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Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation
National Residue Control Laboratory, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Israeli Dairy Board, Yehud 56470, Israel
Department of Ruminant Science, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Ambar Feed Production Company, Gan Shmuel 38810, Israel
Department of Toxicology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
Department of Chemistry, Plant Protection and Inspection Services, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2012; in revised form: 31 December 2012 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
Abstract: The potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common mycotoxin contaminant of grains used in animal feeds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the major metabolite of AFB1 in mammals, being partially excreted into milk, and is a possible human carcinogen. The maximum permitted concentration of AFM1 in cows’ milk is 0.05 μg/kg in Israel and the European Union. Since milk yield and the carry-over of AFB1 in the feed to AFM1 in the milk are highly correlated, it was considered important to determine the AFM1 carry-over in Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, distinguished by world record high milk production. Twelve such cows were used to determine AFM1 carry-over following daily oral administration of feed containing ~86 μg AFB1 for 7 days. The mean carry-over rate at steady-state (Days 3–7) was 5.8% and 2.5% in mid-lactation and late-lactation groups, respectively. The carry-over appears to increase exponentially with milk yield and could be described by the equation: carry-over% = 0.5154 e0.0521 × milk yield, with r2 = 0.6224. If these data truly reflect the carry-over in the national Israeli dairy herd, the maximum level of AFB1 in feed should not exceed 1.4 μg/kg, a value 3.6 times lower than the maximum residue level currently applied in Israel.
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; aflatoxin M1; carry-over; Israeli-Holstein cows
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MDPI and ACS Style
Britzi, M.; Friedman, S.; Miron, J.; Solomon, R.; Cuneah, O.; Shimshoni, J.A.; Soback, S.; Ashkenazi, R.; Armer, S.; Shlosberg, A. Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation. Toxins 2013, 5, 173-183.
Britzi M, Friedman S, Miron J, Solomon R, Cuneah O, Shimshoni JA, Soback S, Ashkenazi R, Armer S, Shlosberg A. Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation. Toxins. 2013; 5(1):173-183.
Britzi, Malka; Friedman, Shmulik; Miron, Joshua; Solomon, Ran; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Soback, Stefan; Ashkenazi, Rina; Armer, Sima; Shlosberg, Alan. 2013. "Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation." Toxins 5, no. 1: 173-183.