Special Issue "Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition"

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A special issue of Agriculture (ISSN 2077-0472).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 September 2015)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Wayne L. Bryden (Website)

School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, University of Queensland, Gatton Qld 4343, Australia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The cost of supplying feed to farm animals is a major component of the financial inputs into animal agriculture. An important aspect of this is the safety of the feed supplied. Discussions of feed safety are often limited to micro-organisms, pesticides and other residues that contaminate crop plants during growth, harvest, processing or storage. Less attention is given to naturally occurring substances that can cause reduced animal productivity. These substances or chemicals produced by plants are used by the plant to protect it from herbivores, pests and disease. These chemical defenses which are necessary for the plants survival are considered by consumers, both human and animal to be toxins. The toxins and/or anti-nutritional factors found in plants include many classes of alkaloids, glycosides, toxic amino acids, enzyme inhibitors, lectins, allergens, glucosinolates, polyphenolics, polysaccharides, phytate, saponins, nitrates and nitrites, photosensitive agents, biogenic amines and mycotoxins.

This special issue would welcome contributions of both reviews and original research on natural toxic contaminants animal feed and forage of both intensively fed and grazing animals. Knowledge of the occurrence of toxins in the feed supply chain and their metabolic fate in livestock and poultry is critical in terms of both animal production and the safety of animal products in the human diet. An important aspect of nutritional toxicology is chemical analysis and papers that concentrate on this topic are encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Wayne L. Bryden
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Agriculture is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 300 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Keywords

  • Animal nutrition
  • Nutritional toxicology
  • Anti-nutritional factors and toxins
  • alkaloids, glycosides, toxic amino acids, enzyme inhibitors, lectins, allergens, glucosinolates, polyphenolics, polysaccharides, phytate, saponins, nitrates and nitrites, photosensitive agents, biogenic amines and mycotoxins.
  • Feed and toxin analysis
  • Food and feed security

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contamination of Maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam
Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 1195-1203; doi:10.3390/agriculture5041195
Received: 30 August 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
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Abstract
A survey of the contamination of maize with aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone was carried out in the Southeastern and Central Highland provinces in Vietnam. Four provinces were chosen for sampling maize: Dong Nai (22), Binh Phuoc (25), Dak Lak (30) and Dak [...] Read more.
A survey of the contamination of maize with aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone was carried out in the Southeastern and Central Highland provinces in Vietnam. Four provinces were chosen for sampling maize: Dong Nai (22), Binh Phuoc (25), Dak Lak (30) and Dak Nong (20). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1), G2 (AFG2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2) and zearalenone (ZEA) were analysed by HPLC in 97 maize kernel samples. Fumonisins were the most common toxins found in all samples (67%), followed by aflatoxins (55.7%) and zearalenone (27.8%). The incidence of aflatoxin positive samples (61.7%) in the Southeastern provinces was higher than in the Central Highlands (50%), while fumonisins and zearalenone incidences were higher in the Central Highlands. The mean level of fumonisin B1 in samples from the Central Highlands provinces (1757 µg/kg) was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than in the Southeastern provinces (740 µg/kg). Importantly, the percentage of positive samples (about 70%) that had over 20 µg/kg (ppb) aflatoxin was very high. Moreover, many samples (53%) contained more than one mycotoxin and this result highlights the difficulty of diagnosing mycotoxicoses in the field and the need for ongoing research to reduce the occurrence of mycotoxins in Vietnamese maize. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Supplementing Air-Dried Moringa stenopetala Leaf to Natural Grass Hay on Feed Intake and Growth Performances of Arsi-Bale Goats
Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 1183-1194; doi:10.3390/agriculture5041183
Received: 29 June 2015 / Revised: 13 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 30 November 2015
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Abstract
The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL) as [...] Read more.
The most constraining factor in goat production in the tropics is underfeeding mainly attributed to limitations of feed both in quantity and quality. This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing different levels of air-dried Moringa stenopetala leaf (MSL) as a protein source on nutrient intake and growth performances of Arsi-Bale male goats. A total of 24 yearling goats with average initial body weight of 13.6 ± 0.25 kg were used in the study. The goats were blocked by live weight into four groups (n = 6 per group) and the groups were then randomly allocated into four supplemented treatments. All goats received a basal diet of natural grass hay ad libitum and 340 g/head/day concentrate. The treatments were the control diet with no supplementation (Treatment 1, T1) and diets supplemented with MSL at a rate of 120 g/head/day (Treatment 2, T2), 170 g/head/day (Treatment 3, T3) and 220 g/head/day (Treatment 4, T4). The duration of the experiment was 75 days. The results indicated that the average daily feed intake was (p < 0.001) higher in goats supplemented with T3 and T4 diets. The total dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein intakes of goats fed with T3 and T4 supplementations were (p < 0.001) also higher than those reared in T1 and T2 diets. Goats reared in T3 and T4 diets had lower (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio than those fed with T1 and T2 diets. The final body weight in goats reared in T3 and T4 diets was 18.2 kg and 18.5 kg, respectively, being (p < 0.05) higher than those of T1 (15.8 kg) and T2 (16.3 kg). The average daily weight gain in goats fed with T3 and T4 diets was 111 and 114 g/goat/day, respectively, which was (p < 0.05) higher than those reared in the control (T1) (54.0 g/goat/day) and T2 (58.1 g/goat/day) diets. It can thus be concluded that goats reared at high level of MSL supplementation (T3 and T4) had better nutrient intake, feed conversion efficiency and growth performances, suggesting its potential as a good protein supplement to natural grass hay at the farmer’s management level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)

Review

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Open AccessReview Phosphorus Bioavailability: A Key Aspect for Conserving this Critical Animal Feed Resource with Reference to Broiler Nutrition
Agriculture 2016, 6(2), 25; doi:10.3390/agriculture6020025
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 20 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
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Abstract
Phosphorus (P) is an essential element, and the majority of animal feed phosphate is derived from phosphate rock that is a non-renewable resource. Current global P reserves may be depleted in 50–100 years. This poses the challenge of securing future P supply [...] Read more.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential element, and the majority of animal feed phosphate is derived from phosphate rock that is a non-renewable resource. Current global P reserves may be depleted in 50–100 years. This poses the challenge of securing future P supply for the global animal feed industries. Currently, nutritionists formulate diets with substantial safety margins to guarantee that animals do not become P deficient. Excessive dietary P concentrations increase, not only the cost of diets, but also P excretion and pollution of the environment. We contend that understanding P bioavailability is central to the sustainable use of this mineral in animal agriculture. Poultry accounts for approximately 50% of animal feed phosphate consumption worldwide and for this reason we use the meat chicken or broiler as a case study to explore the nuances of P bioavailability. We conclude that, to tackle the challenge of dietary P bioavailability, cooperative research on a global scale is needed to standardise measurement procedures in order to produce a robust and reliable database which can be used by nutritionists to formulate diets to meet the bird’s P requirements precisely. Achievement of this goal will assist endeavours to sustain the global supply of phosphorus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
Figures

Open AccessReview Selenium Biochemistry and Bioavailability: Implications for Animal Agriculture
Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 1277-1288; doi:10.3390/agriculture5041277
Received: 20 September 2015 / Revised: 26 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral required for growth, development, immune function, and metabolism. Selenium exerts its biological effects as an integral component of selenoproteins (SePs). Deficiency or low Se status leads to marked changes in many biochemical pathways and a [...] Read more.
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral required for growth, development, immune function, and metabolism. Selenium exerts its biological effects as an integral component of selenoproteins (SePs). Deficiency or low Se status leads to marked changes in many biochemical pathways and a range of pathologies and disorders which are associated with SeP function. Animals, and presumably humans, are able to efficiently utilize nutritionally adequate levels of Se in both organic and inorganic forms. It is now clear that the bioavailability of Se varies depending on the source and chemical form of the Se supplement. There are a range of products available for dietary Se supplementation, however, organic sources have been shown to be assimilated more efficiently than inorganic compounds and are considered to be less toxic and more appropriate as a feed supplement. Yeast enriched with Selenohomoalanthionine (SeHLan) has recently become commercially available, and initial research suggests that it may be an efficacious source for the production of Se enriched animal products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Challenges for Plant Breeders from the View of Animal Nutrition
Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 1252-1276; doi:10.3390/agriculture5041252
Received: 14 May 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 12 December 2015
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Abstract
The question of how to feed the growing world population is very old, but because of the increase of population and possible climate change, currently it has an explosive impact. Plant breeding can be considered as the starting point for the whole [...] Read more.
The question of how to feed the growing world population is very old, but because of the increase of population and possible climate change, currently it has an explosive impact. Plant breeding can be considered as the starting point for the whole human food chain. Therefore, high, stable and highly digestible yields of phytogenic biomass with low external inputs of non-renewable resources, such as water, fuel, arable land, fertilizers, etc.; low emissions of gases with greenhouse potential during cultivation; and high resistance against biotic and abiotic stressors, including adaptation to potential climate change, and a low concentration of undesirable substances in the plants are real challenges for plant breeders in the future. Virtually unlimited resources such as sunlight, nitrogen and carbon dioxide from the air as well as the genetic pool of microbes, plants and animals can be used to breed/develop optimal plants/crops. Biofortification of plants may also be an objective of plants breeders, but it is more important for human nutrition to avoid micronutrient deficiencies. A lower concentration of undesirable substances in the plants can be considered as more important than higher concentrations of micronutrients in plants/feeds. Animal nutritionists have various possibilities for feed additive supplementation to meet animal nutrient requirements. Examples to reduce undesirable substances in feed plants are discussed and shown in the paper. In summary, plant breeding has a large and strategic potential for global feed and food security. All breeding technologies may contribute to solving important global challenges, such as sustainable use of limited global resources, improved use of unlimited resources, adaption to climate change and lowering global greenhouse gas emission. More publically supported research seems to be necessary in this field. All methods of plant breeding that contribute to a more resource-efficient production of high and stable yields of available biomass should be used/combined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Grain Sorghum: A Conundrum for Chicken-Meat Production
Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 1224-1251; doi:10.3390/agriculture5041224
Received: 30 August 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The inclusion of grain sorghum in diets for broiler chickens is quite common; however, under Australian conditions, the utilisation of starch/energy by birds offered sorghum-based diets appears inadequate. Various factors inherent in sorghum, including kafirin, phenolic compounds and phytate, may limit energy [...] Read more.
The inclusion of grain sorghum in diets for broiler chickens is quite common; however, under Australian conditions, the utilisation of starch/energy by birds offered sorghum-based diets appears inadequate. Various factors inherent in sorghum, including kafirin, phenolic compounds and phytate, may limit energy utilisation. The recent quantification of kafirin, the dominant protein fraction in sorghum, has allowed its nutritional significance to be assessed. This is important as indirect evidence suggests that kafirin concentrations in local sorghums are increasing as an unintended consequence of breeding programs. Presently, Australian sorghums do not contain condensed tannin but, from analyses and assessments of other polyphenolic compounds and phenolic acids, “non-tannin” phenols appear to be negative influences. Anecdotally, white sorghums are considered to be superior to red varieties thus the fact that polyphenolic pigments are responsible for the “redness” of sorghum assumes relevance. Inclusions of sulphite reducing agents in broiler diets have generated promising responses but seem dependent on sorghum properties. Preliminary studies have shown the possibilities of using rapid visco-analyser (RVA) starch pasting profiles, promatest protein solubilities and grain textures to indicate sorghum quality and further studies are required to confirm these hypotheses. These assessments may indicate which sorghums will best respond to reducing agents such as sodium metabisulphite. Finally, the usually modest responses of broilers to exogenous feed enzyme inclusions in sorghum-based are considered in this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Aflatoxin Contamination of the Milk Supply: A Pakistan Perspective
Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 1172-1182; doi:10.3390/agriculture5041172
Received: 1 September 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
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Abstract
Improving both quality and quantity of food available is a pressing need especially when one eighth of the world’s population consumes less energy than is required for maintenance and is exposed to contaminated food, both of which lead to greater susceptibility to [...] Read more.
Improving both quality and quantity of food available is a pressing need especially when one eighth of the world’s population consumes less energy than is required for maintenance and is exposed to contaminated food, both of which lead to greater susceptibility to diseases. The Pakistani population depends heavily on milk for nutritional needs and 10% of household income is spent on milk. This commodity requires continuous monitoring and care from its site of production by smallholder dairy producers through to urban consumers along tradition milk marketing chains. Feed ingredients used as concentrate feed to enhance milk production are often contaminated with mycotoxins, which, after ingestion, are transferred into milk. Aflatoxins can contribute to the causation of liver cancers, immune system disorders, and growth-related issues in children. Moreover, deaths in both humans and animals have also been reported after ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated food. Studies have shown contamination of food and feed ingredients with mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins. This review places the dairy industry into context, summarizes how milk and milk products are contaminated with aflatoxins, and discusses the present legislative regulation of milk quality implemented in Pakistan. There is a need to eliminate fungus-susceptible animal feed ingredients, which are the source of mycotoxins so prevalent in the milk marketed to the consumer in Pakistan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Signal Grass (Brachiaria decumbens) Toxicity in Grazing Ruminants
Agriculture 2015, 5(4), 971-990; doi:10.3390/agriculture5040971
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 14 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
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Abstract
Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread through South America, Australia, Indonesia, Vanuatu and Malaysia due to its adaptation to a wide range of soil types and environments. Animal production from these B. decumbens [...] Read more.
Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) is a highly productive tropical grass that is widespread through South America, Australia, Indonesia, Vanuatu and Malaysia due to its adaptation to a wide range of soil types and environments. Animal production from these B. decumbens pastures is highly variable due to sporadic outbreaks of photosensitisation associated with low growth rates of young animals, anorexia and wasting. The identification of B. decumbens toxicity through clinical signs may grossly underestimate the impact and severity of the disease. Affected animals without clinical signs have elevated serum liver enzyme concentrations resulting from blockage of the bile ducts by birefringent crystals, identified as calcium salts of steroidal saponins found in leaves and stems. The concentrations of the steroidal saponins vary through the year and within the plant. Young, green leaves contain 5–10 times the saponin concentration of mature leaves indicating that B. decumbens pastures are likely to be more toxic during sprouting and early growth. Previous exposure, selective grazing, and avoiding toxic leaves may partly explain apparent resistance of some animals to B. decumbens toxicity. Further research is needed to define growing conditions that produce elevated saponin levels and to investigate the impact of B. decumbens on rumen function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessReview The Role iNDF in the Regulation of Feed Intake and the Importance of Its Assessment in Subtropical Ruminant Systems (the Role of iNDF in the Regulation of Forage Intake)
Agriculture 2015, 5(3), 778-790; doi:10.3390/agriculture5030778
Received: 23 July 2015 / Revised: 17 August 2015 / Accepted: 24 August 2015 / Published: 10 September 2015
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Abstract
The intake and digestibility of forages is largely influenced by the fibre content and specifically the neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Currently, the focus in commercial diet formulation and the modelling of animal performance is on the total NDF so as to achieve [...] Read more.
The intake and digestibility of forages is largely influenced by the fibre content and specifically the neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Currently, the focus in commercial diet formulation and the modelling of animal performance is on the total NDF so as to achieve higher ruminant feed intakes, higher production performance and rumen health. Rations are often formulated for a specific level of NDF in the diet assuming that the digestibility of NDF operates over a narrow range. Forage NDF, particularly in C4 forages, varies greatly in potential digestibility within the rumen. This potential digestibility is defined as the NDF fraction which disappears after a long incubation period and the remaining indigestible component of NDF (iNDF) is unavailable for microbial digestion. It is hypothesized that this dietary iNDF has an important role in contributing to rumen digesta load and voluntary intake. Formulating a diet to a specific level of NDF without reference to the iNDF could markedly affect the resulting intake, digestibility and metabolisable energy (ME) content of the diet. It is concluded that nutritional models need to be modified to accept directly determined iNDF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Aflatoxicosis: Lessons from Toxicity and Responses to Aflatoxin B1 in Poultry
