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Special Issue "Natural Polysaccharides"

A special issue of Molecules (ISSN 1420-3049). This special issue belongs to the section "Natural Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Quan-Bin Han

School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: natural product chemistry; quality analysis of herb medicines and natural polysaccharides
Guest Editor
Prof. Sunan Wang

Canadian Food and Wine Institute, Niagara College, Niagara-on-the-Lake, Canada
E-Mail
Interests: ingredient technology and value added processing of foods; plant bioactives for chronic disease prevention; food microbiology and food safety
Guest Editor
Prof. Shaoping Nie

School of Food, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bioactive polysaccharides; food analysis and food chemistry; food nutrition and safety; health food

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Natural polysaccharides are attracting increasing interests from scientists in multidisciplinary research fields, because they are esculent and show a broad spectrum of bio-activities, including immunoregulatory activity, anti-fatigue activity, antioxidant activity, antitumor activity, anti-diabetic activity, and anti-inflammatory activity.

Water decoction is the most popularly used form of Chinese medicine, in which alcohol-soluble small molecules are always the research focus. However, some of these small molecules do not show any bioactivities associated with the traditional use of the decoction, and some of them do not exist in the decoctions at all. On the other hand, polysaccharides, as the majority of the decoctions, might be responsible for its bioactivities. Hence, exploring the chemistry and bioactivities of polysaccharides will help to uncover the secrets of Chinese Medicine decoctions.

Difficulties are still significant. First of all, the purity concept is different from that of small molecules. Natural polysaccharides are always a mixture. The repeatability of sample preparation is not reliable, so that polysaccharides isolated from the same natural resource hardly show identical structural data. Furthermore, it is not easy to obtain high-resolution 2D-NMR spectra of a purified polysaccharide. In addition to the difficulties in chemical study, our knowledge to the mechanism of polysaccharides’ bioactivities is poor, because all these bioactivities are associated with the immunomodulatory activity to which we have not known much. All the above-mentioned difficulties further limited our knowledge to the structure-activity relationship.

Therefore, any efforts to investigate the extraction, separation, structure elucidation, quality analysis, bioactivities, mechanism of action, and the structure-activity relationship of natural polysaccharides should be encouraged. Review articles are also welcome.

Dr. Quan-Bin Han
Prof. Sunan Wang
Prof. Shaoping Nie
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • extraction methodology
  • separation technology
  • structure elucidation
  • quality analysis
  • bioactivities
  • acute and long-term toxicity
  • mechanism of action
  • structure-activity relationship

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Structural Characterization of a Rhamnogalacturonan I Domain from Ginseng and Its Inhibitory Effect on Galectin-3
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 1016; doi:10.3390/molecules22061016
Received: 12 May 2017 / Revised: 8 June 2017 / Accepted: 13 June 2017 / Published: 18 June 2017
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Abstract
A rhamnogalacturonan I domain, named RG-I-3A, was prepared from ginseng pectin by pectinase digestion and chromatography separation. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that it was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose in a molar ratio of 32.5:11.2:31.9:16.5, with a molecular weight
[...] Read more.
A rhamnogalacturonan I domain, named RG-I-3A, was prepared from ginseng pectin by pectinase digestion and chromatography separation. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that it was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, rhamnose, galactose, and arabinose in a molar ratio of 32.5:11.2:31.9:16.5, with a molecular weight of 50 kDa. Partial acid hydrolysis, monoclonal antibody detection, and NMR spectra analysis suggested RG-I-3A was composed of →4)-α-GalpA-(1→2)-α-Rhap-(1→disaccharide repeating units as backbone, with β-1,4-galactan, α-1,5-arabinan, AG-I, and AG-II side chains substituted via the O-4 of Rhap. Galectin-3-mediated hemagglutination and biolayer interferometry assay indicated that RG-I-3A had inhibitory activity on galectin-3. These findings suggest the potential use of this ginseng RG-I domain as a galectin-3 inhibitor in drug development applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Extraction Optimization, Characterization, and Bioactivities of Polysaccharides from Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum Cum Alumine Employing Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 965; doi:10.3390/molecules22060965
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3943 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides (PSA) from Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum Cum Alumine (PRPCA) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The structural characteristics of PSA were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high performance gel permeation chromatography
[...] Read more.
