Topical Collection "Laser Micromachining and Microfabrication"

Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Maria Farsari

IESL-FORTH, 100 N.Plastira str., Vassilika Vouton 70013 Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +30 2810 391518
Interests: nonlinear optics; nanophotonics; 3D laser printing; laser-based additive manufacturing; metamaterials

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

A lot of technological advances depend on controllable micro- and nano-fabrication techniques to improve the performance of surfaces, components, and devices in various applications, such as biomedicine, communications, and energy harvesting. Lasers are uniquely suited for a wide variety of fabrication applications at both the micro- and the nano- scale: they are non-contact, and they can be focused and manipulated very accurately. To this end, we would like to invite reviews and original contributions to the Topical Collection “Laser Micromachining and Microfabrication”. Example topics include matter interactions, direct write processes, ultra-short pulse laser processing, surface treatment, and three-dimensional micro- and nano-fabrication.

Dr. Maria Farsari
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Micromachines is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Related Special Issues

Keywords

  • Laser-Matter Interaction
  • Fundamental aspects (dynamics, modeling)
  • Nanotechnology
  • Direct write processes (MAPLE DW, LIFT, etc.)
  • Ultra-short pulse laser processing
  • VUV laser processing
  • Surface treatment (texturing, cleaning, annealing, modification, etc.)
  • Micro-patterning and micro-structuring
  • Micro-machining
  • 3-D micro- and nano-fabrication
  • Drilling and cutting
  • Micro-forming
  • Lithography (including EUV sources and applications)
  • Manufacture of micro devices and systems
  • Film deposition and synthesis of advanced materials
  • Nano- and micro-particles
  • Medical and biological applications
  • Photochemistry
  • Glass/Ceramic processing

Published Papers (15 papers)

