Special Issue "Toxicity and Therapeutic Interventions in the Immune System"
A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2013)
Dr. Azzam A. Maghazachi
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, POB 1103, N-0317 Oslo, Norway
Phone: +47 22851203
Fax: +47 22851279
Interests: drug toxicity; autoimmunity; innate immunity; lysophospholipids; chemokines
Inflammation and autoimmunity are the major causes of most diseases. They represent one side of the same coin, and are the consequences of deviation the immune system toward detrimental pathways. Diseases such as multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, to name few, are manifestations of immune cells attacking normal tissues. On the other side of the coin, low or deficiency of immune cells leads to diseases such as cancer, AIDS, and severe combined immunodeficiency, among many others. Transplantation procedures, particularly those among mismatched individuals require interference with immune cells responsible for tissue rejections and host versus graft diseases. Certain drugs have been developed, whereas others are under evaluation to interfere with immune reactions. This volume of Toxins will deal with all aspects of toxicity that result from over-activity of the immune system. In addition, we will consider papers that deal with therapy of diseases caused by the imbalance of innate and adaptive immune systems. Authors dealing with controlling the toxicity of the immune system as a consequence of therapy, or as a result of genetic or environmental factors are strongly encouraged to submit their papers to this special issue of Toxins.
Dr. Azzam A. Maghazachi
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs).
- toxicity of the immune system
- autoimmune diseases
Article: Immune Response to Chlamydophila abortus POMP91B Protein in the Context of Different Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMP); Role of Antigen in the Orientation of Immune Response
Toxins 2009, 1(2), 59-73; doi:10.3390/toxins1020059
Received: 7 September 2009; in revised form: 30 September 2009 / Accepted: 10 October 2009 / Published: 13 October 2009| Download PDF Full-text (351 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Review: Reciprocal Interactions between Lactoferrin and Bacterial Endotoxins and Their Role in the Regulation of the Immune Response
Toxins 2010, 2(1), 54-68; doi:10.3390/toxins2010054
Received: 1 December 2009; in revised form: 23 December 2009 / Accepted: 25 December 2009 / Published: 8 January 2010| Download PDF Full-text (640 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9) and Myeloperoxidase: Co-Regulators of Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species
Toxins 2010, 2(1), 95-115; doi:10.3390/toxins2010095
Received: 12 December 2009; Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 20 January 2010| Download PDF Full-text (616 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Review: The Protein Kinase C Agonist PEP005 (Ingenol 3-Angelate) in the Treatment of Human Cancer: A Balance between Efficacy and Toxicity
Toxins 2010, 2(1), 174-194; doi:10.3390/toxins2010174
Received: 30 November 2009; in revised form: 7 January 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 22 January 2010| Download PDF Full-text (457 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Toxins 2010, 2(4), 428-452; doi:10.3390/toxins2040428
Received: 8 March 2010; Accepted: 24 March 2010 / Published: 26 March 2010| Download PDF Full-text (430 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Toxins 2010, 2(4), 856-877; doi:10.3390/toxins2040856
Received: 14 April 2010; Accepted: 21 April 2010 / Published: 22 April 2010| Download PDF Full-text (267 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Review: Macrophage-Targeted Therapy: CD64-Based Immunotoxins for Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases
Toxins 2012, 4(9), 676-694; doi:10.3390/toxins4090676
Received: 16 August 2012; in revised form: 4 September 2012 / Accepted: 5 September 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012| Download PDF Full-text (506 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Toxins 2012, 4(9), 718-728; doi:10.3390/toxins4090718
Received: 2 July 2012; in revised form: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 13 August 2012 / Published: 18 September 2012| Download PDF Full-text (273 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Toxins 2012, 4(9), 748-767; doi:10.3390/toxins4090748
Received: 29 June 2012; in revised form: 29 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 September 2012 / Published: 19 September 2012| Download PDF Full-text (228 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Antibody to Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) Inhibits Human T-Cell Lymphoptropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I) Production by Transformed Rabbit T-Cell Lines
Toxins 2012, 4(10), 768-777; doi:10.3390/toxins4100768
Received: 11 June 2012; in revised form: 12 September 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 26 September 2012| Download PDF Full-text (248 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Comparative Antitumor Effect of Preventive versus Therapeutic Vaccines Employing B16 Melanoma Cells Genetically Modified to Express GM-CSF and B7.2 in a Murine Model
Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1058-1081; doi:10.3390/toxins4111058
Received: 11 July 2012; in revised form: 24 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 October 2012 / Published: 31 October 2012| Download PDF Full-text (1022 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Toxins 2012, 4(11), 1301-1308; doi:10.3390/toxins4111301
Received: 17 August 2012; in revised form: 26 September 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012| Download PDF Full-text (546 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) Expression Is Reduced during Acute Myocardial Infarction: Role on Chemokine Receptor Expression in Monocytes and Their in Vitro Chemotaxis towards Chemokines
Toxins 2012, 4(12), 1427-1439; doi:10.3390/toxins4121427
Received: 15 November 2012; in revised form: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 28 November 2012 / Published: 30 November 2012| Download PDF Full-text (825 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Review: The Possible Diagnostic and Prognostic Use of Systemic Chemokine Profiles in Clinical Medicine—The Experience in Acute Myeloid Leukemia from Disease Development and Diagnosis via Conventional Chemotherapy to Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation
Toxins 2013, 5(2), 336-362; doi:10.3390/toxins5020336
Received: 17 January 2013; in revised form: 5 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013| Download PDF Full-text (262 KB)
Toxins 2013, 5(2), 363-375; doi:10.3390/toxins5020363
Received: 24 December 2012; in revised form: 7 February 2013 / Accepted: 7 February 2013 / Published: 19 February 2013| Download PDF Full-text (797 KB)
Review: The Snake Venom Rhodocytin from Calloselasma rhodostoma— A Clinically Important Toxin and a Useful Experimental Tool for Studies of C-Type Lectin-like Receptor 2 (CLEC-2)
Toxins 2013, 5(4), 665-674; doi:10.3390/toxins5040665
Received: 11 March 2013; in revised form: 1 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013| Download PDF Full-text (192 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Article: Effects of Vitamin D3, Calcipotriol and FTY720 on the Expression of Surface Molecules and Cytolytic Activities of Human Natural Killer Cells and Dendritic Cells
Toxins 2013, 5(11), 1932-1947; doi:10.3390/toxins5111932
Received: 22 September 2013; in revised form: 18 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 28 October 2013| Download PDF Full-text (2250 KB) | Download XML Full-text
Toxins 2013, 5(11), 2227-2240; doi:10.3390/toxins5112227
Received: 5 September 2013; in revised form: 8 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 19 November 2013| Download PDF Full-text (279 KB) | Download XML Full-text
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Title: Potential Systemic Adverse Effects of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Renal Transplantation
Authors: Gianluigi Zaza 1, Simona Granata 1, Paola Tomei 1, Carlo Rugiu 1, Luigino Boschiero 2 and Antonio Lupo 1
Affiliations: 1 Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, University-Hospital of Verona, Italy; E-Mail: email@example.com (G.Z.)
2 First Surgical Clinic, Kidney Transplantation Center, University-Hospital of Verona, Italy
Abstract: A series of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are commonly utilized in renal transplantation as induction therapy and to treat steroid-resistant acute rejections. Additionally, in the last years, their use has been proposed for the treatment of chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR), the major cause of late renal allograft loss. The majority of these medications are targeted against specific CD proteins on the T or B cell surface (e.g., CD3, CD25, CD59). Moreover, some of them have different mechanisms of action. In particular, Eculizumab, interrupting the complement pathway, is a new promising treatment tool for acute graft complications and for post-transplant hemolytic-uremic syndrome. While it is unquestionable their utility in renal transplant medicine, mAbs are frequently associated with adverse effects (e.g., infections, malignancies, hematological complications). Their early recognition and a rapid mAbs tapering/discontinuation may have a practical and clinical impact avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical post-transplant complications.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: High-Sensitivity Multiplex Cytokine Analysis as a Tool to Monitor Human Immune Responses
Authors: Djeneba Dabitao, Joseph B Margolick and Jay H. Bream *
Affiliation: W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org (J.H.B.)
