Toxins 2013, 5(1), 173-183; doi:10.3390/toxins5010173
Article

Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation

1 National Residue Control Laboratory, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel 2 Israeli Dairy Board, Yehud 56470, Israel 3 Department of Ruminant Science, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel 4 Ambar Feed Production Company, Gan Shmuel 38810, Israel 5 Department of Toxicology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel 6 Department of Chemistry, Plant Protection and Inspection Services, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2012; in revised form: 31 December 2012 / Accepted: 7 January 2013 / Published: 16 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food and Feed)
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [246 KB, uploaded 16 January 2013 09:38 CET]
Abstract: The potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common mycotoxin contaminant of grains used in animal feeds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the major metabolite of AFB1 in mammals, being partially excreted into milk, and is a possible human carcinogen. The maximum permitted concentration of AFM1 in cows’ milk is 0.05 μg/kg in Israel and the European Union. Since milk yield and the carry-over of AFB1 in the feed to AFM1 in the milk are highly correlated, it was considered important to determine the AFM1 carry-over in Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, distinguished by world record high milk production. Twelve such cows were used to determine AFM1 carry-over following daily oral administration of feed containing ~86 μg AFB1 for 7 days. The mean carry-over rate at steady-state (Days 3–7) was 5.8% and 2.5% in mid-lactation and late-lactation groups, respectively. The carry-over appears to increase exponentially with milk yield and could be described by the equation: carry-over% = 0.5154 e0.0521 × milk yield, with r2 = 0.6224. If these data truly reflect the carry-over in the national Israeli dairy herd, the maximum level of AFB1 in feed should not exceed 1.4 μg/kg, a value 3.6 times lower than the maximum residue level currently applied in Israel.
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; aflatoxin M1; carry-over; Israeli-Holstein cows

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Britzi, M.; Friedman, S.; Miron, J.; Solomon, R.; Cuneah, O.; Shimshoni, J.A.; Soback, S.; Ashkenazi, R.; Armer, S.; Shlosberg, A. Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation. Toxins 2013, 5, 173-183.

AMA Style

Britzi M, Friedman S, Miron J, Solomon R, Cuneah O, Shimshoni JA, Soback S, Ashkenazi R, Armer S, Shlosberg A. Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation. Toxins. 2013; 5(1):173-183.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Britzi, Malka; Friedman, Shmulik; Miron, Joshua; Solomon, Ran; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Soback, Stefan; Ashkenazi, Rina; Armer, Sima; Shlosberg, Alan. 2013. "Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation." Toxins 5, no. 1: 173-183.

Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert