Special Issue "Applications of Power Electronics"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg
Highly Cited - Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters)

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220, Denmark
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Fax: +45 9815 1411
Interests: power electronics and its applications in motor drives; wind turbines; PV systems; harmonics; reliability of power electronic systems
Guest Editor
Dr. Tomislav Dragicevic

The Faculty of Engineering and Science, Department of Energy Technology Power Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220, Denmark
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Interests: Micro Grids, Marine Technology, Renewable Integration, Energy Storage, Distributed Control
Guest Editor
Dr. Pooya Davari

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: active front-end rectifiers; harmonic mitigation in adjustable-speed drives; electromagnetic interference in power electronics; high power density power electronic systems; pulsed power applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Power electronics technology has found its way into many applications, from renewable energy generation (i.e., wind power and solar power) to Electrical Vehicle (EV), biomedical and small appliances, such as laptop chargers. In a near future, electrical energy is provided by power electronics and is consumed by power electronics. This, not only intensifies the role of power electronics technology in power conversion processes, but also implies that power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift, from centralized distribution to distributed generation.

One emerging application that has put an imprint on this paradigm shift is the microgrid (MG). It is a small, power electronics intensive power system, which has been gaining continually-increasing interest over the past few years, both in academia and industry. The advantages of a microgrid are that it provides higher flexibility and easier management over renewable energy sources (RESs), electronic loads and energy storage systems (ESSs), rather than interfacing those resources individually to the grid. With the rapid emergence of power electronics, the importance of microgrids in today’s society is gradually being brought to a whole new level.

The main aim of this Special Issue is to seek high-quality submissions that highlight emerging applications, address recent breakthroughs in the power electronics application-oriented design, high-power density power converters, robust and reliable power electronics technologies, smart control of power electronics at device, microgrid and system levels. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Power electronics application in renewable energies
  • Power electronics application in electric vehicles
  • High power density dower electronic systems
  • Condition monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic of power electronics with enhanced control for reliable and robust applications
  • Application of power electronics in smart DC and AC distribution systems
  • Power electronics applications in electrical drives
  • Power electronics applications in lighting
  • Power electronics for biomedical applications
  • Power electronics for microgrids

Prof. Frede Blaabjerg
Dr. Tomislav Dragicevic
Dr. Pooya Davari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Power electronics application in renewable energies
  • Power electronics application in electric vehicles
  • High power density dower electronic systems
  • Condition monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic of power electronics with enhanced control for reliable and robust applications
  • Application of power electronics in smart DC and AC distribution systems
  • Power electronics applications in electrical drives
  • Power electronics applications in lighting
  • Power electronics for biomedical applications
  • Power electronics for microgrids

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Series Active Filter Design Based on Asymmetric Hybrid Modular Multilevel Converter for Traction System
Electronics 2018, 7(8), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7080134
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a comparative analysis of a new topology based on an asymmetric hybrid modular multilevel converter (AHMMC) with recently proposed multilevel converter topologies. The analysis is based on various parameters for medium voltage-high power electric traction system. Among recently proposed topologies,
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of a new topology based on an asymmetric hybrid modular multilevel converter (AHMMC) with recently proposed multilevel converter topologies. The analysis is based on various parameters for medium voltage-high power electric traction system. Among recently proposed topologies, few converters have been analysed through simulation results. In addition, the study investigates AHMMC converter which is a cascade arrangement of H-bridge with five-level cascaded converter module (FCCM) in more detail. The key features of the proposed AHMMC includes: reduced switch losses by minimizing the switching frequency as well as the components count, and improved power factor with minimum harmonic distortion. Extensive simulation results and low voltage laboratory prototype validates the working principle of the proposed converter topology. Furthermore, the paper concludes with the comparison factors evaluation of the discussed converter topologies for medium voltage traction applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle A Reduced Switch AC-AC Converter with the Application of D-STATCOM and Induction Motor Drive
Electronics 2018, 7(7), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7070110
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a reduced switch AC-DC-AC converter is used as a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) and induction motor drive. The AC-DC-AC nine switch converter (NSC) is a reduced switch topology of conventional 12-switch back to back converter. With a 25% reduced switch
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a reduced switch AC-DC-AC converter is used as a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) and induction motor drive. The AC-DC-AC nine switch converter (NSC) is a reduced switch topology of conventional 12-switch back to back converter. With a 25% reduced switch count, NSC has lower losses when operated at constant frequency mode compared to twelve switch converter (TSC). The idea is to operate NSC input terminal as an active front-end rectifier to mimic synchronous generator (SG) operation. The induction motor is connected at the output of the NSC for irrigation application where no speed regulation is required. In distribution generation (DG), a large capacitor bank is used to deliver required reactive power. This may lead to over-voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) when the load is turned off. To manage reactive power transfer at PCC, a control scheme is developed for NSC such that it can absorb or deliver reactive power with induction motor drive. Similar to SG, V-curve and inverted V-curve is plotted. The simulation and hardware results prove the feasibility of the proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle A Variable Speed Pumped Storage System Based on Droop-Fed Vector Control Strategy for Grid Frequency and AC-Bus Voltage Stability
Electronics 2018, 7(7), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7070108
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 7 July 2018
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Abstract
Harnessing wind energy is the most rapidly growing amongst renewable energy sources. However, because of its intermittency in nature, wind power results in unfavorable influences on power system control, operation and stability. The voltage sag and flicker and grid frequency fluctuation are significant
[...] Read more.
Harnessing wind energy is the most rapidly growing amongst renewable energy sources. However, because of its intermittency in nature, wind power results in unfavorable influences on power system control, operation and stability. The voltage sag and flicker and grid frequency fluctuation are significant in this regard. To minimize the effect of wind power fluctuations and other contingencies on the grid frequency and AC-bus voltage, this paper presents a droop-fed vector control strategy based variable speed pumped storage (VSPS) system comprising the doubly fed induction machine. Modelling of the system is undertaken based on a phasor model technique. The case study is made by considering the droop-controlled VSPS plant in a grid containing conventional synchronous machines for hydropower and thermal power plants and an induction machine wind farm. The performance is validated and analyzed using a MATLAB/Simulink platform. The proposed droop-fed control model is compared with the conventional control strategy (without being droop-fed) and tested to wind power fluctuations, start-up transients, load variations and three-phase fault. The results show that the droop-fed vector control strategy of the VSPS plant achieves better dynamic and steady state controlling responses for grid frequency and AC-bus voltage in the power system than the conventional vector control scheme during wind power fluctuations and contingencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle A Virtual Micro-Islanding-Based Control Paradigm for Renewable Microgrids
Electronics 2018, 7(7), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7070105
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
Improvements in control of renewable energy-based microgrids are a growing area of interest. A hierarchical control structure is popularly implemented to regulate key parameters such as power sharing between generation sources, system frequency and node voltages. A distributed control infrastructure is realized by
[...] Read more.
Improvements in control of renewable energy-based microgrids are a growing area of interest. A hierarchical control structure is popularly implemented to regulate key parameters such as power sharing between generation sources, system frequency and node voltages. A distributed control infrastructure is realized by means of a communication network that spans the micro-distribution grid. Measured and estimated values, as well as corrective signals are transmitted across this network to effect required system regulation. However, intermittent latencies and failures of component communication links may result in power imbalances between generation sources, deviations in node voltages and system frequency. This paper proposes a hierarchical control structure to regulate the operation of an islanded AC microgrid experiencing communication link failures. The proposed strategy aims to virtually sub-divide the microgrid into controllable “islands”. Thereafter, active power sharing, frequency and voltage restoration is achieved by competing converter systems through multi-agent consensus. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been verified through stability analyses using system wide mathematical small signal models and case study simulations in MATLAB, Simpower systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle A Control Methodology for Load Sharing System Restoration in Islanded DC Micro Grid with Faulty Communication Links
Electronics 2018, 7(6), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7060090
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Communication-based distributed secondary control is extensively used in DC microgrids. Compared to centralized control, it can provide better voltage regulation and load sharing in microgrids. A conventional secondary control technique that converges the system to a common operating point is improved by using
[...] Read more.
Communication-based distributed secondary control is extensively used in DC microgrids. Compared to centralized control, it can provide better voltage regulation and load sharing in microgrids. A conventional secondary control technique that converges the system to a common operating point is improved by using the control methodology to detect the communication link failure and stabilize the system operation during communication islanding. Recently, more robust control schemes have been proposed to improve resilience, but communication islanding has not been addressed at the secondary level control for which the system requires additional tertiary control. However, link failure is a possibility in the microgrid, so this paper proposes a control scheme at the secondary level to detect communication islanding. Communication islanding may lead the system to unpredictable behavior, which may cause the system to become unstable and may further lead to a cascading failure. The proposed control scheme sustains the stability and operation of a DC microgrid. Voltage and current observer works in a parallel manner with the proposed secondary control to achieve a correction term for global operating points. The proposed control scheme has been verified through analysis and simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle All SiC Grid-Connected PV Supply with HF Link MPPT Converter: System Design Methodology and Development of a 20 kHz, 25 kVA Prototype
Electronics 2018, 7(6), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7060085
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Design methodology and implementation of an all SiC power semiconductor-based, grid-connected multi-string photovoltaic (PV) supply with an isolated high frequency (HF) link maximum power point tracker (MPPT) have been described. This system configuration makes possible the use of a simple and reliable two-level
[...] Read more.
Design methodology and implementation of an all SiC power semiconductor-based, grid-connected multi-string photovoltaic (PV) supply with an isolated high frequency (HF) link maximum power point tracker (MPPT) have been described. This system configuration makes possible the use of a simple and reliable two-level voltage source inverter (VSI) topology for grid connection, owing to the galvanic isolation provided by the HF transformer. This topology provides a viable alternative to the commonly used non-isolated PV supplies equipped with Si-based boost MPPT converters cascaded with relatively more complex inverter topologies, at competitive efficiency figures and a higher power density. A 20 kHz, 25 kVA prototype system was designed based on the dynamic model of the multi-string PV panels obtained from field tests. Design parameters such as input DC link capacitance, switching frequencies of MPPT converter and voltage source inverter, size and performance of HF transformer with nanocrystalline core, DC link voltage, and LCL filter of the VSI were optimized in view of the site dependent parameters such as the variation ranges of solar insolation, module surface temperature, and grid voltage. A modified synchronous reference frame control was implemented in the VSI by applying the grid voltage feedforward to the reference voltages in abc axes directly, so that zero-sequence components of grid voltages are taken into account in the case of an unbalanced grid. The system was implemented and the proposed design methodology verified satisfactorily in the field on a roof-mounted 23.7 kW multi-string PV system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Extended Kalman Filter Based Sliding Mode Control of Parallel-Connected Two Five-Phase PMSM Drive System
Electronics 2018, 7(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7020014
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents sliding mode control of sensor-less parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) fed by a single five-leg inverter. For both machines, the rotor speeds and rotor positions as well as load torques are estimated by using Extended Kalman Filter
[...] Read more.
This paper presents sliding mode control of sensor-less parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) fed by a single five-leg inverter. For both machines, the rotor speeds and rotor positions as well as load torques are estimated by using Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) scheme. Fully decoupled control of both machines is possible via an appropriate phase transposition while connecting the stator windings parallel and employing proposed speed sensor-less method. In the resulting parallel-connected two-machine drive, the independent control of each machine in the group is achieved by controlling the stator currents and speed of each machine under vector control consideration. The effectiveness of the proposed Extended Kalman Filter in conjunction with the sliding mode control is confirmed through application of different load torques for wide speed range operation. Comparison between sliding mode control and PI control of the proposed two-motor drive is provided. The speed response shows a short rise time, an overshoot during reverse operation and settling times is 0.075 s when PI control is used. The speed response obtained by SMC is without overshoot and follows its reference and settling time is 0.028 s. Simulation results confirm that, in transient periods, sliding mode controller remarkably outperforms its counterpart PI controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Analyzing the Profile Effects of the Various Magnet Shapes in Axial Flux PM Motors by Means of 3D-FEA
Electronics 2018, 7(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7020013
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
Axial flux machines have positive sides on the power and torque density profile. However, the price of this profile is paid by the torque ripples and irregular magnetic flux density production. To gather higher efficiency, torque ripples should close to the zero and
[...] Read more.
Axial flux machines have positive sides on the power and torque density profile. However, the price of this profile is paid by the torque ripples and irregular magnetic flux density production. To gather higher efficiency, torque ripples should close to the zero and the stator side iron should be unsaturated. Torque ripples mainly occur due to the interaction between the rotor poles and the stator teeth. In this study, different rotor poles are investigated in contrast to stator magnetic flux density and the torque ripple effects. Since the components of the axial flux machines vary by the radius, analysis of the magnetic resources is more complicated. Thus, 3D-FEA (finite element analysis) is used to simulate the effects. The infrastructure of the characteristics which are obtained from the 3D-FEA analysis is built by the magnetic equivalent circuit (MAGEC) analysis to understand the relationships of the parameters. The principal goal of this research is a smoother distribution of the magnetic flux density and lower torque ripples. As the result, the implementations on the rotor poles have interesting influences on the torque ripple and flux density profiles. The MAGEC and 3D-FEA results validate each other. The torque ripple is reduced and the magnetic flux density is softened on AFPM irons. In conclusion, the proposed rotors have good impacts on the motor performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Automatic EMI Filter Design for Power Electronic Converters Oriented to High Power Density
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a complete computer aided procedure based on the power density concept and aimed at the automatic design of EMI filters for power electronic converters is presented. It is rule-based, and it uses suitable databases built-up by considering information on passive
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a complete computer aided procedure based on the power density concept and aimed at the automatic design of EMI filters for power electronic converters is presented. It is rule-based, and it uses suitable databases built-up by considering information on passive components available from commercial datasheets. The power density constraint is taken into consideration by imposing the minimization of the filter volume and/or weight; nevertheless, the system in which the automatically designed filter is included satisfies the electromagnetic compatibility standards limits. Experimental validations of the proposed procedure are presented for two real case studies, for which the performance and the size of the best filter design are compared with those related to a conventionally designed one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Online Optimal Switching Frequency Selection for Grid-Connected Voltage Source Inverters
Electronics 2017, 6(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics6040110
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 2 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enhancing the performance of the voltage source inverters (VSIs) without changing the hardware structure has recently acquired an increased amount of interest. In this study, an optimization algorithm, enhancing the quality of the output power and the efficiency of three-phase grid connected VSIs
[...] Read more.
Enhancing the performance of the voltage source inverters (VSIs) without changing the hardware structure has recently acquired an increased amount of interest. In this study, an optimization algorithm, enhancing the quality of the output power and the efficiency of three-phase grid connected VSIs is proposed. Towards that end, the proposed algorithm varies the switching frequency (fsw) to maintain the best balance between switching losses of the insulated-gate-bipolar-transistor (IGBT) power module as well as the output power quality under all loading conditions, including the ambient temperature effect. Since there is a contradiction with these two measures in relation to the switching frequency, the theory of multi-objective optimization is employed. The proposed algorithm is executed on the platform of Altera® DE2-115 field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) in which the optimal value of the switching frequency is determined online without the need for heavy offline calculations and/or lookup tables. With adopting the proposed algorithm, there is an improvement in the VSI efficiency without degrading the output power quality. Therefore, the proposed algorithm enhances the lifetime of the IGBT power module because of reduced variations in the module’s junction temperature. An experimental prototype is built, and experimental tests are conducted for the verification of the viability of the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Review on Health Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries of Electric Vehicles
Electronics 2018, 7(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7050072
Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
The battery is the most ideal power source of the twenty-first century, and has a bright future in many applications, such as portable consumer electronics, electric vehicles (EVs), military and aerospace systems, and power storage for renewable energy sources, because of its many
[...] Read more.
