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Topical Collection "Wind Turbines"

Editor

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg
Highly Cited - Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters)

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +45 9815 1411
Interests: power electronics and its applications in motor drives; wind turbines; PV systems; harmonics; reliability of power electronic systems

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This issue is a continuation of the previous successful Special Issue “Wind Turbines 2013”. Similarly, this issue also focuses on recent advances in the wind energy sector on a wide range of topics, including: wind resource mapping, wind intermittency issues, aerodynamics, foundations, aeroelasticity, wind turbine technologies, control of wind turbines, diagnostics, generator concepts including gearless concepts, power electronic converters, grid interconnection, ride-through operation, protection, wind farm layouts - optimization and control, reliability, operations and maintenance, effects of wind farms on local and global climate, wind power stations, smart-grid and micro-grid related to wind turbine operation.

Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts for the topical collection can be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on this website. The topical collection considers regular research articles, short communications and review articles. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The article processing charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Related Special Issues

Published Papers (59 papers)

2017

Jump to: 2016, 2015, 2014

Open AccessReview Structural Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines: A Review
Energies 2017, 10(12), 2099; doi:10.3390/en10122099 (registering DOI)
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 11 December 2017
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Abstract
The paper presents a detailed review of the state-of-the-art research activities on structural reliability analysis of wind turbines between the 1990s and 2017. We describe the reliability methods including the first- and second-order reliability methods and the simulation reliability methods and show the
[...] Read more.
The paper presents a detailed review of the state-of-the-art research activities on structural reliability analysis of wind turbines between the 1990s and 2017. We describe the reliability methods including the first- and second-order reliability methods and the simulation reliability methods and show the procedure for and application areas of structural reliability analysis of wind turbines. Further, we critically review the various structural reliability studies on rotor blades, bottom-fixed support structures, floating systems and mechanical and electrical components. Finally, future applications of structural reliability methods to wind turbine designs are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Force Measurements on a VAWT Blade in Parked Conditions
Energies 2017, 10(12), 1954; doi:10.3390/en10121954
Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 17 November 2017 / Accepted: 20 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
The forces on a turbine at extreme wind conditions when the turbine is parked is one of the most important design cases for the survivability of a turbine. In this work, the forces on a blade and its support arms have been measured
[...] Read more.
The forces on a turbine at extreme wind conditions when the turbine is parked is one of the most important design cases for the survivability of a turbine. In this work, the forces on a blade and its support arms have been measured on a 12 kW straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine at an open site. Two cases are tested: one during electrical braking of the turbine, which allows it to rotate slowly, and one with the turbine mechanically fixed with the leading edge of the blade facing the main wind direction. The force variations with respect to wind direction are investigated, and it is seen that significant variations in forces depend on the wind direction. The measurements show that for the fixed case, when subjected to the same wind speed, the forces are lower when the blade faces the wind direction. The results also show that due to the lower forces at this particular wind direction, the average forces for the fixed blade are notably lower. Hence, it is possible to reduce the forces on a turbine blade, simply by taking the dominating wind direction into account when the turbine is parked. The measurements also show that a positive torque is generated from the blade for most wind directions, which causes the turbine to rotate in the electrically-braked case. These rotations will cause increased fatigue loads on the turbine blade. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Investigation of the Tip Vortex of a Straight-Bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with Double-Blades
Energies 2017, 10(11), 1721; doi:10.3390/en10111721
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
Wind velocity distribution and the vortex around the wind turbine present a significant challenge in the development of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). This paper is intended to investigate influence of tip vortex on wind turbine wake by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
[...] Read more.
Wind velocity distribution and the vortex around the wind turbine present a significant challenge in the development of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs). This paper is intended to investigate influence of tip vortex on wind turbine wake by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. In this study, the number of blades is two and the airfoil is a NACA0021 with chord length of c = 0.265 m. To capture the tip vortex characteristics, the velocity fields are investigated by the Q-criterion iso-surface (Q = 100) with shear-stress transport (SST) k-ω turbulence model at different tip speed ratios (TSRs). Then, mean velocity, velocity deficit and torque coefficient acting on the blade in the different spanwise positions are compared. The wind velocities obtained by CFD simulations are also compared with the experimental data from wind tunnel experiments. As a result, we can state that the wind velocity curves calculated by CFD simulations are consistent with Laser Doppler Velocity (LDV) measurements. The distribution of the vortex structure along the spanwise direction is more complex at a lower TSR and the tip vortex has a longer dissipation distance at a high TSR. In addition, the mean wind velocity shows a large value near the blade tip and a small value near the blade due to the vortex effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sensitivity Analysis to Control the Far-Wake Unsteadiness Behind Turbines
Energies 2017, 10(10), 1599; doi:10.3390/en10101599
Received: 19 August 2017 / Revised: 9 October 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We explore the stability of wakes arising from 2D flow actuators based on linear momentum actuator disc theory. We use stability and sensitivity analysis (using adjoints) to show that the wake stability is controlled by the Reynolds number and the thrust force (or
[...] Read more.
We explore the stability of wakes arising from 2D flow actuators based on linear momentum actuator disc theory. We use stability and sensitivity analysis (using adjoints) to show that the wake stability is controlled by the Reynolds number and the thrust force (or flow resistance) applied through the turbine. First, we report that decreasing the thrust force has a comparable stabilising effect to a decrease in Reynolds numbers (based on the turbine diameter). Second, a discrete sensitivity analysis identifies two regions for suitable placement of flow control forcing, one close to the turbines and one far downstream. Third, we show that adding a localised control force, in the regions identified by the sensitivity analysis, stabilises the wake. Particularly, locating the control forcing close to the turbines results in an enhanced stabilisation such that the wake remains steady for significantly higher Reynolds numbers or turbine thrusts. The analysis of the controlled flow fields confirms that modifying the velocity gradient close to the turbine is more efficient to stabilise the wake than controlling the wake far downstream. The analysis is performed for the first flow bifurcation (at low Reynolds numbers) which serves as a foundation of the stabilization technique but the control strategy is tested at higher Reynolds numbers in the final section of the paper, showing enhanced stability for a turbulent flow case. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Techno-Economic Assessment of Wind Energy Potential at Three Locations in South Korea Using Long-Term Measured Wind Data
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1442; doi:10.3390/en10091442
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8029 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study deals with wind energy analysis and the selection of an optimum type of wind turbine in terms of the feasibility of installing wind power system at three locations in South Korea: Deokjeok-do, Baengnyeong-do and Seo-San. The wind data measurements were
[...] Read more.
The present study deals with wind energy analysis and the selection of an optimum type of wind turbine in terms of the feasibility of installing wind power system at three locations in South Korea: Deokjeok-do, Baengnyeong-do and Seo-San. The wind data measurements were conducted during 2005–2015 at Deokjeok-do, 2001–2016 at Baengnyeong-do and 1997–2016 at Seo-San. In the first part of this paper wind conditions, like mean wind speed, wind rose diagrams and Weibull shape and scale parameters are presented, so that the wind potential of all the locations could be assessed. It was found that the prevailing wind directions at all locations was either southeast or southwest in which the latter one being more dominant. After analyzing the wind conditions, 50-year and 1-year extreme wind speeds (EWS) were estimated using the graphical method of Gumbel distribution. Finally, according to the wind conditions at each site and international electro-technical commission (IEC) guidelines, a set of five different wind turbines best suited for each location were shortlisted. Each wind turbine was evaluated on the basis of technical parameters like monthly energy production, annual energy production (AEP) and capacity factors (CF). Similarly, economical parameters including net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), payback period (PBP) and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) were considered. The analysis shows that a Doosan model WinDS134/3000 wind turbine is the most suitable for Deokjeok-do and Baengnyeong-do, whereas a Hanjin model HJWT 87/2000 is the most suitable wind turbine for Seo-San. Economic sensitivity analysis is also included and discussed in detail to analyze the impact on economics of wind power by varying turbine’s hub height. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analyses of the Extensible Blade in Improving Wind Energy Production at Sites with Low-Class Wind Resource
Energies 2017, 10(9), 1295; doi:10.3390/en10091295
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 27 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5804 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the feasibility analysis of an innovative, extensible blade technology. The blade aims to significantly improve the energy production of a wind turbine, particularly at locations with unfavorable wind conditions. The innovative ‘smart’ blade will be extended at low wind speed
[...] Read more.
