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Special Issue "Mycotoxins in Food and Feed"

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A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wayne L. Bryden

School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, Gatton Qld 4343, Australia
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fungi are ubiquitous and all human food and animal feed can become contaminated with mycotoxins. Formation of mycotoxins is not restricted to any component of the human food or animal feed supply chains and the level of contamination varies with location and reflects agronomic practices, climate and storage conditions and an array of physical, chemical and biological factors. Globally, mycotoxins have significant human and animal health, economic and international trade implications. This has significant consequences in both developed and developing countries. In developing countries the primary concern with mycotoxin contamination is human health and the impact on animal health and production is the second major concern. In contrast to developed economies, where the additional costs to the producer and/or the consumer to meet the economic burden of regulating the food and feed supply is the major mycotoxin concern, followed by the impact on animal health and production
Most mycotoxins are very stable chemically and once formed will continue to contaminate that commodity and foods or feeds manufactured from it. Mycotoxins present a major analytical challenge due to the range of chemical compounds that they represent and the array of food and feed matrices in which they are found. There are a number of areas of mycotoxin analysis that require further study and refinement, including commodity sampling techniques, conjugated toxin determination and field screening of commodities, especially cereal grains.. Analysis is essential for determining the occurrence and extent of mycotoxin contamination, for risk analysis, confirming the diagnosis of a mycotoxicosis and for monitoring mycotoxins in traded commodities and for evaluating mitigation strategies. Importantly, mycotoxins are naturally occurring compounds which will pose an ongoing threat to food and feed security and the risk of occurrence may be aggravated by climate change, In this special issue, papers describing the occurrence and mitigation of mycotoxins in human food and animal feed would be most welcome along with papers covering pertinent global mycotoxin topics.

Prof. Dr. Wayne L. Bryden
Guest Editor

Submission

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • mycotoxins
  • fungal ecology
  • mycotoxin occurrence
  • mycotoxin analysis
  • mycotoxin mitigation
  • risk assessment
  • economics and trade
  • climate change
  • food/feed security

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Aflatoxin, Fumonisin and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Calves and the Effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ Applications to Eliminate Morbidity and Mortality Losses
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1872-1895; doi:10.3390/toxins5101872
Received: 9 September 2013 / Revised: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin
[...] Read more.
Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin content of hemorrhaged mucosa in dairy calves during natural disease outbreaks, compared the virulence genes of the STECs, evaluated the effect of the mucosal mycotoxins on STEC toxin expression and evaluated a Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ application to alleviate disease. As for human infections, the OI-122 encoded nleB gene was common to STEC genotypes eliciting serious disease. Low levels of aflatoxin (1–3 ppb) and fumonisin (50–350 ppb) were detected in the hemorrhaged mucosa. Growth of the STECs with the mycotoxins altered the secreted protein concentration with a corresponding increase in cytotoxicity. Changes in intracellular calcium indicated that the mycotoxins increased enterotoxin and pore-forming toxin activity. A prebiotic/probiotic application eliminated the morbidity and mortality losses associated with the STEC infections. Our study demonstrates: the same STEC disease complex exists for immature and mature cattle; the significance of the OI-122 pathogenicity island to virulence; the significance of mycotoxins to STEC toxin activity; and, finally, provides further evidence that prebiotic/probiotic applications alleviate STEC shedding and mycotoxin/STEC interactions that lead to disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure
Toxins 2013, 5(7), 1261-1281; doi:10.3390/toxins5071261
Received: 10 May 2013 / Revised: 3 July 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg
[...] Read more.
Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages
Toxins 2013, 5(7), 1219-1229; doi:10.3390/toxins5071219
Received: 18 April 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (580 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
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Open AccessArticle An Ultrasensitive Electrochemiluminescent Immunoassay for Aflatoxin M1 in Milk, Based on Extraction by Magnetic Graphene and Detection by Antibody-Labeled CdTe Quantumn Dots-Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite
Toxins 2013, 5(5), 865-883; doi:10.3390/toxins5050865
Received: 20 February 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2013 / Accepted: 16 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (2031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) for aflatoxins M1 (ATM1) in milk using magnetic Fe3O4-graphene oxides (Fe-GO) as the absorbent and antibody-labeled cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) as the signal tag is presented. Firstly, Fe3O4 nanoparticles
[...] Read more.