Agriculture 2015, 5(3), 742-777; doi:10.3390/agriculture5030742
Received: 12 May 2015 / Revised: 31 August 2015 / Accepted: 1 September 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (596 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review is a comprehensive introduction to the effects of poultry exposure to the toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The relationship between AFB1 sensitivity and metabolism, major direct and indirect effects of AFB1, recent [...] Read more.
This review is a comprehensive introduction to the effects of poultry exposure to the toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). The relationship between AFB1 sensitivity and metabolism, major direct and indirect effects of AFB1, recent studies of gene expression and transcriptome responses to exposure, and mitigation strategies to reduce toxicity are discussed. Exposure to AFB1 primarily occurs by consumption of contaminated corn, grain or other feed components. Low levels of residual AFB1 in poultry feeds can cause reduction in growth, feed conversion, egg production, and compromised immune functions, resulting in significant economic costs to producers. Thus, AFB1 acts as a “force multiplier” synergizing the adverse effects of microbial pathogens and other agents, and factors detrimental to poultry health. Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are one of the most sensitive animals known to AFB1 due, in large part, to a combination of efficient hepatic bioactivation by cytochromes P450 1A5 and 3A37, and deficient hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification. Because of their sensitivity, turkeys are a good model to investigate chemopreventive treatments and feed additives for their ability to reduce AFB1 toxicity. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) of turkey poults (liver and spleen) has identified AFB1-induced gene expression changes in pathways of apoptosis, carcinogenesis, lipid regulation, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and antigen presentation. Current research focuses on further identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying AFB1 toxicity with the goal of reducing aflatoxicosis and improving poultry health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Adverse Effects of Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) on Cattle
Agriculture 2015, 5(3), 456-474; doi:10.3390/agriculture5030456
Received: 14 May 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 16 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are numerous species of larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in North America. Larkspurs are a major cause of cattle losses on western ranges in the USA, especially on foothill and mountain rangelands. The toxicity of larkspur species is due to various norditerpenoid [...] Read more.
There are numerous species of larkspur (Delphinium spp.) in North America. Larkspurs are a major cause of cattle losses on western ranges in the USA, especially on foothill and mountain rangelands. The toxicity of larkspur species is due to various norditerpenoid alkaloids. In this article, we review the current knowledge regarding larkspur ecology and distribution, analytical technologies to study and quantify the toxins in larkspur, the toxicology of the larkspur plants and their individual toxins, known genetic variations in larkspur susceptibility, and current management recommendations to mitigate losses from larkspur poisoning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)
Open AccessReview The Occurrence and Toxicity of Indospicine to Grazing Animals
Agriculture 2015, 5(3), 427-440; doi:10.3390/agriculture5030427
Received: 17 May 2015 / Revised: 3 July 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 13 July 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indospicine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid which occurs in Indigofera species with widespread prevalence in grazing pastures across tropical Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Americas. It accumulates in the tissues of grazing livestock after ingestion of Indigofera. It is a competitive [...] Read more.
Indospicine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid which occurs in Indigofera species with widespread prevalence in grazing pastures across tropical Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Americas. It accumulates in the tissues of grazing livestock after ingestion of Indigofera. It is a competitive inhibitor of arginase and causes both liver degeneration and abortion. Indospicine hepatoxicity occurs universally across animal species but the degree varies considerably between species, with dogs being particularly sensitive. The magnitude of canine sensitivity is such that ingestion of naturally indospicine-contaminated horse and camel meat has caused secondary poisoning of dogs, raising significant industry concern. Indospicine impacts on the health and production of grazing animals per se has been less widely documented. Livestock grazing Indigofera have a chronic and cumulative exposure to this toxin, with such exposure experimentally shown to induce both hepatotoxicity and embryo-lethal effects in cattle and sheep. In extensive pasture systems, where animals are not closely monitored, the resultant toxicosis may well occur after prolonged exposure but either be undetected, or even if detected not be attributable to a particular cause. Indospicine should be considered as a possible cause of animal poor performance, particularly reduced weight gain or reproductive losses, in pastures where Indigofera are prevalent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Toxicology and Animal Nutrition)

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