This paper describes the feasibility analysis of an innovative, extensible blade technology. The blade aims to significantly improve the energy production of a wind turbine, particularly at locations with unfavorable wind conditions. The innovative ‘smart’ blade will be extended at low wind speed to harvest more wind energy; on the other hand, it will be retracted to its original shape when the wind speed is above the rated wind speed to protect the blade from damages by high wind loads. An established aerodynamic model is implemented in this paper to evaluate and compare the power output of extensible blades versus a baseline conventional blade. The model was first validated with a monitored power production curve based on the wind energy production data of a conventional turbine blade, which is subsequently used to estimate the power production curve of extended blades. The load-on-blade structures are incorporated as the mechanical criteria to design the extension strategies. Wind speed monitoring data at three different onshore and offshore sites around Lake Erie are used to predict the annual wind energy output with different blades. The effects of extension on the dynamic characteristics of blade are analyzed. The results show that the extensive blade significantly increases the annual wind energy production (up to 20% to 30%) with different blade extension strategies. It, therefore, has the potential to significantly boost wind energy production for utility-scale wind turbines located at sites with low-class wind resource. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Windbreak Effects Within Infinite Wind Farms
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1140; doi:10.3390/en10081140
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 14 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
Building upon a recent study that showed windbreaks to be effective in increasing the power output of a wind turbine, the potential of windbreaks in a large wind farm is explored using simplified formulations. A top-down boundary layer approach is combined with methods
[...] Read more.
Building upon a recent study that showed windbreaks to be effective in increasing the power output of a wind turbine, the potential of windbreaks in a large wind farm is explored using simplified formulations. A top-down boundary layer approach is combined with methods of estimating both the roughness effects of windbreaks and the induced inviscid speed-up for nearby turbines to investigate power production impact for several layouts of infinite wind farms. Results suggest that the negative impact of windbreak wakes for an infinite wind farm will outweigh the local inviscid speed-up for realistic inter-turbine spacings, with the break-even point expected at a spacing of ∼25 rotor diameters. However, the possibility that windbreaks may be applicable in finite and other wind farm configurations remains open. Inspection of the windbreak porosity reveals an impact on the magnitude of power perturbation, but not whether the change is positive or negative. Predictions from the boundary-layer approach are validated with power measurements from large-eddy simulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A DC Microgrid Coordinated Control Strategy Based on Integrator Current-Sharing
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1116; doi:10.3390/en10081116
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 23 July 2017 / Accepted: 25 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4429 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The DC microgrid has become a new trend for microgrid study with the advantages of high reliability, simple control and low losses. With regard to the drawbacks of the traditional droop control strategies, an improved DC droop control strategy based on integrator current-sharing
[...] Read more.
The DC microgrid has become a new trend for microgrid study with the advantages of high reliability, simple control and low losses. With regard to the drawbacks of the traditional droop control strategies, an improved DC droop control strategy based on integrator current-sharing is introduced. In the strategy, the principle of eliminating deviation through an integrator is used, constructing the current-sharing term in order to make the power-sharing between different distributed generation (DG) units uniform and reasonable, which can reduce the circulating current between DG units. Furthermore, at the system coordinated control level, a hierarchical/droop control strategy based on the DC bus voltage is proposed. In the strategy, the operation modes of the AC main network and micro-sources are determined through detecting the DC voltage variation, which can ensure the power balance of the DC microgrid under different operating conditions. Meanwhile, communication is not needed between different DG units, while each DG unit needs to sample the DC bus voltage, which retains the plug-and-play feature of the DC microgrid. The proposed control strategy is validated by simulation on a DC microgrid with permanent magnet synchronous generator-based wind turbines, solar arrays and energy storage batteries, which can be applied to small commercial or residential buildings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Optimal Dynamic Analysis of Electrical/Electronic Components in Wind Turbines
Energies 2017, 10(8), 1111; doi:10.3390/en10081111
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
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Abstract
Electrical and electronic components are very important subcomponents in modern industrial wind turbines. Complex multimegawatt wind turbines are continuously being installed both onshore and offshore, continuously increasing the demand for sophisticated electronic and electrical components. In this work, most critical electrical and electronic
[...] Read more.
