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Special Issue "Biocides"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Joseph Oliver Falkinham (Website)

Department of Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Phone: 1-540-231-5931

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biocides and disinfectants are widely employed throughout the world and used in a variety of applications including hand sanitization, surface disinfection in food preparation, surface sterilization in hospitals, and the disinfection of a variety of solutions that are used in industry (e.g., metal-recovery fluids). As has been the case with antibiotics, biocide resistance is increasing, and threatens to reduce the applicability of biocides to control contamination. The proposed, open-source, special issue will bring together all current knowledge of biocides and will provide unprecedented access.

It is anticipated that the following topics will be included in the special issue:

  • Mechanisms of biocide action
  • Mechanisms of biocide resistance
  • Measurement of biocide susceptibility
  • Identification of biocide targets
  • Selection for biocide resistance
  • Interaction between biocides
  • Effect of growth conditions on biocide susceptibility

Prof. Dr. Joseph Oliver Falkinham
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • biocides
  • disinfectants
  • antiseptics
  • surfactants
  • antimicrobial agents
  • targets
  • resistance
  • sensitivity
  • interaction
  • synergism
  • antagonism

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and in Vitro Antifungal Activity Screening of the Allium ursinum L. (Liliaceae)
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 1426-1436; doi:10.3390/ijms13021426
Received: 28 November 2011 / Revised: 6 January 2012 / Accepted: 19 January 2012 / Published: 30 January 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (191 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the study was to summarize the methods for isolating and identifying natural sulfur compounds from Allium ursinum (ramson) and to discuss the active constituents with regard to antifungal action. Using chromatographic techniques, the active constituents were isolated and subsequently [...] Read more.
The objective of the study was to summarize the methods for isolating and identifying natural sulfur compounds from Allium ursinum (ramson) and to discuss the active constituents with regard to antifungal action. Using chromatographic techniques, the active constituents were isolated and subsequently identified. Analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggested that these compounds were sulfur constituents, with a characteristic absorbance at 250 nm. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses allowed the chemical structures of the isolated constituents to be postulated. We adopted the same methods to identify the health-giving profiling of ramsons and the effects are thought to be primarily derived from the presence and breakdown of the alk(en)ylcysteine sulphoxide, alliin and its subsequent breakdown to allicin (sulfur-compounds of ramson) in connection with antifungal action. The aim of the study was the characterization of the chemical composition of ramsons and the testing of the action of the in vitro extracts, on different strains of Candida albicans. The main goal was to highlight the most efficient extracts of Allium ursinum that can provide long-term antifungal activity without remissions. The extracts from Allium ursinum plants, inhibited growth of Candida spp. cells at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mg/mL, while that of adherent cells at concentrations ranging from 1.0 to > 4.0 mg/mL, depending on the yeast and plant species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
Open AccessArticle Expression Patterns of Glutathione Transferase Gene (GstI) in Maize Seedlings Under Juglone-Induced Oxidative Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(11), 7982-7995; doi:10.3390/ijms12117982
Received: 9 October 2011 / Revised: 3 November 2011 / Accepted: 8 November 2011 / Published: 16 November 2011
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) has been identified in organs of many plant species within Juglandaceae family. This secondary metabolite is considered as a highly bioactive substance that functions as direct oxidant stimulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in acceptor plants. Glutathione transferases [...] Read more.
Juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) has been identified in organs of many plant species within Juglandaceae family. This secondary metabolite is considered as a highly bioactive substance that functions as direct oxidant stimulating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in acceptor plants. Glutathione transferases (GSTs, E.C.2.5.1.18) represent an important group of cytoprotective enzymes participating in detoxification of xenobiotics and limiting oxidative damages of cellular macromolecules. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of tested allelochemical on growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, the effect of juglone-induced oxidative stress on glutathione transferase (GstI) gene expression patterns in maize seedlings was recorded. It was revealed that 4-day juglone treatment significantly stimulated the transcriptional activity of GstI in maize seedlings compared to control plants. By contrast, at the 6th and 8th day of experiments the expression gene responses were slightly lower as compared with non-stressed seedlings. Additionally, the specific gene expression profiles, as well as the inhibition of primary roots and coleoptile elongation were proportional to juglone concentrations. In conclusion, the results provide strong molecular evidence that allelopathic influence of juglone on growth and development of maize seedlings may be relevant with an induction of oxidative stress in acceptor plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
Open AccessArticle Susceptibility of Mycobacterium immunogenum and Pseudomonas fluorescens to Formaldehyde and Non-Formaldehyde Biocides in Semi-Synthetic Metalworking Fluids
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 725-741; doi:10.3390/ijms12010725