An ultrasensitive electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) for aflatoxins M1 (ATM1) in milk using magnetic Fe3O4-graphene oxides (Fe-GO) as the absorbent and antibody-labeled cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) as the signal tag is presented. Firstly, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were immobilized on GO to fabricate the magnetic nanocomposites, which were used as absorbent to ATM1. Secondly, aflatoxin M1 antibody (primary antibody, ATM1 Ab1), was attached to the surface of the CdTe QDs-carbon nanotubes nanocomposite to form the signal tag (ATM1 Ab1/CdTe-CNT). The above materials were characterized. The optimal experimental conditions were obtained. Thirdly, Fe-GO was employed for extraction of ATM1 in milk. Results indicated that it can adsorb ATM1 efficiently and selectively within a large extent of pH from 3.0 to 8.0. Adsorption processes reached 95% of the equilibrium within 10 min. Lastly, the ATM1 with a serial of concentrations absorbed on Fe-GO was conjugated with ATM1 Ab1/CdTe-CNT signal tag based on sandwich immunoassay. The immunocomplex can emit a strong ECL signal whose intensity depended linearly on the logarithm of ATM1 concentration from 1.0 to 1.0 × 105 pg/mL, with the detection limit (LOD) of 0.3 pg/mL (S/N = 3). The method was more sensitive for ATM1 detection compared to the ELISA method. Finally, ten samples of milk were tested based on the immunoassay. The method is fast and requires very little sample preparation, which was suitable for high-throughput screening of mycotoxins in food. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella
Toxins 2013, 5(4), 841-864; doi:10.3390/toxins5040841
Received: 7 February 2013 / Revised: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 23 April 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8
[...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm) was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio), but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU), were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Detection of Type A Trichothecene Di-Glucosides Produced in Corn by High-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry
Toxins 2013, 5(3), 590-604; doi:10.3390/toxins5030590
Received: 26 February 2013 / Revised: 19 March 2013 / Accepted: 19 March 2013 / Published: 22 March 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The existence of di-glucosylated derivative of T-2 toxin in plant (corn powder) was confirmed for the first time in addition to that of HT-2 toxin. These masked mycotoxins (mycotoxin glucosides) were identified as T-2 toxin-di-glucoside (T2GlcGlc) and HT-2 toxin-di-glucoside (HT2GlcGlc) based on accurate
[...] Read more.
The existence of di-glucosylated derivative of T-2 toxin in plant (corn powder) was confirmed for the first time in addition to that of HT-2 toxin. These masked mycotoxins (mycotoxin glucosides) were identified as T-2 toxin-di-glucoside (T2GlcGlc) and HT-2 toxin-di-glucoside (HT2GlcGlc) based on accurate mass measurements of characteristic ions and fragmentation patterns using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass spectrometric (LC-Orbitrap MS) analysis. Although the absolute structure of T2GlcGlc was not clarified, two glucose molecules were suggested to be conjugated at 3-OH position in tandem when considering the structure of T-2 toxin. On the other hand, the specification of the structure seems to be more complicated in the case of HT2GlcGlc, since HT-2 toxin has two possible positions (at 3-OH and 4-OH) to be glusocylated. In addition, 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol-glucoside (MASGlc) was also detected in the identical sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Multi-Mycotoxin Screening Reveals the Occurrence of 139 Different Secondary Metabolites in Feed and Feed Ingredients
Toxins 2013, 5(3), 504-523; doi:10.3390/toxins5030504
Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 7 February 2013 / Accepted: 22 February 2013 / Published: 8 March 2013
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/mass spectrometry (MS) methods for the simultaneous detection and quantification of a broad spectrum of mycotoxins has facilitated the screening of a larger number of samples for contamination with a wide array of less well-known “emerging” mycotoxins
[...] Read more.