In this study, the ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides (PSA) from Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum Cum Alumine (PRPCA) was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The structural characteristics of PSA were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high performance gel permeation chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. In addition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of PSA were studied by different in vitro assays. Results indicated that the optimal extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of water to raw of 30 mL/g, extraction time of 46.50 min, ultrasonic temperature of 72.00 °C, and ultrasonic power of 230 W. Under these conditions, the obtained PSA yield (13.21 ± 0.37%) was closely agreed with the predicted yield by the model. The average molecular weights of the PSA were estimated to be 5.34 × 103 and 6.27 × 105 Da. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that PSA consisted of mannose, galactose uronic acid, glucose, galactose, arabinose with a molar ratio of 1.83:0.55:75.75:1.94:0.45. Furthermore, PSA exhibited moderate antioxidant and antibacterial activities in vitro. Collectively, this study provides a promising strategy to obtain bioactive polysaccharides from processed products of herbal medicines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Optimization of EPS Production and Characterization by a Halophilic Bacterium, Kocuria rosea ZJUQH from Chaka Salt Lake with Response Surface Methodology
Molecules 2017, 22(5), 814; doi:10.3390/molecules22050814
Received: 18 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract
With the rising awareness of microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) application in various fields, halophilic microorganisms which produce EPSs have received broad attention. A newly identified Kocuria rosea ZJUQH CCTCC M2016754 was determined to be a moderate halobacterium on account of its successful adaption to
[...] Read more.
With the rising awareness of microbial exopolysaccharides (EPSs) application in various fields, halophilic microorganisms which produce EPSs have received broad attention. A newly identified Kocuria rosea ZJUQH CCTCC M2016754 was determined to be a moderate halobacterium on account of its successful adaption to the environment containing 10% NaCl. The optimal combination of fermentation medium compositions on EPS production was studied. In this work, a fractional factorial design was adopted to investigate the significant factors that affected EPS production. The factors of KCl and MgSO4 were found to have a profound impact on EPS production. We utilized central composite design and response surface methodology to derive a statistical model for optimizing the submerged culture medium composition. Judging from these experimental results, the optimum culture medium for producing EPSs was composed of 0.50% casein hydrolysate, 1.00% sodium citrate, 0.30% yeast extract, 0.50% KCl, 0.50% peptone, and 5.80% MgSO4 (initial pH 7.0). The maximal EPS was 48.01 g/L, which is close to the predicted value (50.39 g/L). In the validation experiment, the highest concentration of 70.64 g/L EPSs was obtained after 120 h under the optimized culture medium in a 5-L bioreactor. EPS from this bacterium was also characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared analysis (FT-IR). The findings in this study imply that Kocuria rosea ZJUQH has great potential to be exploited as a source of EPSs utilized in food, the pharmaceutical and agriculture industry, and in the biotreatment of hypersaline environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Analysis and Immuno-Stimulating Activity of an Acidic Polysaccharide from the Stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl.
Molecules 2017, 22(4), 611; doi:10.3390/molecules22040611
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 April 2017 / Published: 10 April 2017
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Abstract
Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an epiphytic herb distributed in the Southeast Asia, is used as a tonic and antipyretic herbal medicine in China. In this study, a water-soluble acidic heteropolysaccharide, DNP-W4, containing mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, in the molar ratios
[...] Read more.
Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an epiphytic herb distributed in the Southeast Asia, is used as a tonic and antipyretic herbal medicine in China. In this study, a water-soluble acidic heteropolysaccharide, DNP-W4, containing mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, in the molar ratios of 1.0:4.9:2.5:0.5:1.0:0.9, was obtained from the stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Using methylation analysis, partial acid hydrolysis, pectolyase treatment, NMR, and ESI-MS, the structure of DNP-W4 was elucidated. The obtained data indicated that DNP-W4 was a complex heteropolysaccharide and possessed a backbone composed of (1→4)-linked β-d-Glcp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Glcp, and (1→6)-linked β-d-Galp, with substitutes at O-4/6 of Glcp residues and O-3 of Galp. The branches of DNP-W4 were composed of terminal Manp, (1→6)-linked β-d-Manp, (1→3)-linked β-d-Glcp, β-d-Glcp, β-d-Galp, (1→4)-linked α-d-GalAp, (1→2)-linked α-L-Rhap, and Xylp. DNP-W4 had little immunological activities, but its derivatives had immuno-stimulating activities to some extent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Polysaccharide Conjugate from Bullacta exarata Induces G1-Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells
Molecules 2017, 22(3), 384; doi:10.3390/molecules22030384
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
PDF Full-text (3951 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bullacta exarata has been consumed in Asia, not only as a part of the normal diet, but also as a traditional Chinese medicine with liver- and kidney-benefitting functions. Several scientific investigations involving extraction of biomolecules from this mollusk and pharmacological studies on their
[...] Read more.