Electrical and electronic components are very important subcomponents in modern industrial wind turbines. Complex multimegawatt wind turbines are continuously being installed both onshore and offshore, continuously increasing the demand for sophisticated electronic and electrical components. In this work, most critical electrical and electronic components in industrial wind turbines have been identified and the applicability of appropriate condition monitoring processes simulated. A fault tree dynamic analysis has been carried out by binary decision diagrams to obtain the system failure probability over time and using different time increments to evaluate the system. This analysis allows critical electrical and electronic components of the converters to be identified in different conditions. The results can be used to develop a scheduled maintenance that improves the decision making and reduces the maintenance costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Miniature Wind Turbine for Wind Tunnel Experiments. Part II: Wake Structure and Flow Dynamics
Energies 2017, 10(7), 923; doi:10.3390/en10070923
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
An optimized three-bladed horizontal-axis miniature wind turbine, called WiRE-01, with the rotor diameter of 15 cm is designed and fully characterized in Part I of this study. In the current part of the study, we investigate the interaction of the turbine with a
[...] Read more.
An optimized three-bladed horizontal-axis miniature wind turbine, called WiRE-01, with the rotor diameter of 15 cm is designed and fully characterized in Part I of this study. In the current part of the study, we investigate the interaction of the turbine with a turbulent boundary layer. The comparison of the spectral density of the thrust force and the one of the incoming velocity revealed new insights on the use of turbine characteristics to estimate incoming flow conditions. High-resolution stereoscopic particle image-velocimetry (S-PIV) measurements were also performed in the wake of the turbine operating at optimal conditions. Detailed information on the velocity and turbulence structure of the turbine wake is presented and discussed, which can serve as a complete dataset for the validation of numerical models. The PIV data are also used to better understand the underlying mechanisms leading to unsteady loads on a downstream turbine at different streamwise and spanwise positions. To achieve this goal, a new method is developed to quantify and compare the effect of both turbulence and mean shear on the moment of the incoming momentum flux for a hypothetical turbine placed downstream. The results show that moment fluctuations caused by turbulence are bigger under full-wake conditions, whereas those caused by mean shear are clearly dominant under partial-wake conditions. Especial emphasis is also placed on how the mean wake flow distribution is affected by wake meandering. Conditional averaging based on the instantaneous position of the wake center revealed that when the wake meanders laterally to one side, a high-speed region exists on the opposite side. The results show that, due to this high-speed region, large lateral meandering motions do not lead to the expansion of the mean wake cross-section in the lateral direction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A New Miniature Wind Turbine for Wind Tunnel Experiments. Part I: Design and Performance
Energies 2017, 10(7), 908; doi:10.3390/en10070908
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 24 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Miniature wind turbines, employed in wind tunnel experiments to study the interaction of turbines with turbulent boundary layers, usually suffer from poor performance with respect to their large-scale counterparts in the field. Moreover, although wakes of wind turbines have been extensively examined in
[...] Read more.
Miniature wind turbines, employed in wind tunnel experiments to study the interaction of turbines with turbulent boundary layers, usually suffer from poor performance with respect to their large-scale counterparts in the field. Moreover, although wakes of wind turbines have been extensively examined in wind tunnel studies, the proper characterization of the performance of wind turbines has received relatively less attention. In this regard, the present study concerns the design and the performance analysis of a new three-bladed horizontal-axis miniature wind turbine with a rotor diameter of 15 cm. Due to its small size, this turbine, called WiRE-01, is particularly suitable for studies of wind farm flows and the interaction of the turbine with an incoming boundary-layer flow. Especial emphasis was placed on the accurate measurement of the mechanical power extracted by the miniature turbine from the incoming wind. In order to do so, a new setup was developed to directly measure the torque of the rotor shaft. Moreover, to provide a better understanding on the connection between the mechanical and electrical aspects of miniature wind turbines, the performance of three different direct-current (DC) generators was studied. It is found that electrical outputs of the tested generators can be used to provide a rather acceptable estimation of the mechanical input power. Force and power measurements showed that the thrust and power coefficients of the miniature turbine can reach 0.8 and 0.4 , respectively, which are close to the ones of large-scale turbines in the field. In Part II of this study, the wake structure and dynamic flow characteristics are studied for the new miniature turbine immersed in a turbulent boundary-layer flow. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wind Turbine Synchronous Reset Pitch Control
Energies 2017, 10(6), 770; doi:10.3390/en10060770
Received: 6 April 2017 / Revised: 22 May 2017 / Accepted: 27 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1696 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reset controllers are commonly used to smooth the transient response of systems. We use this technique to improve a standard baseline pitch controller for offshore wind turbines (WTs). The introduction of this strategy enhances the overall performance of the WT. In particular, the
[...] Read more.
