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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 6267-6280; doi:10.3390/ijms12096267
Review

Nanoparticles and Neurotoxicity

1,*  and 2
1 Center for Environmental Health Sciences, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan 2 Center for Environmental Risk Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2011 / Revised: 12 September 2011 / Accepted: 19 September 2011 / Published: 23 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Humans are exposed to nanoparticles (NPs; diameter < 100 nm) from ambient air and certain workplaces. There are two main types of NPs; combustion-derived NPs (e.g., particulate matters, diesel exhaust particles, welding fumes) and manufactured or engineered NPs (e.g., titanium dioxide, carbon black, carbon nanotubes, silver, zinc oxide, copper oxide). Recently, there have been increasing reports indicating that inhaled NPs can reach the brain and may be associated with neurodegeneration. It is necessary to evaluate the potential toxic effects of NPs on brain because most of the neurobehavioral disorders may be of environmental origin. This review highlights studies on both combustion-derived NP- and manufactured or engineered NP-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and gene expression, as well as the possible mechanism of these effects in animal models and in humans.
Keywords: nanoparticles; brain; neurotoxicity; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress nanoparticles; brain; neurotoxicity; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Win-Shwe, T.-T.; Fujimaki, H. Nanoparticles and Neurotoxicity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 6267-6280.

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