Bullacta exarata has been consumed in Asia, not only as a part of the normal diet, but also as a traditional Chinese medicine with liver- and kidney-benefitting functions. Several scientific investigations involving extraction of biomolecules from this mollusk and pharmacological studies on their biological activities have been carried out. However, little is known regarding the antitumor properties of polysaccharides from B. exarata, hence the polysaccharides from B. exarata have been investigated here. One polysaccharide conjugate BEPS-IA was isolated and purified from B. exarata. It mainly consisted of mannose and glucose in a molar ratio of 1:2, with an average molecular weight of 127 kDa. Thirteen general amino acids were identified to be components of the protein-bound polysaccharide. Methylation and NMR studies revealed that BEPS-IA is a heteropolysaccharide consisting of 1,4-linked-α-d-Glc, 1,6-linked-α-d-Man, 1,3,6-linked-α-d-Man, and 1-linked-α-d-Man residue, in a molar ratio of 6:1:1:1. In order to test the antitumor activity of BEPS-IA, we investigated its effect against the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 in vitro. The result showed that BEPS-IA dose-dependently exhibited an effective HepG2 cells growth inhibition with an IC50 of 112.4 μg/mL. Flow cytometry analysis showed that BEPS-IA increased the populations of both apoptotic sub-G1 and G1 phase. The result obtained from TUNEL assay corroborated apoptosis which was shown in flow cytometry. Western blot analysis suggested that BEPS-IA induced apoptosis and growth inhibition were associated with up-regulation of p53, p21 and Bax, down-regulation of Bcl-2. These findings suggest that BEPS-IA may serve as a potential novel dietary agent for hepatocellular carcinoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Lycium barbarum L. Polysaccharide (LBP) Reduces Glucose Uptake via Down-Regulation of SGLT-1 in Caco2 Cell
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 341; doi:10.3390/molecules22020341
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 2 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6551 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide (LBP) is prepared from Lycium barbarum L. (L. barbarum), which is a traditional Chinese medicine. LPB has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. In order to gain some mechanistic insights on the hypoglycemic effects of LBP, we
[...] Read more.
Lycium barbarum L. polysaccharide (LBP) is prepared from Lycium barbarum L. (L. barbarum), which is a traditional Chinese medicine. LPB has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. In order to gain some mechanistic insights on the hypoglycemic effects of LBP, we investigated the uptake of LBP and its effect on glucose absorption in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco2 cell. The uptake of LBP through Caco2 cell monolayer was time-dependent and was inhibited by phloridzin, a competitive inhibitor of SGLT-1. LPB decreased the absorption of glucose in Caco2 cell, and down-regulated the expression of SGLT-1. These results suggest that LBP might be transported across the human intestinal epithelium through SGLT-1 and it inhibits glucose uptake via down-regulating SGLT-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Purification and Partial Structural Characterization of a Complement Fixating Polysaccharide from Rhizomes of Ligusticum chuanxiong
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 287; doi:10.3390/molecules22020287
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1667 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong is an effective medical plant, which has been extensively applied for centuries in migraine and cardiovascular diseases treatment in China. Polysaccharides from this plant have been shown to have interesting bioactivities, but previous studies have only been performed on
[...] Read more.
Rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong is an effective medical plant, which has been extensively applied for centuries in migraine and cardiovascular diseases treatment in China. Polysaccharides from this plant have been shown to have interesting bioactivities, but previous studies have only been performed on the neutral polysaccharides. In this study, LCP-I-I, a pectic polysaccharide fraction, was obtained from the 100 °C water extracts of L. chuangxiong rhizomes and purified by diethylaminethyl (DEAE) sepharose anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Monosaccharide analysis and linkage determination in addition to Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer and Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum, indicated that LCP-I-I is a typical pectic polysaccharide, with homo-galacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan type I regions and arabinogalactan type I and type II (AG-I/AG-II) side chains. LCP-I-I exhibited potent complement fixation activity, ICH50 of 26.3 ± 2.2 µg/mL, and thus has potential as a natural immunomodulator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Polysaccharides with Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities from the Edible Mushroom Oudemansiella radicata
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 234; doi:10.3390/molecules22020234
Received: 16 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 31 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
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Abstract
The preliminary structure, in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective activities of water-soluble polysaccharides (ORWP) and alkali-soluble polysaccharides (ORAP), prepared from the mushroom Oudemansiella radicata, were investigated. Both ORWP and ORAP were heteropolysaccharides with mannose, glucose and galactose being the main monosaccharide
[...] Read more.
