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Toxins 2013, 5(4), 665-674; doi:10.3390/toxins5040665
Review

The Snake Venom Rhodocytin from Calloselasma rhodostoma— A Clinically Important Toxin and a Useful Experimental Tool for Studies of C-Type Lectin-like Receptor 2 (CLEC-2)

Received: 11 March 2013; in revised form: 1 April 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
(This article belongs to the collection Toxicity and Therapeutic Interventions in the Immune System)
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Abstract: The snake venom, rhodocytin, from the Malayan viper, Calloselasma rhodostoma, and the endogenous podoplanin are identified as ligands for the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). The snakebites caused by Calloselasma rhodostoma cause a local reaction with swelling, bleeding and eventually necrosis, together with a systemic effect on blood coagulation with distant bleedings that can occur in many different organs. This clinical picture suggests that toxins in the venom have effects on endothelial cells and vessel permeability, extravasation and, possibly, activation of immunocompetent cells, as well as effects on platelets and the coagulation cascade. Based on the available biological studies, it seems likely that ligation of CLEC-2 contributes to local extravasation, inflammation and, possibly, local necrosis, due to microthrombi and ischemia, whereas other toxins may be more important for the distant hemorrhagic complications. However, the venom contains several toxins and both local, as well as distant, symptoms are probably complex reactions that cannot be explained by the effects of rhodocytin and CLEC-2 alone. The in vivo reactions to rhodocytin are thus examples of toxin-induced crosstalk between coagulation (platelets), endothelium and inflammation (immunocompetent cells). Very few studies have addressed this crosstalk as a part of the pathogenesis behind local and systemic reactions to Calloselasma rhodostoma bites. The author suggests that detailed biological studies based on an up-to-date methodology of local and systemic reactions to Calloselasma rhodostoma bites should be used as a hypothesis-generating basis for future functional studies of the CLEC-2 receptor. It will not be possible to study the effects of purified toxins in humans, but the development of animal models (e.g., cutaneous injections of rhodocytin to mimic snakebites) would supplement studies in humans.
Keywords: C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2); rhodocytin; Calloselasma Rhodostoma; platelets; monocytes; endothelium C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2); rhodocytin; Calloselasma Rhodostoma; platelets; monocytes; endothelium
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bruserud, Ø. The Snake Venom Rhodocytin from Calloselasma rhodostoma— A Clinically Important Toxin and a Useful Experimental Tool for Studies of C-Type Lectin-like Receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Toxins 2013, 5, 665-674.

AMA Style

Bruserud Ø. The Snake Venom Rhodocytin from Calloselasma rhodostoma— A Clinically Important Toxin and a Useful Experimental Tool for Studies of C-Type Lectin-like Receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Toxins. 2013; 5(4):665-674.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bruserud, Øyvind. 2013. "The Snake Venom Rhodocytin from Calloselasma rhodostoma— A Clinically Important Toxin and a Useful Experimental Tool for Studies of C-Type Lectin-like Receptor 2 (CLEC-2)." Toxins 5, no. 4: 665-674.


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