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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5955-5970; doi:10.3390/ijms12095955

Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Jatropha curcas L. Kernel Meal Extract

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2011 / Revised: 20 July 2011 / Accepted: 22 August 2011 / Published: 15 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics)
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Abstract

Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics), rutin and myricetin (flavonoids) and daidzein (isoflavonoid). The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy) and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy), acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde) in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0–1.63 cm) at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe3+) to ferrous ion (Fe2+). Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells.
Keywords: Jatropha curcas L.; bioactive compounds; antibacterial; antioxidant; cytotoxicity; kernel meal Jatropha curcas L.; bioactive compounds; antibacterial; antioxidant; cytotoxicity; kernel meal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Oskoueian, E.; Abdullah, N.; Ahmad, S.; Saad, W.Z.; Omar, A.R.; Ho, Y.W. Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Jatropha curcas L. Kernel Meal Extract. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 5955-5970.

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