The preliminary structure, in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective activities of water-soluble polysaccharides (ORWP) and alkali-soluble polysaccharides (ORAP), prepared from the mushroom Oudemansiella radicata, were investigated. Both ORWP and ORAP were heteropolysaccharides with mannose, glucose and galactose being the main monosaccharide components. Regarding the antioxidant activities, ORWP and ORAP showed effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effects, as well as moderate reducing power and Fe2+ chelating activity. For the hepatoprotective activity, administration of ORWP and ORAP prevented the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver damage model, suppressed hepatic malondialdehyde formation and stimulated the activities of hepatic superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. Thus, we speculate that ORWP and ORAP may protect the liver from CCl4-induced hepatic damage via antioxidant mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Fatigue Effects of the Unique Polysaccharide Marker of Dendrobium officinale on BALB/c Mice
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 155; doi:10.3390/molecules22010155
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 9 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
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Abstract
Dendrobium officinale extract shows potent anti-fatigue effects; however, the active substance responsible for these effects remains undetermined. A glucomannan with a huge molecular size of 730 kDa, called DOP, was identified as the unique authentication marker of this expensive herb. DOP exhibited immunomodulating
[...] Read more.
Dendrobium officinale extract shows potent anti-fatigue effects; however, the active substance responsible for these effects remains undetermined. A glucomannan with a huge molecular size of 730 kDa, called DOP, was identified as the unique authentication marker of this expensive herb. DOP exhibited immunomodulating effects on macrophages and lymphocytes in our previous study. Clinical reports also showed that people with fatigue syndrome have a disturbed immune system. Because DOP is the unique and dominant component of D. officinale, we hypothesize that DOP may also have anti-fatigue activity. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-fatigue activity of DOP on BALB/c mice, with Rhodiola rosea extract as a positive control. DOP and Rhodiola rosea extract were orally administered at doses of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively, for four weeks, and the anti-fatigue activity of DOP on BALB/c mice was evaluated using the weight-loaded swimming test. The contents of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CK), triglyceride (TG), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), lactic acid (LD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum, glycogen of liver and gastrocnemius muscle were also determined. Their effects on variability of T cells and B cells were determined by using tetrazolium compound (MTS) method. The weight-loaded swimming exercise caused fatigue syndrome, mainly including the decreases of serum SOD/GSH-Px and gastrocnemius glycogen, as well as the increases of LDH, BUN, MDA, CK, TG, and LD in serum. All of these indicators of fatigue were inhibited to a certain extent by both DOP and Rhodiola rosea extract; however, the effects of DOP were much stronger than those of Rhodiola rosea extract. Compared to the positive control, mice dosed with DOP showed increases in endurance, body weight, and food intake. Furthermore, DOP-feeding mice significantly increased the cell variability of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, compared with that of mice in control group. This study indicates that the unique and dominant polysaccharide DOP of D. officinale has stronger anti-fatigue activity than Rhodiola rosea extract. As such, DOP has promising potential for pharmaceutical development into health products to reduce fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Polysaccharides Act as Adjuvant via Promoting Dendritic Cell Maturation
Molecules 2017, 22(1), 106; doi:10.3390/molecules22010106
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 24 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 10 January 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate whether phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan polysaccharides (pRCPS) used as adjuvant with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (FMDV) can stimulate specific humoral and cellular immune responses in ICR mice. The results demonstrated that pRCPS significantly up-regulated FMDV-specific
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether phosphorylated Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan polysaccharides (pRCPS) used as adjuvant with foot-and-mouth disease vaccine (FMDV) can stimulate specific humoral and cellular immune responses in ICR mice. The results demonstrated that pRCPS significantly up-regulated FMDV-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2b and IgG2a antibody levels and splenocyte proliferation. pRCPS also promoted the killing activities of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer cells (NK). In addition, pRCPS enhanced the expression levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ in CD4+ T cells and the level of IFN-γ in CD8+ T cells. Importantly, pRCPS enhanced the expression of MHCII, CD40+, CD86+, and CD80+ in dendritic cells (DCs). This study indicated that phosphorylation modification could increase immune-enhancing activities of RCPS, and pRCPS could promote humoral and cellular immune responses through facilitating DC maturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Fractional Polysaccharides from Gleditsia sinensis and Gleditsia microphylla Gums
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1745; doi:10.3390/molecules21121745
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
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Abstract
The seeds of Gleditsia sinensis and Gleditsia microphylla, widespread in China, are an important source of galactomannans. G. sinensis gum (GSG) and G. microphylla gum (GMG) were purified and precipitated using different concentrations of ethanol and isopropanol. The GSG and GMG, precipitated
[...] Read more.
The seeds of Gleditsia sinensis and Gleditsia microphylla, widespread in China, are an important source of galactomannans. G. sinensis gum (GSG) and G. microphylla gum (GMG) were purified and precipitated using different concentrations of ethanol and isopropanol. The GSG and GMG, precipitated in different stages, presented different characteristics, including polymer recovery, mannose/galactose ratio, chemical composition, molecular weight, and morphological appearance. The galactomannan recovery of GSG and GMG in 33.3% ethanol was 81.7% and 82.5%, respectively, while that in 28.8% isopropanol was 81.3% and 82.9%, respectively. To achieve similar precipitation efficiency, the amount of isopropanol should be lower than that of ethanol because of the lower dielectric constant of isopropanol (20 vs. 25 for ethanol). The precipitation behavior of galactomannans in polar organic solvents was dependent on the molecular structures and properties of the solvent. A higher mannose/galactose ratio and a higher molecular weight was obtained in a lower concentration of alcohols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle A Method for Determining the Content of Glycoproteins in Biological Samples
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1625; doi:10.3390/molecules21121625
Received: 22 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 November 2016 / Published: 26 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1364 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The glycoprotein purified from the mycelium extract of Tremella fuciformis was marked with iodine through the iodine substitution reaction. The content of iodine, which is indicative of the amount of the marked tremella glycoprotein (ITG), was detected with Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
[...] Read more.
The glycoprotein purified from the mycelium extract of Tremella fuciformis was marked with iodine through the iodine substitution reaction. The content of iodine, which is indicative of the amount of the marked tremella glycoprotein (ITG), was detected with Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was found to be stable, sensitive, and accurate at detecting the content of iodine-substituted glycoprotein, and was used in the quantitative analysis of biological samples, including blood and organs. Different biological samples were collected from rats after oral administration of ITG, and were tested for iodine content by ICP-MS to calculate the amount of ITG in the samples. The results suggested that ICP-MS is a sensitive, stable, and accurate method for detection of iodinated glycoproteins in blood and organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Extraction of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Polysaccharides and Their Antioxidant Activities
Molecules 2016, 21(12), 1612; doi:10.3390/molecules21121612
Received: 3 October 2016 / Revised: 10 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
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Abstract
Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP). Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield
[...] Read more.
Use of natural polysaccharides in medicine and food has wide interest in research. In this study, we extracted and purified some polysaccharides from cactus Opuntia dillenii Haw. (ODP). Some preliminary functions of these products were characterized. Under the optimal purification conditions, the yield of ODP extracted from the 2–4 month-old Opuntia dillenii Haw. (T-ODP) was 30.60% ± 0.40%, higher than that of ODP from the 5–10 month-old materials (O-ODP) (18.97% ± 0.58%). The extracted ODP was purified by DEAE sepharose fast flow anion exchange and Sephacryl S-400 chromatography with four fractions obtained (ODP-Ia, ODP-Ib, ODP-IIa and ODP-IIb). Analysis with UV-vis chromatography indicated that ODP-Ia and ODP-IIa were relatively homogeneous molecules with a molecular weight of 339 kD and 943 kD, respectively. Results of infrared spectroscopy indicated that ODP, ODP-Ia, and ODP-IIa were acidic polysaccharides. Further, the antioxidant activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical, hydroxyl radicals, and superoxide radical in vitro demonstrated that the T-ODP exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the O-ODP, and the purified fraction (ODP-Ia) was superior to the ODP. These results will offer a theoretical basis for further research on the structure-function relationship of ODP and the rational utilization of Opuntia dillenii Haw. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Investigation of Cell Wall Xylan Polysaccharides from the Leaves of Algerian Argania spinosa
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1587; doi:10.3390/molecules21111587
Received: 6 October 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 21 November 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (672 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Xylan-type polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels collected in the Tindouf area (southwestern Algeria). Xylan fractions were obtained by sequential alkaline extractions and purified on Sepharose CL-4B. The xylan structure was investigated by enzymatic hydrolysis with an endo-β(1→4)-xylanase
[...] Read more.
