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Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Chemical and Histological Analysis
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, Bari 70010, Italy
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Mathematics, Physics and Naturals, University of Bari, Via Orabona, Bari 70125, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 September 2012; in revised form: 30 October 2012 / Accepted: 23 November 2012 / Published: 4 December 2012
Abstract: Ochratoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that may contaminate a broad variety of foodstuffs, such as grains, vegetables, coffee, dried fruits, beer, wine and meats. Ochratoxins are nephrotoxins, carcinogens, teratogens and immunotoxins in rats and are also likely to be in humans. In 2009/2010, a survey of the presence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in regularly hunted wild boars in the Calabria region of southern Italy detected OTA in 23 animals in the kidney, urinary bladder, liver and muscles: 1.1 ± 1.15, 0.6 ± 0.58, 0.5 ± 0.54 and 0.3 ± 0.26 μg/kg, respectively. Twelve tissue samples showed levels of OTA higher than the guideline level (1 μg/kg) established by the Italian Ministry of Health. In five wild boars, gross-microscopic lesions were described for the organs displaying the highest concentrations of OTA determined by HPLC-FLD analysis, i.e., the kidney, liver and urinary bladder.
Keywords: ochratoxin A; Sus scrofa; wild boar
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Bozzo, G.; Ceci, E.; Bonerba, E.; Di Pinto, A.; Tantillo, G.; De Giglio, E. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Chemical and Histological Analysis. Toxins 2012, 4, 1440-1450.
Bozzo G, Ceci E, Bonerba E, Di Pinto A, Tantillo G, De Giglio E. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Chemical and Histological Analysis. Toxins. 2012; 4(12):1440-1450.
Bozzo, Giancarlo; Ceci, Edmondo; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Di Pinto, Angela; Tantillo, Giuseppina; De Giglio, Elvira. 2012. "Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): Chemical and Histological Analysis." Toxins 4, no. 12: 1440-1450.