Reset controllers are commonly used to smooth the transient response of systems. We use this technique to improve a standard baseline pitch controller for offshore wind turbines (WTs). The introduction of this strategy enhances the overall performance of the WT. In particular, the fore-aft and side-to-side accelerations of the WT tower are significantly reduced, whilst a steadier power output is obtained, in comparison to the standard baseline pitch controller. Furthermore, our designed pitch control’s main advantage, with respect to the baseline, is its ease of implementation and reduced complexity as it does not require a gain-scheduling technique, nor pitch position measurement (thus, it is insensitive to pitch sensor faults). The proposed approach has been simulated on the NREL 5-MW prototype offshore turbine model, mounted on a jacket support. The simulations are carried out using the aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulator FAST, and key observations are thoroughly discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sliding Mode Control of a Variable- Speed Wind Energy Conversion System Using a Squirrel Cage Induction Generator
Energies 2017, 10(5), 604; doi:10.3390/en10050604
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 1 May 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper deals with the control of a variable-speed wind energy conversion (WEC) system using a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) connected to the grid through a back-to-back three phase (AC-DC-AC) power converter. The sliding mode control technique is used to control the
[...] Read more.
This paper deals with the control of a variable-speed wind energy conversion (WEC) system using a squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) connected to the grid through a back-to-back three phase (AC-DC-AC) power converter. The sliding mode control technique is used to control the WEC system. The objective of the controllers is to force the states of the system to track their desired states. One controller is used to regulate the generator speed and the flux so that maximum power is extracted from the wind. Another controller is used to control the grid side converter, which controls the DC bus voltage and the active and reactive powers injected into the grid. The performance of the controlled wind energy conversion system is verified through MATLAB simulations, which show that the controlled system performs well. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Automatic Tracking of the Modal Parameters of an Offshore Wind Turbine Drivetrain System
Energies 2017, 10(4), 574; doi:10.3390/en10040574
Received: 20 February 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 19 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
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Abstract
An offshore wind turbine (OWT) is a complex structure that consists of different parts (e.g., foundation, tower, drivetrain, blades, et al.). The last decade, there has been continuous trend towards larger machines with the goal of cost reduction. Modal behavior is an important
[...] Read more.
An offshore wind turbine (OWT) is a complex structure that consists of different parts (e.g., foundation, tower, drivetrain, blades, et al.). The last decade, there has been continuous trend towards larger machines with the goal of cost reduction. Modal behavior is an important design aspect. For tackling noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) issues and validating complex simulation models, it is of high interest to continuously track the vibration levels and the evolution of the modal parameters (resonance frequencies, damping ratios, mode shapes) of the fundamental modes of the turbine. Wind turbines are multi-physical machines with significant interaction between their subcomponents. This paper will present the possibility of identifying and automatically tracking the structural vibration modes of the drivetrain system of an instrumented OWT by using signals (e.g., acceleration responses) measured on the drivetrain system. The experimental data has been obtained during a measurement campaign on an OWT in the Belgian North Sea where the OWT was in standstill condition. The drivetrain, more specifically the gearbox and generator, is instrumented with a dedicated measurement set-up consisting of 17 sensor channels with the aim to continuously track the vibration modes. The consistency of modal parameter estimates made at consequent 10-min intervals is validated, and the dominant drivetrain modal behavior is identified and automatically tracked. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbine Cast Components
Energies 2017, 10(4), 466; doi:10.3390/en10040466
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
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Abstract
The fatigue life of wind turbine cast components, such as the main shaft in a drivetrain, is generally determined by defects from the casting process. These defects may reduce the fatigue life and they are generally distributed randomly in components. The foundries, cutting
[...] Read more.
