Next Article in Journal
Effectiveness of the High Dose/Refuge Strategy for Managing Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Plants Expressing One or Two Toxins
Next Article in Special Issue
Estimation of Multi-Mycotoxin Contamination in South African Compound Feeds
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Occurrence and Distribution of 13 Trichothecene Toxins in Naturally Contaminated Maize Plants in Germany
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 788-809; doi:10.3390/toxins4100788

Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe

1
BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
2
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, St Voutyra 11, 54627 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
National Institute for Research and Development in Animal Biology and Nutrition (IBNA), Calea Bucuresti, 077015 Balotesti, Romania
4
“Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati, Domneasca 47, 800008 Galati, Romania
5
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), UMR1331, Toxalim, Research Centre in Food Toxicology, 180 chemin de tournefeuille, F- 31027 Toulouse cedex 3, France
6
Université de Toulouse, INP, UMR1331, Toxalim, F- 31000 Toulouse, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 13 September 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 1 October 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [218 KB, uploaded 1 October 2012]

Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.
Keywords: mycotoxins; feed; co-occurrence; Europe; aflatoxin; deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; fumonisins; ochratoxin A; T-2 mycotoxins; feed; co-occurrence; Europe; aflatoxin; deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; fumonisins; ochratoxin A; T-2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Streit, E.; Schatzmayr, G.; Tassis, P.; Tzika, E.; Marin, D.; Taranu, I.; Tabuc, C.; Nicolau, A.; Aprodu, I.; Puel, O.; Oswald, I.P. Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe. Toxins 2012, 4, 788-809.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top