Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Nanoparticles and Neurotoxicity
Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
Center for Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2011; in revised form: 12 September 2011 / Accepted: 19 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
Abstract: Humans are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs; diameter < 100 nm) from ambient air and certain workplaces. There are two main types of NPs; combustion-derived NPs (e.g., particulate matters, diesel exhaust particles, welding fumes) and manufactured or engineered NPs (e.g., titanium dioxide, carbon black, carbon nanotubes, silver, zinc oxide, copper oxide). Recently, there have been increasing reports indicating that inhaled NPs can reach the brain and may be associated with neurodegeneration. It is necessary to evaluate the potential toxic effects of NPs on brain because most of the neurobehavioral disorders may be of environmental origin. This review highlights studies on both combustion-derived NP- and manufactured or engineered NP-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and gene expression, as well as the possible mechanism of these effects in animal models and in humans.
Keywords: nanoparticles; brain; neurotoxicity; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Win-Shwe, T.-T.; Fujimaki, H. Nanoparticles and Neurotoxicity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 6267-6280.
Win-Shwe T-T, Fujimaki H. Nanoparticles and Neurotoxicity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2011; 12(9):6267-6280.
Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Fujimaki, Hidekazu. 2011. "Nanoparticles and Neurotoxicity." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 9: 6267-6280.