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Toxins 2013, 5(2), 336-362; doi:10.3390/toxins5020336

The Possible Diagnostic and Prognostic Use of Systemic Chemokine Profiles in Clinical Medicine—The Experience in Acute Myeloid Leukemia from Disease Development and Diagnosis via Conventional Chemotherapy to Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

1
Section for Hematology, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen N-5021, Norway
2
Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen N-5021, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 January 2013 / Revised: 5 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 18 February 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Toxicity and Therapeutic Interventions in the Immune System)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [262 KB, uploaded 18 February 2013]

Abstract

Chemokines are important regulators of many different biological processes, including (i) inflammation with activation and local recruitment of immunocompetent cells; (ii) angiogenesis as a part of inflammation or carcinogenesis; and (iii) as a bridge between the coagulation system and inflammation/immune activation. The systemic levels of various chemokines may therefore reflect local disease processes, and such variations may thereby be used in the routine clinical handling of patients. The experience from patients with myeloproliferative diseases, and especially patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), suggests that systemic plasma/serum cytokine profiles can be useful, both as a diagnostic tool and for prognostication of patients. However, cytokines/chemokines are released by a wide range of cells and are involved in a wide range of biological processes; the altered levels may therefore mainly reflect the strength and nature of the biological processes, and the optimal clinical use of chemokine/cytokine analyses may therefore require combination with organ-specific biomarkers. Chemokine levels are also altered by clinical procedures, therapeutic interventions and the general status of the patients. A careful standardization of sample collection is therefore important, and the interpretation of the observations will require that the overall clinical context is considered. Despite these limitations, we conclude that analysis of systemic chemokine/cytokine profiles can reflect important clinical characteristics and, therefore, is an important scientific tool that can be used as a part of future clinical studies to identify clinically relevant biomarkers.
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia; chemokines; systemic profiles acute myeloid leukemia; chemokines; systemic profiles
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Reikvam, H.; Fredly, H.; Kittang, A.O.; Bruserud, Ø. The Possible Diagnostic and Prognostic Use of Systemic Chemokine Profiles in Clinical Medicine—The Experience in Acute Myeloid Leukemia from Disease Development and Diagnosis via Conventional Chemotherapy to Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation. Toxins 2013, 5, 336-362.

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