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Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages
Research Laboratory for Food Safety Chemistry, Asahi Group Holdings, Ltd., 1-21, Midori 1-chome, Moriya-shi, Ibaraki 302-0106, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 April 2013; in revised form: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Abstract: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration.
Keywords: B1; beer; wine; fermentation; high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Inoue, T.; Nagatomi, Y.; Uyama, A.; Mochizuki, N. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages. Toxins 2013, 5, 1219-1229.
Inoue T, Nagatomi Y, Uyama A, Mochizuki N. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages. Toxins. 2013; 5(7):1219-1229.
Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki. 2013. "Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages." Toxins 5, no. 7: 1219-1229.