The development of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/mass spectrometry (MS) methods for the simultaneous detection and quantification of a broad spectrum of mycotoxins has facilitated the screening of a larger number of samples for contamination with a wide array of less well-known “emerging” mycotoxins and other metabolites. In this study, 83 samples of feed and feed raw materials were analysed. All of them were found to contain seven to 69 metabolites. The total number of detected metabolites amounts to 139. Fusarium mycotoxins were most common, but a number of Alternaria toxins also occurred very often. Furthermore, two so-called masked mycotoxins (i.e., mycotoxin conjugates), namely deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (75% positives) and zearalenone-4-sulfate (49% positives), were frequently detected. Although the observed median concentrations of the individual analytes were generally in the low μg/kg range, evaluating the toxicological potential of a given sample is difficult. Toxicity data on less well-known mycotoxins and other detected metabolites are notoriously scarce, as an overview on the available information on the most commonly detected metabolites shows. Besides, the possible synergistic effects of co-occurring substances have to be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation
Toxins 2013, 5(1), 173-183; doi:10.3390/toxins5010173
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 31 December 2012 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common mycotoxin contaminant of grains used in animal feeds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the major metabolite of AFB1 in mammals, being partially excreted into milk, and is a possible human carcinogen. The maximum
[...] Read more.
The potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common mycotoxin contaminant of grains used in animal feeds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the major metabolite of AFB1 in mammals, being partially excreted into milk, and is a possible human carcinogen. The maximum permitted concentration of AFM1 in cows’ milk is 0.05 μg/kg in Israel and the European Union. Since milk yield and the carry-over of AFB1 in the feed to AFM1 in the milk are highly correlated, it was considered important to determine the AFM1 carry-over in Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, distinguished by world record high milk production. Twelve such cows were used to determine AFM1 carry-over following daily oral administration of feed containing ~86 μg AFB1 for 7 days. The mean carry-over rate at steady-state (Days 3–7) was 5.8% and 2.5% in mid-lactation and late-lactation groups, respectively. The carry-over appears to increase exponentially with milk yield and could be described by the equation: carry-over% = 0.5154 e0.0521 × milk yield, with r2 = 0.6224. If these data truly reflect the carry-over in the national Israeli dairy herd, the maximum level of AFB1 in feed should not exceed 1.4 μg/kg, a value 3.6 times lower than the maximum residue level currently applied in Israel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessCommunication Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study
Toxins 2013, 5(1), 184-192; doi:10.3390/toxins5010184
Received: 18 October 2012 / Revised: 19 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (184 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the
[...] Read more.
The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the occurrence of both mycotoxins in fish feed so far. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of DON and ZEN in samples of commercial fish feed designed for nutrition of cyprinids collected from central Europe. A maximal DON concentration of 825 μg kg−1 feed was found in one feed whereas average values of 289 μg kg−1 feed were noted. ZEN was the more prevalent mycotoxin but the concentrations were lower showing an average level of 67.9 μg kg−1 feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Association with AflR in Endosomes Reveals New Functions for AflJ in Aflatoxin Biosynthesis
Toxins 2012, 4(12), 1582-1600; doi:10.3390/toxins4121582
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 5 December 2012 / Accepted: 12 December 2012 / Published: 19 December 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (919 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aflatoxins are the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens of fungal origin. Biosynthesis of aflatoxin involves the coordinated expression of more than 25 genes. The function of one gene in the aflatoxin gene cluster, aflJ, is not entirely understood but, because previous studies demonstrated
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxins are the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens of fungal origin. Biosynthesis of aflatoxin involves the coordinated expression of more than 25 genes. The function of one gene in the aflatoxin gene cluster, aflJ, is not entirely understood but, because previous studies demonstrated a physical interaction between the Zn2Cys6 transcription factor AflR and AflJ, AflJ was proposed to act as a transcriptional co-activator. Image analysis revealed that, in the absence of aflJ in A. parasiticus, endosomes cluster within cells and near septa. AflJ fused to yellow fluorescent protein complemented the mutation in A. parasiticus ΔaflJ and localized mainly in endosomes. We found that AflJ co-localizes with AflR both in endosomes and in nuclei. Chromatin immunoprecipitation did not detect AflJ binding at known AflR DNA recognition sites suggesting that AflJ either does not bind to these sites or binds to them transiently. Based on these data, we hypothesize that AflJ assists in AflR transport to or from the nucleus, thus controlling the availability of AflR for transcriptional activation of aflatoxin biosynthesis cluster genes. AflJ may also assist in directing endosomes to the cytoplasmic membrane for aflatoxin export. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle A Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Strain Inhibits Growth and Decreases Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis by Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus
Toxins 2012, 4(12), 1468-1481; doi:10.3390/toxins4121468
Received: 13 August 2012 / Revised: 8 November 2012 / Accepted: 30 November 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182),