Xylan-type polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels collected in the Tindouf area (southwestern Algeria). Xylan fractions were obtained by sequential alkaline extractions and purified on Sepharose CL-4B. The xylan structure was investigated by enzymatic hydrolysis with an endo-β(1→4)-xylanase followed by chromatography of the resulting fragments on Biogel P2, characterization by sugar analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS ). The results show that the A. spinosa xylan is composed of a β-(1→4)-d-xylopyranose backbone substituted with 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid and L-arabinose residues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction May Not Be a Better Alternative Approach than Conventional Boiling for Extracting Polysaccharides from Herbal Medicines
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1569; doi:10.3390/molecules21111569
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In clinical practice polysaccharides from herbal medicines are conventionally prepared by boiling water extraction (BWE), while ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has often been used instead employed in laboratory research due to its strong extraction ability and efficiency. However, if and how the polysaccharides obtained
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In clinical practice polysaccharides from herbal medicines are conventionally prepared by boiling water extraction (BWE), while ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has often been used instead employed in laboratory research due to its strong extraction ability and efficiency. However, if and how the polysaccharides obtained by UAE and BWE are comparable, and hence whether the UAE-based research is instructive for the actual usage of herbal polysaccharides still requires further evaluation. To address this issue, here we chemically analyzed and compared the UAE- and BWE-obtained polysaccharides from three herbal medicines, i.e., Ginseng Radix, Astragali Radix and Dendrobii Officinalis Caulis. Then, the spike recovery of two series of standard dextran and pullulan by UAE and BWE was tested. The results showed that the polysaccharides from the herbal medicines by UAE were quantitatively and qualitatively different with those by BWE. The powerful extraction ability and polysaccharide degradation caused by ultrasound collectively contributed to these differences. It was then revealed that not only the UAE conditions but also the polysaccharide structures could affect the extraction ability and polysaccharide degradation. Given these, we highly recommended that the effects of UAE on polysaccharides from herbal medicines should be first carefully considered before employing it in relevant chemical and pharmacological analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Sugar Composition Analysis of Fuzi Polysaccharides by HPLC-MSn and Their Protective Effects on Schwann Cells Exposed to High Glucose
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1496; doi:10.3390/molecules21111496
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 2 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 November 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
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Abstract
Fuzi has been used to treat diabetic complications for many years in china. In a previous study, we have shown that Fuzi aqueous extract can attenuate Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in rats and protect Schwann cells from injury. Thus, the protective effect of
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Fuzi has been used to treat diabetic complications for many years in china. In a previous study, we have shown that Fuzi aqueous extract can attenuate Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in rats and protect Schwann cells from injury. Thus, the protective effect of Fuzi polysaccharides (FPS) on high glucose-induced SCs and the preliminary mechanism were investigated. Firstly, the FPS were obtained and their monose composition was analyzed by the combination of pre-column derivatization and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization multi-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MSn). The results witnessed the efficiency of this method and seven monosaccharides were tentatively identified, among which fucose was first reported. Simultaneously, m/z 215 can be considered as diagnostic ions to confirm the number of monosaccharides. Next, high glucose-induced SC model was applied and divided into model group, treated group of FPS, normal and osmotic control group. After treatment for 48 h, the data showed FPS could significantly decrease the intracellular ROS and apoptosis, which were determined by the corresponding fluorescent probes. Then, the expression of oxidative stress-related proteins in SCs were measured by Western blot. Furthermore, the protein tests found that FPS markedly up-regulated superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) protein level, but down-regulated NADPH oxidase-1 (Nox1) protein level. Moreover, FPS could also increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation significantly. Hence, we preliminary deduced that AMPK-PGC-1α pathway may play an important role in the protective effect of FPS against high glucose-induced cell damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Elucidation of a Novel Polysaccharide from Pseudostellaria heterophylla and Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Cells and Distributing in Rats by Oral
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1233; doi:10.3390/molecules21091233
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 10 September 2016 / Published: 14 September 2016
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Abstract
The semi-refined polysaccharide of Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a complex polysaccharide that exhibits significantly hypoglycemic activities. A novel homogeneous polysaccharide, named as H-1-2, was isolated from the semi-refined polysaccharide. The mean molecular weight of H-1-2 was 1.4 × 104 Da and it was
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The semi-refined polysaccharide of Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a complex polysaccharide that exhibits significantly hypoglycemic activities. A novel homogeneous polysaccharide, named as H-1-2, was isolated from the semi-refined polysaccharide. The mean molecular weight of H-1-2 was 1.4 × 104 Da and it was only composed of d-glucose monosaccharide. Structure elucidation indicated that H-1-2 contains pyranride, and has the characteristics of the α-iso-head configuration, a non-reducing end (T-), 4-, 1,6-, and 1,4,6-connection, in all four ways to connect glucose. H-1-2 was a type of glucan, where chemical combination exists in the main chain between 1→4 linked glucose, and contains a small amount of 1,6-linked glucose, which was in the branched chain. In vitro HepG2, 3T3-L1, and L6 cells were used to assess cellular glucose consumption and cellular glucose uptake by glucose oxidase, and the transport of 2-NBDG fluorescence probe results showed that H-1-2 could clearly increase glucose uptake and utilization in muscle and adipose cells, which is beneficial to screen for in the discovery of anti-diabetes lead compounds. H-1-2 was labeled with radioisotopes (99mTc-pertechnetate). 99mTc-labeled-H-1-2 was performed by SPECT/CT analysis images after oral administration in rats. At 4 h post ingestion, about 50% of the radioactivity was observed in the intestine. No significant radioactivity was found in the heart, liver, and kidney, conjecturing that absorption of 99mTc-labeled H-1-2 might, via intestinal mucosa, be absorbed into systemic circulation. This problem, as to whether the polysaccharide is absorbed orally, will need further examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Features of Alkaline Extracted Polysaccharide from the Seeds of Plantago asiatica L. and Its Rheological Properties