2017

Jump to: 2016, 2015

Open AccessArticle Investigation of Micro-Bending of Sheet Metal Laminates by Laser-Driven Soft Punch in Warm Conditions
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 224; doi:10.3390/mi8070224
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 18 July 2017
PDF Full-text (11776 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microscale laser dynamic flexible forming (µLDFF) is a novel ultrahigh strain rate manufacturing technology with high efficiency and low cost. However, the µLDFF is just confined to single-layer foil at present. In this work, sheet metal laminates (Cu/Ni) were selected as the experimental
[...] Read more.
Microscale laser dynamic flexible forming (µLDFF) is a novel ultrahigh strain rate manufacturing technology with high efficiency and low cost. However, the µLDFF is just confined to single-layer foil at present. In this work, sheet metal laminates (Cu/Ni) were selected as the experimental material for its excellent mechanical and functional properties, and a new micro-bending method of sheet metal laminates by laser-driven soft punch was proposed in warm conditions. The micro-mold and warm platform were designed to investigate the effects of temperature and energy on formability, which were characterized by forming accuracy, surface quality, element diffusion, and so on. The experimental results show that the forming accuracy and quality increased first and then decreased with laser energy, but the hardness increased consistently. In warm conditions, the fluidity of material was improved. The forming depth and accuracy increased for the relieved springback, and the surface quality increased first and then decreased. The tensile fracture disappeared with temperature for the decreased hardness and thinning ratio, and the element diffusion occurred. Overall, this study indicates that the formability can be improved in warm conditions and provides a basis for the investigation of micro-bending of sheet metal laminates by µLDFF in warm conditions. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Tuneable Liquid Crystal Micro-Lens Array for Image Contrast Enhancement in a Pixelated Thin Film Photo-Transistor Flat Panel Imager
Micromachines 2017, 8(7), 205; doi:10.3390/mi8070205
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
PDF Full-text (2906 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We propose and demonstrate the concept of using a tuneable liquid crystal micro-lens (LCML) array to improve the image contrast of a pixelated thin film photo-transistor (TFPT) flat panel imager. Such a device can be used to image contents on paper-based media and
[...] Read more.
We propose and demonstrate the concept of using a tuneable liquid crystal micro-lens (LCML) array to improve the image contrast of a pixelated thin film photo-transistor (TFPT) flat panel imager. Such a device can be used to image contents on paper-based media and display a magnified version on a flat panel display for elderly or visually impaired people. Practical aspects including device physical geometry, object scattering profile, LC material, and focusing effect of LCML on an object are considered during the design process with the support of ZEMAX simulations. An optimised effective focal length (EFL) has been calculated for the designed LCML to best relay the objects or contents on a paper to the TFPT pixel plane. The designed LCML devices are fabricated with the optimised EFL, and they have good phase depth profiles which are close to a spherical lens profile. Preliminary test results show that the combination of a TFPT imager with an LCML array can make the image contrast more than two times better than that using the TFPT imager alone. The tuneable EFL of the developed LCMLs are useful in the situation where the LCML is not in direct contact with the imaged object. Full article
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Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Micro-Scale Gratings by Nanosecond Laser and Its Applications for Deformation Measurements
Micromachines 2017, 8(5), 136; doi:10.3390/mi8050136
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 12 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 25 April 2017
PDF Full-text (14239 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper experimentally investigated the fabrication and optimization of micro-scale gratings formed by nanosecond laser etching. The mechanism of nanosecond laser processing and the geometric phase analysis (GPA) are discussed, and the factors influencing the fabrication process including laser energy, laser fluence, and
[...] Read more.
This paper experimentally investigated the fabrication and optimization of micro-scale gratings formed by nanosecond laser etching. The mechanism of nanosecond laser processing and the geometric phase analysis (GPA) are discussed, and the factors influencing the fabrication process including laser energy, laser fluence, and ablation threshold of material, are experimentally studied. In order to eliminate the dependence of the processing parameters on the samples, depositing Al film on a sample before laser processing is proposed for the fabrication of high-quality gratings. The energy of the laser pulse is optimized for clear line etching on Al film considering the distance between adjacent lines of parallel gratings. The optimal energy of the laser pulse is 9.8 μJ, and the optimum fluence is 9.5 J/mm2 with the waist radius of the laser beam 25.7 μm. With the optimal parameters, experimental results indicate that the highest frequency of parallel gratings is about 30 lines/mm, with a line width of 29 μm, and the distance between two adjacent laser pulses being of 10 μm. By performing tensile tests, micro-scale gratings fabricated on specimens are experimentally verified. The verification tests prove that the proposed fabrication method for the micro-scale gratings in GPA measurements is reliable and applicable, and the micro-scale gratings can be fabricated in many areas of interest, such as the crack tip, for deformation measurements. Furthermore, the adhesion between the Al film and the tested sample is strong enough so that the pattern sticks well to the sample. Full article
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Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Visible to Infrared Diamond Photonics Enabled by Focused Femtosecond Laser Pulses
Micromachines 2017, 8(2), 60; doi:10.3390/mi8020060
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diamond’s nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers show great promise in sensing applications and quantum computing due to their long electron spin coherence time and because they can be found, manipulated, and read out optically. An important step forward for diamond photonics would be connecting multiple
[...] Read more.
Diamond’s nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers show great promise in sensing applications and quantum computing due to their long electron spin coherence time and because they can be found, manipulated, and read out optically. An important step forward for diamond photonics would be connecting multiple diamond NVs together using optical waveguides. However, the inertness of diamond is a significant hurdle for the fabrication of integrated optics similar to those that revolutionized silicon photonics. In this work, we show the fabrication of optical waveguides in diamond, enabled by focused femtosecond high repetition rate laser pulses. By optimizing the geometry of the waveguide, we obtain single mode waveguides from the visible to the infrared. Additionally, we show the laser writing of individual NV centers within the bulk of diamond. We use µ-Raman spectroscopy to gain better insight on the stress and the refractive index profile of the optical waveguides. Using optically detected magnetic resonance and confocal photoluminescence characterization, high quality NV properties are observed in waveguides formed in various grades of diamond, making them promising for applications such as magnetometry, quantum information systems, and evanescent field sensors. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Process Conditions on the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminium Wrought Alloy EN AW-2219 (AlCu6Mn) Additively Manufactured by Laser Beam Melting in Powder Bed
Micromachines 2017, 8(1), 23; doi:10.3390/mi8010023
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 16 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Additive manufacturing is especially suitable for complex-shaped 3D parts with integrated and optimized functionality realized by filigree geometries. Such designs benefit from low safety factors in mechanical layout. This demands ductile materials that reduce stress peaks by predictable plastic deformation instead of failure.
[...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing is especially suitable for complex-shaped 3D parts with integrated and optimized functionality realized by filigree geometries. Such designs benefit from low safety factors in mechanical layout. This demands ductile materials that reduce stress peaks by predictable plastic deformation instead of failure. Al–Cu wrought alloys are established materials meeting this requirement. Additionally, they provide high specific strengths. As the designation “Wrought Alloys” implies, they are intended for manufacturing by hot or cold working. When cast or welded, they are prone to solidification cracks. Al–Si fillers can alleviate this, but impair ductility. Being closely related to welding, Laser Beam Melting in Powder Bed (LBM) of Al–Cu wrought alloys like EN AW-2219 can be considered challenging. In LBM of aluminium alloys, only easily-weldable Al–Si casting alloys have succeeded commercially today. This article discusses the influences of boundary conditions during LBM of EN AW-2219 on sample porosity and tensile test results, supported by metallographic microsections and fractography. Load direction was varied relative to LBM build-up direction. T6 heat treatment was applied to half of the samples. Pronounced anisotropy was observed. Remarkably, elongation at break of T6 specimens loaded along the build-up direction exceeded the values from literature for conventionally manufactured EN AW-2219 by a factor of two. Full article
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2016