The fatigue life of wind turbine cast components, such as the main shaft in a drivetrain, is generally determined by defects from the casting process. These defects may reduce the fatigue life and they are generally distributed randomly in components. The foundries, cutting facilities and test facilities can affect the verification of properties by testing. Hence, it is important to have a tool to identify which foundry, cutting and/or test facility produces components which, based on the relevant uncertainties, have the largest expected fatigue life or, alternatively, have the largest reliability to be used for decision-making if additional cost considerations are added. In this paper, a statistical approach is presented based on statistical hypothesis testing and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) which can be applied to compare different groups (manufacturers, suppliers, test facilities, etc.) and to quantify the relevant uncertainties using available fatigue tests. Illustrative results are presented as obtained by statistical analysis of a large set of fatigue data for casted test components typically used for wind turbines. Furthermore, the SN curves (fatigue life curves based on applied stress) for fatigue assessment are estimated based on the statistical analyses and by introduction of physical, model and statistical uncertainties used for the illustration of reliability assessment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Power Loss Analysis for Wind Power Grid Integration Based on Weibull Distribution
Energies 2017, 10(4), 463; doi:10.3390/en10040463
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 29 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
PDF Full-text (3115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growth of electrical demand increases the need of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, to meet that need. Electrical power losses are an important factor when wind farm location and size are selected. The capitalized cost of constant power losses during
[...] Read more.
The growth of electrical demand increases the need of renewable energy sources, such as wind energy, to meet that need. Electrical power losses are an important factor when wind farm location and size are selected. The capitalized cost of constant power losses during the life of a wind farm will continue to high levels. During the operation period, a method to determine if the losses meet the requirements of the design is significantly needed. This article presents a Simulink simulation of wind farm integration into the grid; the aim is to achieve a better understanding of wind variation impact on grid losses. The real power losses are set as a function of the annual variation, considering a Weibull distribution. An analytical method has been used to select the size and placement of a wind farm, taking into account active power loss reduction. It proposes a fast linear model estimation to find the optimal capacity of a wind farm based on DC power flow and graph theory. The results show that the analytical approach is capable of predicting the optimal size and location of wind turbines. Furthermore, it revealed that the annual variation of wind speed could have a strong effect on real power loss calculations. In addition to helping to improve utility efficiency, the proposed method can develop specific designs to speeding up integration of wind farms into grids. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Wind Turbine Power Curve Design for Optimal Power Generation in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effect
Energies 2017, 10(3), 395; doi:10.3390/en10030395
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10909 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind
[...] Read more.
In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to its downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. According to the wake model, downstream power loss is also determined by the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of the upstream wind turbine. By optimizing the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of each wind turbine, the total active power of the wind farm can be increased. In this paper, the optimal pitch angle and tip speed ratio are selected for each wind turbine by the exhausted search. Considering the estimation error of the wake model, a solution to implement the optimized pitch angle and tip speed ratio is proposed, which is to generate the optimal control curves for each individual wind turbine off-line. In typical wind farms with regular layout, based on the detailed analysis of the influence of pitch angle and tip speed ratio on the total active power of the wind farm by the exhausted search, the optimization is simplified with the reduced computation complexity. By using the optimized control curves, the annual energy production (AEP) is increased by 1.03% compared to using the MPPT method in a case-study of a typical eighty-turbine wind farm. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wind Farm Wake: The 2016 Horns Rev Photo Case
Energies 2017, 10(3), 317; doi:10.3390/en10030317
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
PDF Full-text (8722 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake
[...] Read more.
Offshore wind farm wakes were observed and photographed in foggy conditions at Horns Rev 2 on 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC. These new images show highly contrasting conditions regarding the wind speed, turbulence intensity, atmospheric stability, weather conditions and wind farm wake development as compared to the Horns Rev 1 photographs from 12 February 2008. The paper examines the atmospheric conditions from satellite images, radiosondes, lidar and wind turbine data and compares the observations to results from atmospheric meso-scale modelling and large eddy simulation. Key findings are that a humid and warm air mass was advected from the southwest over cold sea and the dew-point temperature was such that cold-water advection fog formed in a shallow layer. The flow was stably stratified and the freestream wind speed was 13 m/s at hub height, which means that most turbines produced at or near rated power. The wind direction was southwesterly and long, narrow wakes persisted several rotor diameters downwind of the wind turbines. Eventually mixing of warm air from aloft dispersed the fog in the far wake region of the wind farm. Full article
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2016

Jump to: 2017, 2015, 2014

Open AccessArticle Experimental and Simulation Studies of Strength and Fracture Behaviors of Wind Turbine Bearing Steel Processed by High Pressure Torsion
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1033; doi:10.3390/en9121033
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 30 November 2016 / Accepted: 2 December 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
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Abstract
White structure flaking (WSF) has been found to be one of the failure modes in bearing steels under rolling contacts through the formation of cracks associated with a microstructural change called white etching area (WEA). In the present research, the effects of the
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White structure flaking (WSF) has been found to be one of the failure modes in bearing steels under rolling contacts through the formation of cracks associated with a microstructural change called white etching area (WEA). In the present research, the effects of the high-pressure torsion (HPT) process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an AISI 52100 alloy are studied. An annealed AISI 52100 was subjected to high-pressure torsion at room temperature under a pressure of up to ~6 GPa for up to three turns. Finite-element modeling (FEM) was used to simulate the process under high-pressure torsion and quasi-constrained conditions to reveal the material property changes occurring in HPT. Scanning electron microscopy and microhardness testing after processing were used to investigate the microstructural and mechanical property evolution of the steel. Strain induced microstructural transformations occur and affect the mechanical properties in a similar way to the well-known white etching area (WEA) found beneath the surface of wind turbine bearings. Here, HPT is used to study the feasibility of creating microstructural changes that are similar to WEA. This paper presents the preliminary results of using HPT to produce WEAs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inverse Aerodynamic Optimization Considering Impacts of Design Tip Speed Ratio for Variable-Speed Wind Turbines
Energies 2016, 9(12), 1023; doi:10.3390/en9121023
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
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Abstract
Because of the slow dynamic behavior of the large-inertia wind turbine rotor, variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs) are actually unable to keep operating at the design tip speed ratio (TSR) during the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) process. Moreover, it has been pointed out
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Because of the slow dynamic behavior of the large-inertia wind turbine rotor, variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs) are actually unable to keep operating at the design tip speed ratio (TSR) during the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) process. Moreover, it has been pointed out that although a larger design TSR can increase the maximum power coefficient, it also greatly prolongs the MPPT process of VSWTs. Consequently, turbines spend more time operating at the off-design TSRs and the wind energy capture efficiency is decreased. Therefore, in the inverse aerodynamic design of VSWTs, the static aerodynamic performance (i.e., the maximum power coefficient) and the dynamic process of MPPT should be comprehensively modeled for determining an appropriate design TSR. In this paper, based on the inverse design method, an aerodynamic optimization method for VSWTs, fully considering the impacts of the design TSR on the static and dynamic behavior of wind turbines is proposed. In this method, to achieve higher wind energy production, the design TSR, chord length and twist angle are jointly optimized, which is structurally different from the conventional separated design procedure. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by simulation results based on the Bladed software. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Numerical Investigation of Wind Conditions for Roof-Mounted Wind Turbines: Effects of Wind Direction and Horizontal Aspect Ratio of a High-Rise Cuboid Building
Energies 2016, 9(11), 907; doi:10.3390/en9110907
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 23 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract
From the viewpoint of installing small wind turbines (SWTs) on rooftops, this study investigated the effects of wind direction and horizontal aspect ratio (HAR = width/length) of a high-rise cuboid building on wind conditions above the roof by conducting large eddy simulations (LESs).
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From the viewpoint of installing small wind turbines (SWTs) on rooftops, this study investigated the effects of wind direction and horizontal aspect ratio (HAR = width/length) of a high-rise cuboid building on wind conditions above the roof by conducting large eddy simulations (LESs). The LES results confirmed that as HAR decreases (i.e., as the building width decreases), the variation in wind velocity over the roof tends to decrease. This tendency is more prominent as the angle between the wind direction and the normal vector of the building’s leeward face with longer roof edge increases. Moreover, at windward corners of the roof, wind conditions are generally favorable at relatively low heights. In contrast, at the midpoint of the roof's windward edge, wind conditions are generally not favorable at relatively low heights. At leeward representative locations of the roof, the bottoms of the height range of favorable wind conditions are typically higher than those at the windward representative locations, but the favorable wind conditions are much better at the leeward representative locations. When there is no prevailing wind direction, the center of the roof is more favorable for installing SWTs than the corners or the edge midpoints of the roof. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Short-Term Outage Model of Wind Turbines with Doubly Fed Induction Generators Based on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Data
Energies 2016, 9(11), 882; doi:10.3390/en9110882
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
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Abstract
This paper presents a short-term wind turbine (WT) outage model based on the data collected from a wind farm supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. Neural networks (NNs) are used to establish prediction models of the WT condition parameters that are dependent
