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Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1157-1180; doi:10.3390/toxins4111157
Review

Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals

Received: 28 September 2012; in revised form: 24 October 2012 / Accepted: 2 November 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
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Abstract: Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by the plant pathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum. These and other closely related fungi cause a disease known as Fusarium head blight (FHB) in small grain cereals. Other mycotoxins produced by FHB-causing fungi include nivalenol, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone. Ingestion of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feed can lead to toxicosis in humans and animals, respectively. DON is the predominant and most economically important of these mycotoxins in the majority of small grain-producing regions of the world. This review examines the factors that influence DON accumulation in small grain cereals from an agricultural perspective. The occurrence and economic importance of FHB and DON in small grain cereals, epidemiological factors and cereal production practices that favor FHB development and DON accumulation in grain under field conditions, and regulatory/advisory standards for DON in food and feed are discussed. This information can be used to develop strategies that reduce DON accumulation in grain before harvest and to mitigate the human and animal health risks associated with DON contamination of food and feed.
Keywords: Fusarium head blight; deoxynivalenol; small grain cereals; environmental factors; growth stage; inoculum dosage; pathogen aggressiveness; chemotype; lodging; tillage system; cultivar resistance; fungicide application; regulatory/advisory standards Fusarium head blight; deoxynivalenol; small grain cereals; environmental factors; growth stage; inoculum dosage; pathogen aggressiveness; chemotype; lodging; tillage system; cultivar resistance; fungicide application; regulatory/advisory standards
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wegulo, S.N. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals. Toxins 2012, 4, 1157-1180.

AMA Style

Wegulo SN. Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals. Toxins. 2012; 4(11):1157-1180.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wegulo, Stephen N. 2012. "Factors Influencing Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Small Grain Cereals." Toxins 4, no. 11: 1157-1180.


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