Molecules 2016, 21(9), 1181; doi:10.3390/molecules21091181
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 20 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 6 September 2016
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Abstract
Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. has many bioactivities, but few papers report on the structural and rheological characteristics of the alkaline extract. The alkaline extracted polysaccharide was prepared from seeds of P. asiatica L. and named herein as alkaline extracted
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Polysaccharide from the seeds of Plantago asiatica L. has many bioactivities, but few papers report on the structural and rheological characteristics of the alkaline extract. The alkaline extracted polysaccharide was prepared from seeds of P. asiatica L. and named herein as alkaline extracted polysaccharide from seeds of P. asiatica L. (PLAP). Its structural and rheological properties were characterized by monosaccharide composition, methylation, GC-MS and rheometry. PLAP, as an acidic arabinoxylan, was mainly composed of 1,2,4-linked Xylp and 1,3,4-linked Xylp residues. PLAP solution showed pseudoplastic behavior, and weak gelling properties at high concentration. Sodium and especially calcium ions played a significant role in increasing the apparent viscosity and gel strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino in Immunosuppressed Mice
Molecules 2016, 21(8), 1085; doi:10.3390/molecules21081085
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
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Abstract
The immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities of crude polysaccharides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GPMPP) were investigated. GPMPP was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 1.39:3.76:1.00:1.64:4.98:5.88. In vivo studies showed GPMPP significantly increased the spleen and
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The immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities of crude polysaccharides extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (GPMPP) were investigated. GPMPP was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in the molar ratio of 1.39:3.76:1.00:1.64:4.98:5.88. In vivo studies showed GPMPP significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, activated the macrophage phagocytosis and NK cells, and exhibited activity on none or Con A/LPS-stimulated splenocytes in a dose-dependent manner in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, GPMPP elevated CD4+ T lymphocyte counts as well as the CD4+/CD8+ ratio dose-dependently, and it increased IL-2 level in the sera and spleen of Cy-immunosuppressed mice. Furthermore, GPMPP significantly increased the SOD, GSH-Px, T-AOC, GSH and CAT level, and decreased the MDA level. The results showed that GPMPP might play an important role in prevention of oxidative damage in immunological system. These findings indicate GPMPP has immunomodulatory activity in vivo and seems to be an effective natural immunomodulatory agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Structure and Immunomodulating Activities of an α-Glucan Purified from Lobelia chinensis Lour
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 779; doi:10.3390/molecules21060779
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3349 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A neutral α-glucan, named BP1, with a molecular mass of approximately 9.45 kDa, was isolated from Lobelia chinensis by hot-water extraction, a Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Superdex-75 column chromatography. Its chemical structure was characterized by monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis and analysis of
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A neutral α-glucan, named BP1, with a molecular mass of approximately 9.45 kDa, was isolated from Lobelia chinensis by hot-water extraction, a Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column and Superdex-75 column chromatography. Its chemical structure was characterized by monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis and analysis of its FT-IR, high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and 1D/2D-NMR spectra data. The backbone of BP1 consists of →6α-d-Glcp16,3α-d-Glcp1→(6α-d-Glcp1)x-6,3α-d-Glcp1-(6α-d-Glcp1)y→. The side chains were terminal α-d-Glcp1→ and α-d-Glcp1→ (6α-d-Glcp1)z→4α-d-Glcp13α-d-Glcp14α-d-Glcp1→ (x + y + z = 5), which are attached to the backbone at O-3 of 3,6α-d-Glcp1. The results of the effect of BP1 on mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 indicate that BP1 enhances the cell proliferation, phagocytosis, nitric oxide production and cytokine secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Because the inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 blocks the BP1-induced secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, we hypothesize that α-glucan BP1 activates TLR4, which mediates the above-mentioned immunomodulating effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
Open AccessArticle Extraction, Purification and Primary Characterization of Polysaccharides from Defatted Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Cakes
Molecules 2016, 21(6), 716; doi:10.3390/molecules21060716
Received: 20 April 2016 / Revised: 21 May 2016 / Accepted: 24 May 2016 / Published: 1 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (10344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hot-water extraction, purification and characterization of polysaccharides from defatted peanut cake (PPC) were investigated in this study. A Box-Behnken factorial design (BBD) was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (X1), extraction time (X2
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The hot-water extraction, purification and characterization of polysaccharides from defatted peanut cake (PPC) were investigated in this study. A Box-Behnken factorial design (BBD) was used to investigate the effects of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (X1), extraction time (X2) and ratio of water to raw material (X3). The optimum conditions were 85 °C, 3 h and 20:1 (mL/g) respectively. Regression analysis was done to reveal the experimental results which include 34.97% extraction rate while the value verified under these conditions was 34.49%. The crude PPC was sequentially further purified by Sephadex G-100 chromatography, and one purified fraction was obtained. The PPC purified fraction was characterized by FT-IR, HPAEC; SEC-MALLS. The average molecular weight of the PPC purified fraction was 2.383 × 105 Da. The polysaccharide was mainly composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose. The PPC have the typical absorption of polysaccharide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
