Next Article in Journal
Differences in the Regulation of Ochratoxin A by the HOG Pathway in Penicillium and Aspergillus in Response to High Osmolar Environments
Next Article in Special Issue
Aflatoxin, Fumonisin and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Calves and the Effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ Applications to Eliminate Morbidity and Mortality Losses
Previous Article in Journal
Mini-Review: Novel Therapeutic Strategies to Blunt Actions of Pneumolysin in the Lungs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages
Toxins 2013, 5(7), 1261-1281; doi:10.3390/toxins5071261
Article

The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure

1
, 1
, 1,2
, 3
, 2
, 4
 and 1,*
Received: 10 May 2013; in revised form: 3 July 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [225 KB, updated 18 July 2013; original version uploaded 17 July 2013]
Abstract: Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth.
Keywords: aflatoxin; clays; deoxynivalenol; pigs; yeast aflatoxin; clays; deoxynivalenol; pigs; yeast
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Weaver, A.C.; See, M.T.; Hansen, J.A.; Kim, Y.B.; De Souza, A.L.P.; Middleton, T.F.; Kim, S.W. The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure. Toxins 2013, 5, 1261-1281.

AMA Style

Weaver AC, See MT, Hansen JA, Kim YB, De Souza ALP, Middleton TF, Kim SW. The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure. Toxins. 2013; 5(7):1261-1281.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. T.; Hansen, Jeff A.; Kim, Yong B.; De Souza, Anna L.P.; Middleton, Teena F.; Kim, Sung W. 2013. "The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure." Toxins 5, no. 7: 1261-1281.


Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert