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Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1872-1895; doi:10.3390/toxins5101872
Article

Aflatoxin, Fumonisin and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Calves and the Effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ Applications to Eliminate Morbidity and Mortality Losses

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Received: 9 September 2013; in revised form: 8 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
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Abstract: Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin content of hemorrhaged mucosa in dairy calves during natural disease outbreaks, compared the virulence genes of the STECs, evaluated the effect of the mucosal mycotoxins on STEC toxin expression and evaluated a Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ application to alleviate disease. As for human infections, the OI-122 encoded nleB gene was common to STEC genotypes eliciting serious disease. Low levels of aflatoxin (1–3 ppb) and fumonisin (50–350 ppb) were detected in the hemorrhaged mucosa. Growth of the STECs with the mycotoxins altered the secreted protein concentration with a corresponding increase in cytotoxicity. Changes in intracellular calcium indicated that the mycotoxins increased enterotoxin and pore-forming toxin activity. A prebiotic/probiotic application eliminated the morbidity and mortality losses associated with the STEC infections. Our study demonstrates: the same STEC disease complex exists for immature and mature cattle; the significance of the OI-122 pathogenicity island to virulence; the significance of mycotoxins to STEC toxin activity; and, finally, provides further evidence that prebiotic/probiotic applications alleviate STEC shedding and mycotoxin/STEC interactions that lead to disease.
Keywords: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; mycotoxin; prebiotic; probiotic; virulence Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli; mycotoxin; prebiotic; probiotic; virulence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Baines, D.; Sumarah, M.; Kuldau, G.; Juba, J.; Mazza, A.; Masson, L. Aflatoxin, Fumonisin and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Calves and the Effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ Applications to Eliminate Morbidity and Mortality Losses. Toxins 2013, 5, 1872-1895.

AMA Style

Baines D, Sumarah M, Kuldau G, Juba J, Mazza A, Masson L. Aflatoxin, Fumonisin and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Calves and the Effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ Applications to Eliminate Morbidity and Mortality Losses. Toxins. 2013; 5(10):1872-1895.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Baines, Danica; Sumarah, Mark; Kuldau, Gretchen; Juba, Jean; Mazza, Alberto; Masson, Luke. 2013. "Aflatoxin, Fumonisin and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infections in Calves and the Effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman’s Choice™ Applications to Eliminate Morbidity and Mortality Losses." Toxins 5, no. 10: 1872-1895.



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