Open AccessArticle In Vivo Anti-Cancer Mechanism of Low-Molecular-Weight Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate (LFCS) from Sea Cucumber Cucumaria frondosa
Molecules 2016, 21(5), 625; doi:10.3390/molecules21050625
Received: 19 April 2016 / Revised: 6 May 2016 / Accepted: 9 May 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (3100 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The low-molecular-weight fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (LFCS) was prepared from native fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS), which was extracted and isolated from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa, and the anti-cancer mechanism of LFCS on mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) was investigated. The results showed that
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The low-molecular-weight fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (LFCS) was prepared from native fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS), which was extracted and isolated from sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa, and the anti-cancer mechanism of LFCS on mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) was investigated. The results showed that LFCS remarkably inhibited LLC growth and metastasis in a dose-dependent manner. LFCS induced cell cycle arrest by increasing p53/p21 expression and apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 activity in LLC cells. Meanwhile, LFCS suppressed the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), increased the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and downregulated the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) level. Furthermore, LFCS significantly suppressed the activation of ERK1/2/p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway, which played a prime role in expression of MMPs. All of these data indicate LFCS may be used as anti-cancer drug candidates and deserve further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)

Review

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Open AccessReview Bioactive Mushroom Polysaccharides: A Review on Monosaccharide Composition, Biosynthesis and Regulation
Molecules 2017, 22(6), 955; doi:10.3390/molecules22060955
Received: 22 April 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mushrooms are widely distributed around the world and are heavily consumed because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides (PSs) are an important component of mushrooms, a major factor in their bioactive properties, and have been intensively studied during the past two
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Mushrooms are widely distributed around the world and are heavily consumed because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides (PSs) are an important component of mushrooms, a major factor in their bioactive properties, and have been intensively studied during the past two decades. Monosaccharide composition/combinations are important determinants of PS bioactivities. This review summarizes: (i) monosaccharide composition/combinations in various mushroom PSs, and their relationships with PS bioactivities; (ii) possible biosynthetic pathways of mushroom PSs and effects of key enzymes on monosaccharide composition; (iii) regulation strategies in PS biosynthesis, and prospects for controllable biosynthesis of PSs with enhanced bioactivities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessReview β-Glucans: Relationships between Modification, Conformation and Functional Activities
Molecules 2017, 22(2), 257; doi:10.3390/molecules22020257
Received: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 9 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3084 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
β-glucan is a type of polysaccharide which widely exists in bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants, and has been well known for its biological activities such as enhancing immunity, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, and wound healing activities. The conformation of β-glucan plays a crucial role
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β-glucan is a type of polysaccharide which widely exists in bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants, and has been well known for its biological activities such as enhancing immunity, antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, and wound healing activities. The conformation of β-glucan plays a crucial role on its biological activities. Therefore, β-glucans obtained from different sources, while sharing the same basic structures, often show different bioactivities. The basic structure and inter-molecular forces of polysaccharides can be changed by modification, which leads to the conformational transformation in solution that can directly affect bioactivity. In this review, we will first determine different ways to modify β-glucan molecules including physical methods, chemical methods, and biological methods, and then reveal the relationship of the flexible helix form of the molecule chain and the helix conformation to their bioactivities. Last, we summarize the scientific challenges to modifying β-glucan’s conformation and functional activity, and discuss its potential future development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessReview Tea Polysaccharides and Their Bioactivities
Molecules 2016, 21(11), 1449; doi:10.3390/molecules21111449
Received: 3 September 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 28 October 2016 / Published: 30 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage beneficial to health and is also a source for extracting bioactive components such as theanine, tea polyphenols (TPP) and tea polysaccharides (TPS). TPS is a group of heteropolysaccharides bound with proteins. There is evidence showing
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Tea (Camellia sinensis) is a beverage beneficial to health and is also a source for extracting bioactive components such as theanine, tea polyphenols (TPP) and tea polysaccharides (TPS). TPS is a group of heteropolysaccharides bound with proteins. There is evidence showing that TPS not only improves immunity but also has various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperglycemia, and anti-inflammation. However, inconsistent results concerning chemical composition and bioactivity of TPS have been published in recent years. The advances in chemical composition and bioactivities of TPS are reviewed in the present paper. The inconsistent and controversial results regarding composition and bioactivities of TPS are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Polysaccharides)
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