Toxins 2012, 4(9), 748-767; doi:10.3390/toxins4090748
Review

The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector

Received: 29 June 2012; in revised form: 29 August 2012 / Accepted: 3 September 2012 / Published: 19 September 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity and Therapeutic Interventions in the Immune System)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.
Keywords: malaria; Plasmodium; Anopheles; drug and insecticide resistance; health, environmental, and ecological side effects; alternative tools; biological control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kamareddine, L. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector. Toxins 2012, 4, 748-767.

AMA Style

Kamareddine L. The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector. Toxins. 2012; 4(9):748-767.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kamareddine, Layla. 2012. "The Biological Control of the Malaria Vector." Toxins 4, no. 9: 748-767.

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