Abstract: Several highly sensitive multiplex assays have been recently developed to provide high throughput analysis of circulating cytokines in complex biological matrices. While these assays have been validated in healthy individuals, their performance characteristics (such as sensitivity, recovery and precision) in disease state have been poorly characterized. Here we review methodological aspects of multiplex assays and provide a framework for conducting validation studies of multiplex assays based on our recent report on profiling circulating cytokines in human serum samples from HIV-positive and -negative individuals (Dabitao D, Journal of Immunological Methods, 2011). We also provided roubleshooting and data analysis tips to accurately assess cytokine levels with the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and Becton Dickinson Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) assay platforms.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Staphylococcal Bicomponent Toxins as Targets for Antibody-Based Prophylaxis and Immunotherapeutics
Author: M. Javad Aman
Affiliation: Integrated BioTherapeutics, Inc. Gaithersburg, USA; E-Mail: Javad@integratedbiotherapeutics.com
Abstract: Staphylococccus aureus represents one of the most challenging human pathogens and at the same time a common colonizer of human skin and mucosal surfaces. S. aureus causes a wide range of diseases from skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) to debilitating and life threatening conditions such as osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and necrotizing pneumonia. The range of pathologies reflect the remarkable diversity of virulence factors produced by this pathogen including surface antigens involved in the establishment of infection and a large number of toxins that mediate a wide range of cellular responses. The staphylococcal toxins are generally believed to have the mission of disarming the innate immune system, the first line of defense against this pathogen. This review focuses on recent advances on the biological functions of S. aureus bicomponent pore-forming toxins (BCPFTs) that include Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), gamma hemolysin (Hlg), LukAB(HG), and LukED. These toxins are cytolytic to a wide range of immune cells as well as cells with a critical barrier function. The lytic activity of BCPFTs towards immune cells implies a critical role in immune evasion and a number of epidemiological studies and animal experiments relate these toxins to clinical disease in particular SSTI and necrotizing pneumonia. Antibody mediated neutralization of this lytic activity may provide a strategy for development of toxoid based vaccines or immunotherapeutics for prevention or mitigation of clinical diseases. However, certain BCPFTs have been proposed to act as danger signals that alert the immune system through an inflammatory response. The utility of a neutralizing vaccination strategy must be weighed against such immune activating potential.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Peptide Overlap between Tetanus Toxin and Human Proteins Associated with Epilepsy
Authors: Guglielmo Lucchese 1, Jean Pierre Spinosa 2 and Darja Kanduc 3,*
Affiliations: 1 Brain and Language Laboratory, Cluster of Excellence "Languages of Emotions", Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
2 Faculty of Biology & Medicine, Lausanne, Rue des Terreaux 2-1003, Lausanne, Switzerland
3 Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; E-Mail: email@example.com
Abstract: To further our understanding of the molecular links between Clostridium tetani infection and epilepsy occurrence, we explored the peptide commonality between tetanus toxin and human proteins associated with epilepsy. By sequence matching analysis, we show that Clostridium tetani neurotoxin shares 66 pentapeptides and 2 hexapeptides with 42 human proteins that, when altered, have been associated with epilepsy. Such a peptide sharing is higher than expected, i.e., it is non-stochastic. Moreover, shared peptide sequences are also present in tetanus toxin-derived epitopes. On the whole, the data indicate a potential for cross-reactivity between the neurotoxin and the epilepsy-associated antigens. This study may help evaluate the cumulative potential risk for epilepsy following immune response(s) induced by tetanus infection and/or anti-tetanus immunotherapies.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Immunomodulatory Effects of Type I Interferon in Antigen Presenting Cells
Authors: Sandra Gessani, Manuela Del Cornò and Filippo Belardelli
Affiliation: Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (S.G.)
Abstract: Type I interferons (IFN) are pleiotropic cytokines, originally described for their antiviral activity. These cytokines exhibit a long record of clinical use in patients with some types of cancer and viral diseases. It is now well established that IFN action mostly relies on its ability to modulate host innate and adaptive immune responses. Work in recent years has began to elucidate the mechanisms by which type I IFN modifies the immune response, and this is now recognized to be due to effects on multiple cell types, including monocytes, dendritic cells, T and B lymphocytes. However, type I IFN not only induces beneficial effects on the host but can also induce unnecessary or pathogenic immune responses, thus playing a role in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune disorders. This review focuses on evidence showing that antigen presenting cells (APC) represent a direct target of type I IFN and summarizes the effects of these cytokines on APC biology, including differentiation, activation and localization.
Last update: 7 October 2013