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Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella
ANSES, Ploufragan-Plouzané Laboratory, BP 53, 22440 Ploufragan, France
Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse, Unité de mycotoxicologie, 23 chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse, France
INRA, UMR 1331 ToxAlim, Research Centre in Food Toxicology, 180, chemin de Tournefeuille, BP 93173, 31027 Toulouse Cedex 3, France
Current address: Unité NuMéA, INRA, Pole d’Hydrobiologie, Quartier Ibarron, 64310, Saint Pée-sur-Nivelle, France
Current address: CRSV-CRSNG, GRESA, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2013; in revised form: 12 April 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 23 April 2013
Abstract: The objective of this study was to measure the effects of chronic exposure to fumonisins via the ingestion of feed containing naturally contaminated corn in growing pigs infected or not with Salmonella spp. This exposure to a moderate dietary concentration of fumonisins (11.8 ppm) was sufficient to induce a biological effect in pigs (Sa/So ratio), but no mortality or pathology was observed over 63 days of exposure. No mortality or related clinical signs, even in cases of inoculation with Salmonella (5 × 104 CFU), were observed either. Fumonisins, at these concentrations, did not affect the ability of lymphocytes to proliferate in the presence of mitogens, but after seven days post-inoculation they led to inhibition of the ability of specific Salmonella lymphocytes to proliferate following exposure to a specific Salmonella antigen. However, the ingestion of fumonisins had no impact on Salmonella translocation or seroconversion in inoculated pigs. The inoculation of Salmonella did not affect faecal microbiota profiles, but exposure to moderate concentrations of fumonisins transiently affected the digestive microbiota balance. In cases of co-infection with fumonisins and Salmonella, the microbiota profiles were rapidly and clearly modified as early as 48 h post-Salmonella inoculation. Therefore under these experimental conditions, exposure to an average concentration of fumonisins in naturally contaminated feed had no effect on pig health but did affect the digestive microbiota balance, with Salmonella exposure amplifying this phenomenon.
Keywords: pig; mycotoxins; fumonisins; growth; immune status; intestinal microbiota; health; Salmonella; co-contamination
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Burel, C.; Tanguy, M.; Guerre, P.; Boilletot, E.; Cariolet, R.; Queguiner, M.; Postollec, G.; Pinton, P.; Salvat, G.; Oswald, I.P.; Fravalo, P. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella. Toxins 2013, 5, 841-864.
Burel C, Tanguy M, Guerre P, Boilletot E, Cariolet R, Queguiner M, Postollec G, Pinton P, Salvat G, Oswald IP, Fravalo P. Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella. Toxins. 2013; 5(4):841-864.
Burel, Christine; Tanguy, Mael; Guerre, Philippe; Boilletot, Eric; Cariolet, Roland; Queguiner, Marilyne; Postollec, Gilbert; Pinton, Philippe; Salvat, Gilles; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Fravalo, Philippe. 2013. "Effect of Low Dose of Fumonisins on Pig Health: Immune Status, Intestinal Microbiota and Sensitivity to Salmonella." Toxins 5, no. 4: 841-864.