The battery is the most ideal power source of the twenty-first century, and has a bright future in many applications, such as portable consumer electronics, electric vehicles (EVs), military and aerospace systems, and power storage for renewable energy sources, because of its many advantages that make it the most promising technology. EVs are viewed as one of the novel solutions to land transport systems, as they reduce overdependence on fossil energy. With the current growth of EVs, it calls for innovative ways of supplementing EVs power, as overdependence on electric power may add to expensive loads on the power grid. However lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for EVs have high capacity, and large serial/parallel numbers, when coupled with problems like safety, durability, uniformity, and cost imposes limitations on the wide application of lithium-ion batteries in EVs. These LIBs face a major challenge of battery life, which research has shown can be extended by cell balancing. The common areas under which these batteries operate with safety and reliability require the effective control and management of battery health systems. A great deal of research is being carried out to see that this technology does not lead to failure in the applications, as its failure may lead to catastrophes or lessen performance. This paper, through an analytical review of the literature, gives a brief introduction to battery management system (BMS), opportunities, and challenges, and provides a future research agenda on battery health management. With issues raised in this review paper, further exploration is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessReview Digital Control Techniques Based on Voltage Source Inverters in Renewable Energy Applications: A Review
Electronics 2018, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7020018
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (7177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the modern era, distributed generation is considered as an alternative source for power generation. Especially, need of the time is to provide the three-phase loads with smooth sinusoidal voltages having fixed frequency and amplitude. A common solution is the integration of power
[...] Read more.
In the modern era, distributed generation is considered as an alternative source for power generation. Especially, need of the time is to provide the three-phase loads with smooth sinusoidal voltages having fixed frequency and amplitude. A common solution is the integration of power electronics converters in the systems for connecting distributed generation systems to the stand-alone loads. Thus, the presence of suitable control techniques, in the power electronic converters, for robust stability, abrupt response, optimal tracking ability and error eradication are inevitable. A comprehensive review based on design, analysis, validation of the most suitable digital control techniques and the options available for the researchers for improving the power quality is presented in this paper with their pros and cons. Comparisons based on the cost, schemes, performance, modulation techniques and coordinates system are also presented. Finally, the paper describes the performance evaluation of the control schemes on a voltage source inverter (VSI) and proposes the different aspects to be considered for selecting a power electronics inverter topology, reference frames, filters, as well as control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessReview SoC Estimation for Lithium-ion Batteries: Review and Future Challenges
Electronics 2017, 6(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics6040102
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy storage emerged as a top concern for the modern cities, and the choice of the lithium-ion chemistry battery technology as an effective solution for storage applications proved to be a highly efficient option. State of charge (SoC) represents the available battery capacity
[...] Read more.
Energy storage emerged as a top concern for the modern cities, and the choice of the lithium-ion chemistry battery technology as an effective solution for storage applications proved to be a highly efficient option. State of charge (SoC) represents the available battery capacity and is one of the most important states that need to be monitored to optimize the performance and extend the lifetime of batteries. This review summarizes the methods for SoC estimation for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). The SoC estimation methods are presented focusing on the description of the techniques and the elaboration of their weaknesses for the use in on-line battery management systems (BMS) applications. SoC estimation is a challenging task hindered by considerable changes in battery characteristics over its lifetime due to aging and to the distinct nonlinear behavior. This has led scholars to propose different methods that clearly raised the challenge of establishing a relationship between the accuracy and robustness of the methods, and their low complexity to be implemented. This paper publishes an exhaustive review of the works presented during the last five years, where the tendency of the estimation techniques has been oriented toward a mixture of probabilistic techniques and some artificial intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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