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to select wine yeast strains as biocontrol agents against fungal contaminants responsible for the accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA) in grape and wine and to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification by a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (DISAABA1182), which had previously been reported to reduce OTA in a synthetic must. All of the yeast strains tested displayed an ability to inhibit the growth of Aspergillus carbonarius both in vivo and in vitro and addition of culture filtrates from the tested isolates led to complete inhibition of OTA production. S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was selected and further tested for its capacity to inhibit OTA production and pks (polyketide synthase) transcription in A. carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus in vitro. In order to dissect the mechanism of OTA detoxification, each of these two fungi was co-cultured with living yeast cells exposed to yeast crude or to autoclaved supernatant: S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 was found to inhibit mycelial growth and OTA production in both Aspergilli when co-cultured in the OTA-inducing YES medium. Moreover, a decrease in pks transcription was observed in the presence of living cells of S. cerevisiae DISAABA1182 or its supernatant, while no effects were observed on transcription of either of the constitutively expressed calmodulin and β-tubulin genes. This suggests that transcriptional regulation of OTA biosynthetic genes takes place during the interaction between DISAABA1182 and OTA-producing Aspergilli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Chemical and Histological Analysis
Toxins 2012, 4(12), 1440-1450; doi:10.3390/toxins4121440
Received: 11 September 2012 / Revised: 30 October 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 4 December 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010,
[...] Read more.
Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Relationship between Aflatoxin Contamination and Physiological Responses of Corn Plants under Drought and Heat Stress
Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1385-1403; doi:10.3390/toxins4111385
Received: 29 August 2012 / Revised: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 20 November 2012
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses
[...] Read more.
Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54) at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Mathematic Modeling for Optimum Conditions on Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by the Aerobic Bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis
Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1181-1195; doi:10.3390/toxins4111181
Received: 25 July 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (304 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the degradation conditions of AFB1 by Rhodococcus erythropolis in liquid culture. The most important factors that influence the degradation, as identified by a two-level Plackett-Burman design with six variables, were temperature, pH, liquid volume, inoculum
[...] Read more.
Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the degradation conditions of AFB1 by Rhodococcus erythropolis in liquid culture. The most important factors that influence the degradation, as identified by a two-level Plackett-Burman design with six variables, were temperature, pH, liquid volume, inoculum size, agitation speed and incubation time. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface analysis were used to further investigate the interactions between these variables and to optimize the degradation efficiency of R. erythropolis based on a second-order model. The results demonstrated that the optimal parameters were: temperature, 23.2 °C; pH, 7.17; liquid volume, 24.6 mL in 100-mL flask; inoculum size, 10%; agitation speed, 180 rpm; and incubation time, 81.9 h. Under these conditions, the degradation efficiency of R. erythropolis could reach 95.8% in liquid culture, which was increased by about three times as compared to non-optimized conditions. The result by mathematic modeling has great potential for aflatoxin removal in industrial fermentation such as in food processing and ethanol production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Toxigenic Potential of Aspergillus Species Occurring on Maize Kernels from Two Agro-Ecological Zones in Kenya
Toxins 2012, 4(11), 991-1007; doi:10.3390/toxins4110991
Received: 24 July 2012 / Revised: 17 October 2012 / Accepted: 17 October 2012 / Published: 25 October 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Two agro-ecological zones in Kenya were selected to compare the distribution in maize of Aspergillus spp. and their toxigenicity. These were Nandi County, which is the main maize growing region in the country but where no human aflatoxicoses have been reported, and Makueni
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Two agro-ecological zones in Kenya were selected to compare the distribution in maize of Aspergillus spp. and their toxigenicity. These were Nandi County, which is the main maize growing region in the country but where no human aflatoxicoses have been reported, and Makueni County where most of the aflatoxicosis cases have occurred. Two hundred and fifty-five households were sampled in Nandi and 258 in Makueni, and Aspergillus was isolated from maize. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus isolates were tested for the presence of aflD and aflQ genes. Positive strains were induced to produce aflatoxins on yeast extract sucrose and quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Aspergillus flavus was the most common contaminant, and the incidence of occurrence in Nandi and Makueni was not significantly different (82.33% and 73.26%, respectively). Toxigenic strains were more prevalent than non-toxigenic strains. All the toxigenic strains from Makueni were of the S-type while those from Nandi belonged to the l-type. Quantitative differences in aflatoxin production in vitro between isolates and between strains were detected with S strains producing relatively larger amounts of total aflatoxins, B toxins and lower values for G toxins. This was in accord with the frequent aflatoxicosis outbreaks in Makueni. However some L strains produced considerable amounts of B toxins. Given the widespread distribution of toxigenic strains in both regions, the risk of aflatoxin poisoning is high when favorable conditions for toxin production occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Estimation of Multi-Mycotoxin Contamination in South African Compound Feeds
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 836-848; doi:10.3390/toxins4100836
Received: 11 July 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 8 October 2012 / Published: 18 October 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (298 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A total of 92 commercial compound feeds from South Africa were investigated for various mycotoxins. The data reveal the highest incidence of feed contamination for fumonisins (FB) (range: 104–2999 µg/kg) followed by deoxynivalenol (DON) (range: 124–2352 µg/kg) and zearalenone (ZEA) (range: 30–610 µg/kg).