Jump to: 2017, 2015

Open AccessArticle A Rapid Prototyping Technique for Microfluidics with High Robustness and Flexibility
Micromachines 2016, 7(11), 201; doi:10.3390/mi7110201
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 1 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3760 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In microfluidic device prototyping, master fabrication by traditional photolithography is expensive and time-consuming, especially when the design requires being repeatedly modified to achieve a satisfactory performance. By introducing a high-performance/cost-ratio laser to the traditional soft lithography, this paper describes a flexible and rapid
[...] Read more.
In microfluidic device prototyping, master fabrication by traditional photolithography is expensive and time-consuming, especially when the design requires being repeatedly modified to achieve a satisfactory performance. By introducing a high-performance/cost-ratio laser to the traditional soft lithography, this paper describes a flexible and rapid prototyping technique for microfluidics. An ultraviolet (UV) laser directly writes on the photoresist without a photomask, which is suitable for master fabrication. By eliminating the constraints of fixed patterns in the traditional photomask when the masters are made, this prototyping technique gives designers/researchers the convenience to revise or modify their designs iteratively. A device fabricated by this method is tested for particle separation and demonstrates good properties. This technique provides a flexible and rapid solution to fabricating microfluidic devices for non-professionals at relatively low cost. Full article
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Flexible Holographic Fabrication of 3D Photonic Crystal Templates with Polarization Control through a 3D Printed Reflective Optical Element
Micromachines 2016, 7(7), 128; doi:10.3390/mi7070128
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 14 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3461 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we have systematically studied the holographic fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures using a single 3D printed reflective optical element (ROE), taking advantage of the ease of design and 3D printing of the ROE. The reflective surface was setup at non-Brewster
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we have systematically studied the holographic fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures using a single 3D printed reflective optical element (ROE), taking advantage of the ease of design and 3D printing of the ROE. The reflective surface was setup at non-Brewster angles to reflect both s- and p-polarized beams for the interference. The wide selection of reflective surface materials and interference angles allow control of the ratio of s- and p-polarizations, and intensity ratio of side-beam to central beam for interference lithography. Photonic bandgap simulations have also indicated that both s and p-polarized waves are sometimes needed in the reflected side beams for maximum photonic bandgap size and certain filling fractions of dielectric inside the photonic crystals. The flexibility of single ROE and single exposure based holographic fabrication of 3D structures was demonstrated with reflective surfaces of ROEs at non-Brewster angles, highlighting the capability of the ROE technique of producing umbrella configurations of side beams with arbitrary angles and polarizations and paving the way for the rapid throughput of various photonic crystal templates. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Dish-Shaped Micro Parts by Laser Indirect Shocking Compound Process
Micromachines 2016, 7(6), 105; doi:10.3390/mi7060105
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 5 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8772 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compound process technology has been investigated for many years on a macro scale, but only a few studies can be found on a micro scale due to the difficulties in tool manufacturing, parts transporting and punch-die alignment. In this paper, a novel technology
[...] Read more.
Compound process technology has been investigated for many years on a macro scale, but only a few studies can be found on a micro scale due to the difficulties in tool manufacturing, parts transporting and punch-die alignment. In this paper, a novel technology of combining the laser shock wave and soft punch was introduced to fabricate the dish-shaped micro-parts on copper to solve these difficulties. This compound process includes deep drawing, punching and blanking and these processes can be completed almost at the same time because the duration time of laser is quite short, so the precision of the micro-parts can be ensured. A reasonable laser energy of 1550 mJ made the morphology, depth of deformation, dimensional accuracy and surface roughness achieve their best results when the thickness of the soft punches was 200 μm. In addition, thicker soft punches may hinder the compound process due to the action of unloading waves based on the elastic wave theory. So, the greatest thickness of the soft punches was 200 μm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Design and Performance of a Focus-Detection System for Use in Laser Micromachining
Micromachines 2016, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/mi7010002
Received: 5 October 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 19 December 2015 / Published: 4 January 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4799 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe a new approach for locating the focal position in laser micromachining. This approach is based on a feedback system that uses a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, a beam splitter, and a mirror to focus a laser beam on the surface of
[...] Read more.
We describe a new approach for locating the focal position in laser micromachining. This approach is based on a feedback system that uses a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, a beam splitter, and a mirror to focus a laser beam on the surface of a work piece. We tested the proposed method for locating the focal position by using Zemax simulations, as well as physically carrying out drilling processes. Compared with conventional methods, this approach is advantageous because: the implementation is simple, the specimen can easily be positioned at the focal position, and the dynamically adjustable scan amplitude and the CCD camera can be used to monitor the laser beam’s profile. The proposed technique will be particularly useful for locating the focal position on any surface in laser micromachining. Full article
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2015

