrobial peptides combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and prevent biofilm formation and to introduce clinical uses of these compounds for chronic disease, medical devices, and oral health. In addition, combinations of antimicrobial peptides and conventional drugs were considered due to their synergetic effects and low cost for therapeutic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
Open AccessReview Sirt3, Mitochondrial ROS, Ageing, and Carcinogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6226-6239; doi:10.3390/ijms12096226
Received: 21 July 2011 / Revised: 14 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that aberrations
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One fundamental observation in cancer etiology is that the rate of malignancies in any mammalian population increases exponentially as a function of age, suggesting a mechanistic link between the cellular processes governing longevity and carcinogenesis. In addition, it is well established that aberrations in mitochondrial metabolism, as measured by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), are observed in both aging and cancer. In this regard, genes that impact upon longevity have recently been characterized in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, and the human homologs include the Sirtuin family of protein deacetylases. Interestingly, three of the seven sirtuin proteins are localized into the mitochondria suggesting a connection between the mitochondrial sirtuins, the free radical theory of aging, and carcinogenesis. Based on these results it has been hypothesized that Sirt3 functions as a mitochondrial fidelity protein whose function governs both aging and carcinogenesis by modulating ROS metabolism. Sirt3 has also now been identified as a genomically expressed, mitochondrial localized tumor suppressor and this review will outline potential relationships between mitochondrial ROS/superoxide levels, aging, and cell phenotypes permissive for estrogen and progesterone receptor positive breast carcinogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Mitochondria)
Open AccessReview Nanoparticles and Neurotoxicity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6267-6280; doi:10.3390/ijms12096267
Received: 8 August 2011 / Revised: 12 September 2011 / Accepted: 19 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Cited by 77 | PDF Full-text (335 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Humans are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs; diameter
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Humans are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs; diameter < 100 nm) from ambient air and certain workplaces. There are two main types of NPs; combustion-derived NPs (e.g., particulate matters, diesel exhaust particles, welding fumes) and manufactured or engineered NPs (e.g., titanium dioxide, carbon black, carbon nanotubes, silver, zinc oxide, copper oxide). Recently, there have been increasing reports indicating that inhaled NPs can reach the brain and may be associated with neurodegeneration. It is necessary to evaluate the potential toxic effects of NPs on brain because most of the neurobehavioral disorders may be of environmental origin. This review highlights studies on both combustion-derived NP- and manufactured or engineered NP-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and gene expression, as well as the possible mechanism of these effects in animal models and in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Material Sciences and Nanotechnology)

Other

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Open AccessShort Note Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae), an Endangered Plant Endemic to the Dry-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River in Southwest China
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5698-5704; doi:10.3390/ijms12095698
Received: 19 July 2011 / Revised: 18 August 2011 / Accepted: 28 August 2011 / Published: 5 September 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae) is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to the dry-hot valleys of Jinsha River in southwest China. Only four natural populations of H. aridicola exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that H. aridicola is
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Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae) is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to the dry-hot valleys of Jinsha River in southwest China. Only four natural populations of H. aridicola exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that H. aridicola is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, a total of 40 microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in H. aridicola for the first time. Polymorphisms were evaluated in 39 individuals from four natural populations. Fifteen of the markers showed polymorphisms with two to six alleles per locus; the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.72. These microsatellite loci would be useful tools for population genetics studies on H. aridicola and other con-generic species which are important to the conservation and development of endangered species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)

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