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A total of 92 commercial compound feeds from South Africa were investigated for various mycotoxins. The data reveal the highest incidence of feed contamination for fumonisins (FB) (range: 104–2999 µg/kg) followed by deoxynivalenol (DON) (range: 124–2352 µg/kg) and zearalenone (ZEA) (range: 30–610 µg/kg). The incidence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins (AF)-contaminated samples were generally low, i.e., 4% and 30% of samples with levels ranging between 6.4 and 17.1 µg/kg (mean: 9.9 µg/kg) for OTA and 0.2 to 71.8 µg/kg (mean: 9.0 µg/kg) for AF. No samples contained T-2 toxin or HT-2 toxin. However, all samples analyzed were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin with a majority containing several mycotoxins. In particular, 3 of 4 positive samples mainly cattle feeds that had relatively high contents of OTA (ranging from 7 to 17.1 µg/kg) also contained high amounts of AF (>27.5 µg/kg) together with FB, DON and ZEA. Apart from a few samples, the levels of mycotoxins may be regarded as safe for livestock production in South Africa. However, the persistent co-occurrence of mycotoxins in samples, especially those at high concentrations, i.e., AF and OTA, together with other mycotoxins studied, may elicit synergistic or additive effects in animals. This should raise concern as multiple contaminations may pose a risk to livestock production and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Occurrence and Distribution of 13 Trichothecene Toxins in Naturally Contaminated Maize Plants in Germany
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 778-787; doi:10.3390/toxins4100778
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 19 September 2012 / Accepted: 20 September 2012 / Published: 28 September 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present study was to monitor the occurrence and distribution of a spectrum of trichothecene toxins in different parts of maize plants. Therefore maize plants were sampled randomly from 13 fields in southwest Germany and the fractions kernels, cobs, husks,
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The objective of the present study was to monitor the occurrence and distribution of a spectrum of trichothecene toxins in different parts of maize plants. Therefore maize plants were sampled randomly from 13 fields in southwest Germany and the fractions kernels, cobs, husks, stalks, leaves and rudimentary ears were analyzed for eight A-type and five B-type trichothecenes. Each of the toxins was found in at least three of the total of 78 samples. The study revealed that both A-type and B-type trichothecenes may be present in all parts of the maize plant but may be unevenly distributed. For the contents of deoxynivalenol, 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol, scirpentriol, 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between different parts of the maize plants whereas no significant differences were observed for fusarenon-X, 4,15-diacetoxyscirpenol, neosolaniol, T-2 triol and T-2 tetraol. Up to twelve toxins co-occurring in one sample were detected. As a group B-type trichothecenes dominated over A-type trichothecenes concerning incidences and levels. Contamination was strongest with rudimentary ears based on incidence and mean and maximum contents; mean contents with few exceptions tended towards a higher level than in other fractions with significant (p < 0.05) differences compared to leaves for seven toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle Aspergillus Oxylipin Signaling and Quorum Sensing Pathways Depend on G Protein-Coupled Receptors
Toxins 2012, 4(9), 695-717; doi:10.3390/toxins4090695
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 31 August 2012 / Accepted: 31 August 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (4046 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oxylipins regulate Aspergillus development and mycotoxin production and are also involved in Aspergillus quorum sensing mechanisms. Despite extensive knowledge of how these oxylipins are synthesized and what processes they regulate, nothing is known about how these signals are detected and transmitted by the
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Oxylipins regulate Aspergillus development and mycotoxin production and are also involved in Aspergillus quorum sensing mechanisms. Despite extensive knowledge of how these oxylipins are synthesized and what processes they regulate, nothing is known about how these signals are detected and transmitted by the fungus. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) have been speculated to be involved as they are known oxylipin receptors in mammals, and many putative GPCRs have been identified in the Aspergilli. Here, we present evidence that oxylipins stimulate a burst in cAMP in A. nidulans, and that loss of an A. nidulans GPCR, gprD, prevents this cAMP accumulation. A. flavus undergoes an oxylipin-mediated developmental shift when grown at different densities, and this regulates spore, sclerotial and aflatoxin production. A. flavus encodes two putative GprD homologs, GprC and GprD, and we demonstrate here that they are required to transition to a high-density development state, as well as to respond to spent medium of a high-density culture. The finding of GPCRs that regulate production of survival structures (sclerotia), inoculum (spores) and aflatoxin holds promise for future development of anti-fungal therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessArticle A Three-Year Survey on the Worldwide Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feedstuffs and Feed