Jump to: 2017, 2016

Open AccessArticle Analysis of the Micromachining Process of Dielectric and Metallic Substrates Immersed in Water with Femtosecond Pulses
Micromachines 2015, 6(12), 2010-2022; doi:10.3390/mi6121471
Received: 29 October 2015 / Revised: 8 December 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
PDF Full-text (1233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micromachining of 1 mm thick dielectric and metallic substrates was conducted using femtosecond pulse generated filaments in water. Several hundred microjoule energy pulses were focused within a water layer covering the samples. Within this water layer, non-linear self-action mechanisms transform the beam, which
[...] Read more.
Micromachining of 1 mm thick dielectric and metallic substrates was conducted using femtosecond pulse generated filaments in water. Several hundred microjoule energy pulses were focused within a water layer covering the samples. Within this water layer, non-linear self-action mechanisms transform the beam, which enables higher quality and throughput micromachining results compared to focusing in air. Evidence of beam transformation into multiple light filaments is presented along with theoretical modeling results. In addition, multiparametric optimization of the fabrication process was performed using statistical methods and certain acquired dependencies are further explained and tested using laser shadowgraphy. We demonstrate that this micromachining process exhibits complicated dynamics within the water layer, which are influenced by the chosen parameters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Speed Pump-Probe Apparatus for Observation of Transitional Effects in Ultrafast Laser Micromachining Processes
Micromachines 2015, 6(12), 1914-1922; doi:10.3390/mi6121462
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 7 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3362 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A pump-probe experimental approach has been shown to be a very efficient tool for the observation and analysis of various laser matter interaction effects. In those setups, synchronized laser pulses are used to create an event (pump) and to simultaneously observe it (probe).
[...] Read more.
A pump-probe experimental approach has been shown to be a very efficient tool for the observation and analysis of various laser matter interaction effects. In those setups, synchronized laser pulses are used to create an event (pump) and to simultaneously observe it (probe). In general, the physical effects that can be investigated with such an apparatus are restricted by the temporal resolution of the probe pulse and the observation window. The latter can be greatly extended by adjusting the pump-probe time delay under the assumption that the interaction process remains fairly reproducible. Unfortunately, this assumption becomes invalid in the case of high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser material processing, where the irradiation history strongly affects the ongoing interaction process. In this contribution, the authors present an extension of the pump-probe setup that allows to investigate transitional and dynamic effects present during ultrafast laser machining performed at high pulse repetition frequencies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reduction of Friction of Metals Using Laser-Induced Periodic Surface Nanostructures
Micromachines 2015, 6(11), 1606-1616; doi:10.3390/mi6111444
Received: 21 August 2015 / Revised: 27 September 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 28 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We report on the effect of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on the tribological properties of stainless steel. Uniform periodic nanostructures were produced on AISI 304L (American Iron and Steel Institute steel grade) steel surfaces using an 800-nm femtosecond laser. The spatial periods
[...] Read more.
We report on the effect of femtosecond-laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) on the tribological properties of stainless steel. Uniform periodic nanostructures were produced on AISI 304L (American Iron and Steel Institute steel grade) steel surfaces using an 800-nm femtosecond laser. The spatial periods of LIPSS measured by field emission scanning electron microscopy ranged from 530 to 570 nm. The tribological properties of smooth and textured surfaces with periodic nanostructures were investigated using reciprocating ball-on-flat tests against AISI 440C balls under both dry and starved oil lubricated conditions. The friction coefficient of LIPSS covered surfaces has shown a lower value than that of the smooth surface. The induced periodic nanostructures demonstrated marked potential for reducing the friction coefficient compared with the smooth surface. Full article
Open AccessArticle Ultrafast Laser Engraving Method to Fabricate Gravure Plate for Printed Metal-Mesh Touch Panel
Micromachines 2015, 6(10), 1483-1489; doi:10.3390/mi6101433