Received: 1 December 2010 / Revised: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 20 January 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF). This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium immunogenum, a newly identified member of the Mycobacterium chelonae_M. abscessus complex is considered a potential etiological agent for hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in machine workers exposed to contaminated metalworking fluid (MWF). This study investigated the biocidal efficacy of the frequently applied commercial formaldehyde-releasing (HCHO) biocides Grotan and Bioban CS 1135 and non-HCHO type biocides Kathon 886 MW (isothiazolone) and Preventol CMK 40 (phenolic) toward this emerging mycobacterial species (M. immunogenum) in HP-linked MWFs, alone and in presence of a representative of the Gram-negative bacterial contaminants, Pseudomonas fluorescens, using two semi-synthetic MWF matrices (designated Fluid A and Fluid B). Relative biocide susceptibility analysis indicated M immunogenum to be comparatively more resistant (2–1600 fold) than P. fluorescens to the tested biocides under the varied test conditions. In terms of minimum inhibitory concentration, Kathon was the most effective biocide against M. immunogenum. Fluid factors had a major effect on the biocide susceptibility. Fluid A formulation provided greater protective advantage to the test organisms than Fluid B. Fluid dialysis (Fluid A) led to an increased biocidal efficacy of Grotan, Kathon and Preventol against M. immunogenum further implying the role of native fluid components. Used fluid matrix, in general, increased the resistance of the two test organisms against the biocides, with certain exceptions. M. immunogenum resistance increased in presence of the co-contaminant P. fluorescens. Collectively, the results show a multifactorial nature of the biocide susceptibility of MWF-colonizing mycobacteria and highlight the importance of more rigorous efficacy testing and validation of biocides prior to and during their application in metalworking fluid operations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Potential of Antimicrobial Peptides as Biocides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(10), 6566-6596; doi:10.3390/ijms12106566
Received: 10 August 2011 / Revised: 22 September 2011 / Accepted: 26 September 2011 / Published: 6 October 2011
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (950 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antimicrobial peptides constitute a diverse class of naturally occurring antimicrobial molecules which have activity against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides are exciting leads in the development of novel biocidal agents at a time when classical antibiotics are under intense [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial peptides constitute a diverse class of naturally occurring antimicrobial molecules which have activity against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides are exciting leads in the development of novel biocidal agents at a time when classical antibiotics are under intense pressure from emerging resistance, and the global industry in antibiotic research and development stagnates. This review will examine the potential of antimicrobial peptides, both natural and synthetic, as novel biocidal agents in the battle against multi-drug resistant pathogen infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
Open AccessReview The Role of Antimicrobial Peptides in Preventing Multidrug-Resistant Bacterial Infections and Biofilm Formation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(9), 5971-5992; doi:10.3390/ijms12095971
Received: 21 July 2011 / Revised: 5 September 2011 / Accepted: 6 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
Cited by 56 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, decreasing effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial-drugs has caused serious problems due to the rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Furthermore, biofilms, which are microbial communities that cause serious chronic infections and dental plaque, form environments that enhance antimicrobial resistance. As a result, there is a continuous search to overcome or control such problems, which has resulted in antimicrobial peptides being considered as an alternative to conventional drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ancient host defense effector molecules in living organisms. These peptides have been identified in diverse organisms and synthetically developed by using peptidomimic techniques. This review was conducted to demonstrate the mode of action by which antimicrobial peptides combat multidrug-resistant bacteria and prevent biofilm formation and to introduce clinical uses of these compounds for chronic disease, medical devices, and oral health. In addition, combinations of antimicrobial peptides and conventional drugs were considered due to their synergetic effects and low cost for therapeutic treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)
Open AccessReview Development of Proteomics-Based Fungicides: New Strategies for Environmentally Friendly Control of Fungal Plant Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12(1), 795-816; doi:10.3390/ijms12010795
Received: 6 December 2010 / Revised: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 17 January 2011 / Published: 21 January 2011
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (403 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Proteomics has become one of the most relevant high-throughput technologies. Several approaches have been used for studying, for example, tumor development, biomarker discovery, or microbiology. In this “post-genomic” era, the relevance of these studies has been highlighted as the phenotypes determined by [...] Read more.
Proteomics has become one of the most relevant high-throughput technologies. Several approaches have been used for studying, for example, tumor development, biomarker discovery, or microbiology. In this “post-genomic” era, the relevance of these studies has been highlighted as the phenotypes determined by the proteins and not by the genotypes encoding them that is responsible for the final phenotypes. One of the most interesting outcomes of these technologies is the design of new drugs, due to the discovery of new disease factors that may be candidates for new therapeutic targets. To our knowledge, no commercial fungicides have been developed from targeted molecular research, this review will shed some light on future prospects. We will summarize previous research efforts and discuss future innovations, focused on the fight against one of the main agents causing a devastating crops disease, fungal phytopathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocides)

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