Toxins 2012, 4(9), 663-675; doi:10.3390/toxins4090663
Received: 31 July 2012 / Revised: 30 August 2012 / Accepted: 31 August 2012 / Published: 12 September 2012
Cited by 73 | PDF Full-text (170 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 7049 corn, soybean/soybean meal, wheat, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and finished feed samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Samples
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Between January 2009 and December 2011, a total of 7049 corn, soybean/soybean meal, wheat, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and finished feed samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxins (Afla), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FUM) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Samples were sourced in the Americas, Europe and Asia. Afla, ZEN, DON, FUM and OTA were present respectively in 33%, 45%, 59% 64% and 28% of analyzed samples between 2009 and 2011. From the 23,781 mycotoxin analyzes performed, 81% were positive for at least one mycotoxin. Results of this survey are provided by calendar year, in order to potentially show different trends on mycotoxin occurrence in distinct years: by commodity type and within the same commodity, and by region, to potentially reveal differences in mycotoxin contamination in commodities sourced in diverse regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)

Review

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Open AccessReview Modulation of Intestinal Functions Following Mycotoxin Ingestion: Meta-Analysis of Published Experiments in Animals
Toxins 2013, 5(2), 396-430; doi:10.3390/toxins5020396
Received: 19 November 2012 / Revised: 12 December 2012 / Accepted: 4 February 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
Cited by 55 | PDF Full-text (545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, and may result in severe economic losses. Deleterious effects of these feed contaminants in animals are well documented, ranging from growth impairment, decreased resistance to pathogens, hepato- and nephrotoxicity
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, and may result in severe economic losses. Deleterious effects of these feed contaminants in animals are well documented, ranging from growth impairment, decreased resistance to pathogens, hepato- and nephrotoxicity to death. By contrast, data with regard to their impact on intestinal functions are more limited. However, intestinal cells are the first cells to be exposed to mycotoxins, and often at higher concentrations than other tissues. In addition, mycotoxins specifically target high protein turnover- and activated-cells, which are predominant in gut epithelium. Therefore, intestinal investigations have gained significant interest over the last decade, and some publications have demonstrated that mycotoxins are able to compromise several key functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including decreased surface area available for nutrient absorption, modulation of nutrient transporters, or loss of barrier function. In addition some mycotoxins facilitate persistence of intestinal pathogens and potentiate intestinal inflammation. By contrast, the effect of these fungal metabolites on the intestinal microbiota is largely unknown. This review focuses on mycotoxins which are of concern in terms of occurrence and toxicity, namely: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins. Results from nearly 100 published experiments (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) were analyzed with a special attention to the doses used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessReview Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals
Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1157-1180; doi:10.3390/toxins4111157
Received: 28 September 2012 / Revised: 24 October 2012 / Accepted: 2 November 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (1393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol,
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Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessReview Current Understanding on Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Future Perspective in Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination
Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1024-1057; doi:10.3390/toxins4111024
Received: 17 August 2012 / Revised: 8 October 2012 / Accepted: 9 October 2012 / Published: 25 October 2012
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered
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Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered in 2005. The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of research progress and future possibilities that may be used for solving aflatoxin contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
Open AccessReview Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 788-809; doi:10.3390/toxins4100788
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 1 October 2012
Cited by 122 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed,
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)

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