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 17 September 2015 / Accepted: 26 September 2015 / Published: 5 October 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (11147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to engrave gravure plate with fine lines structures, conventional art used lithography with dry/wet etching. Lithography with dry/wet etching method allows to engrave lines with smooth concave shape, but its disadvantages include difficulty in controlling aspect ratio, high and uniform in
[...] Read more.
In order to engrave gravure plate with fine lines structures, conventional art used lithography with dry/wet etching. Lithography with dry/wet etching method allows to engrave lines with smooth concave shape, but its disadvantages include difficulty in controlling aspect ratio, high and uniform in large size process, substrate material limitation due to etching solution availability, and process complexity. We developed ultra-fast laser technology to directly engrave a stainless plate, a gravure plate, to be used for fabricating 23 in. metal-mesh touch panel by gravure offset printing process. The technology employs high energy pulse to ablate materials from a substrate. Because the ultra-fast laser pulse duration is shorter than the energy dissipation time between material lattices, there is no heating issue during the ablation process. Therefore, no volcano-type protrusion on the engraved line edges occurs, leading to good printing quality. After laser engraving, we then reduce surface roughness of the gravure plate using electro-polishing process. Diamond like carbon (DLC) coating layer is then added onto the surface to increase scratch resistance. We show that this procedure can fabricate gravure plate for gravure offset printing process with minimum printing linewidth 10.7 μm. A 23 in. metal-mesh pattern was printed using such gravure plate and fully functional touch panel was demonstrated in this work. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Monolithic Micro-Tensile Tester for Investigating Silicon Dioxide Polymorph Micromechanics, Fabricated and Operated Using a Femtosecond Laser
Micromachines 2015, 6(9), 1365-1386; doi:10.3390/mi6091365
Received: 9 August 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 September 2015 / Published: 21 September 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (9584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mechanical testing of materials at the microscales is challenging. It requires delicate procedures not only for producing and handling the specimen to be tested, but also for applying an accurate and controlled force. This endeavor is even more challenging when it comes to
[...] Read more.
Mechanical testing of materials at the microscales is challenging. It requires delicate procedures not only for producing and handling the specimen to be tested, but also for applying an accurate and controlled force. This endeavor is even more challenging when it comes to investigating the behavior of brittle materials such as glass. Here, we present a microtensile tester for investigating silica glass polymorphs. The instrument is entirely made of silica and for which the same femtosecond laser is not only used for fabricating the device, but also for operating it (loading the specimen) as well as for performing in situ measurements. As a proof-of-concept, we present a stress-strain curve of fused silica for unprecedented high tensile stress of 2.4 GPa, as well as preliminary results of the elastic modulus of femtosecond laser-affected zones of fused silica, providing new insights on their microstructures and mechanical behavior. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Experimental and Numerical Simulation Research on Micro-Gears Fabrication by Laser Shock Punching Process
Micromachines 2015, 6(8), 969-983; doi:10.3390/mi6080969
Received: 11 June 2015 / Revised: 10 July 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 23 July 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (6839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to fabricate micro-gears via laser shock punching with Spitlight 2000 Nd-YAG Laser, and to discuss effects of process parameters namely laser energy, soft punch properties and blank-holder on the quality of micro-gears deeply. Results show that dimensional
[...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to fabricate micro-gears via laser shock punching with Spitlight 2000 Nd-YAG Laser, and to discuss effects of process parameters namely laser energy, soft punch properties and blank-holder on the quality of micro-gears deeply. Results show that dimensional accuracy is the best shocked at 1690 mJ. Tensile fracture instead of shear fracture is the main fracture mode under low laser energy. The soft punch might cause damage to punching quality when too high energy is employed. Appropriate thickness and hardness of soft punch is necessary. Silica gel with 200 µm in thickness is beneficial to not only homogenize energy but also propagate the shock wave. Polyurethane films need more energy than silica gel with the same thickness. In addition, blank-holders with different weight levels are used. A heavier blank-holder is more beneficial to improve the cutting quality. Furthermore, the simulation is conducted to reveal typical stages and the different deformation behavior under high and low pulse energy. The simulation results show that the fracture mode changes under lower energy. Full article

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