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Micromachines 2016, 7(7), 128; doi:10.3390/mi7070128

Flexible Holographic Fabrication of 3D Photonic Crystal Templates with Polarization Control through a 3D Printed Reflective Optical Element

1
Department of Physics and Center for Advanced Research and Technology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
2
ECE Department, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Farsari
Received: 29 June 2016 / Revised: 14 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Laser Micromachining and Microfabrication)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3461 KB, uploaded 21 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

In this paper, we have systematically studied the holographic fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) structures using a single 3D printed reflective optical element (ROE), taking advantage of the ease of design and 3D printing of the ROE. The reflective surface was setup at non-Brewster angles to reflect both s- and p-polarized beams for the interference. The wide selection of reflective surface materials and interference angles allow control of the ratio of s- and p-polarizations, and intensity ratio of side-beam to central beam for interference lithography. Photonic bandgap simulations have also indicated that both s and p-polarized waves are sometimes needed in the reflected side beams for maximum photonic bandgap size and certain filling fractions of dielectric inside the photonic crystals. The flexibility of single ROE and single exposure based holographic fabrication of 3D structures was demonstrated with reflective surfaces of ROEs at non-Brewster angles, highlighting the capability of the ROE technique of producing umbrella configurations of side beams with arbitrary angles and polarizations and paving the way for the rapid throughput of various photonic crystal templates. View Full-Text
Keywords: micro/nano fabrication; 3D laser fabrication; holographic lithography; single optical element; photonic crystals micro/nano fabrication; 3D laser fabrication; holographic lithography; single optical element; photonic crystals
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lowell, D.; George, D.; Lutkenhaus, J.; Tian, C.; Adewole, M.; Philipose, U.; Zhang, H.; Lin, Y. Flexible Holographic Fabrication of 3D Photonic Crystal Templates with Polarization Control through a 3D Printed Reflective Optical Element. Micromachines 2016, 7, 128.

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