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This paper presents a short-term wind turbine (WT) outage model based on the data collected from a wind farm supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. Neural networks (NNs) are used to establish prediction models of the WT condition parameters that are dependent on environmental conditions such as ambient temperature and wind speed. The prediction error distributions are discussed and used to calculate probabilities of the operation of protection relays (POPRs) that were caused by the threshold exceedance of the environmentally sensitive parameters. The POPRs for other condition parameters are based on the setting time of the operation of protection relays. The union probability method is used to integrate the probabilities of operation of each protection relay to predict the WT short term outage probability. The proposed method has been used for real 1.5 MW WTs with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). The results show that the proposed method is more effective in WT outage probability prediction than traditional methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fuzzy Logic Based Multi-Criteria Wind Turbine Selection Strategy—A Case Study of Qassim, Saudi Arabia
Energies 2016, 9(11), 872; doi:10.3390/en9110872
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
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Abstract
The emergence of wind energy as a potential alternative to traditional sources of fuel has prompted notable research in recent years. One primary factor contributing to efficient utilization of wind energy from a wind farm is the type of turbines used. However, selection
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The emergence of wind energy as a potential alternative to traditional sources of fuel has prompted notable research in recent years. One primary factor contributing to efficient utilization of wind energy from a wind farm is the type of turbines used. However, selection of a specific wind turbine type is a difficult task due to several criteria involved in the selection process. Important criteria include turbine’s power rating, height of tower, energy output, rotor diameter, cut-in wind speed, and rated wind speed. The complexity of this selection process is further amplified by the presence of conflicts between the decision criteria. Therefore, a decision is desired that provides the best balance between all selection criteria. Considering the complexities involved in the decision-making process, this paper proposes a two-level decision turbine selection strategy based on fuzzy logic and multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach. More specifically, the fuzzy arithmetic mean operator is used in the decision process. The proposed approach is applied to wind data collected from the site of Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Results indicate that the proposed approach was effective in finding the optimal turbine from a set of 20 turbines of various capacities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Vertical-Axis Off-Grid Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator Wind Power System
Energies 2016, 9(10), 822; doi:10.3390/en9100822
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 9 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
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Abstract
In order to broaden the limited utilization range of wind power and improve the charging and discharging control performance of the storage battery in traditional small wind power generation systems, a wind power system based on a vertical-axis off-grid induction generator is proposed
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In order to broaden the limited utilization range of wind power and improve the charging and discharging control performance of the storage battery in traditional small wind power generation systems, a wind power system based on a vertical-axis off-grid induction generator is proposed in this paper. The induction generator not only can run in a wide wind speed range but can also assist the vertical-axis wind turbine to realize self-starting at low wind speed. Combined with the maximum power point tracking method, the slip frequency control strategy is employed to regulate the pulse width modulation (PWM) converter to control the output power of the proposed system when the wind speed and load change. The charge and discharge of the storage battery is realized by the segmented current-limiting control strategy by means of an electric power unloader device connected to the DC bus. All these implement a balanced and stable operation of the proposed power generation system. The experimental research on the 5.5 kW prototype system is developed, and the corresponding results verify the correctness and feasibility of the system design and control strategy. Some comparison experiments with a magnetic suspension permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) demonstrate the application prospect of the proposed vertical-axis off-grid induction generator wind power system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Pitch Control System of a Large Wind Turbine Using Two-Degree-of-Freedom Motion Control with Feedback Linearization Control
Energies 2016, 9(10), 791; doi:10.3390/en9100791
Received: 13 July 2016 / Revised: 9 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
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Abstract
Pitch Control plays a significant role for a large wind turbine. This study investigates a novel robust hydraulic pitch control system of a large wind turbine. The novel hydraulic pitch control system is driven by a novel high efficiency and high response hydraulic
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Pitch Control plays a significant role for a large wind turbine. This study investigates a novel robust hydraulic pitch control system of a large wind turbine. The novel hydraulic pitch control system is driven by a novel high efficiency and high response hydraulic servo system. The pitch controller, designed by two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) motion control with feedback linearization, is developed to enhance the controllability and stability of the pitch control system. Furthermore, the full-scale testbed of the hydraulic pitch control system of a large wind turbine is developed for practically experimental verification. Besides, the wind turbine simulation software FAST is used to analyze the motion of the blade which results are given to the testbed as the disturbance load command. The 2-DOF pitch controller contains a feedforward controller with feedback linearization theory to overcome the nonlinearities of the system and a feedback controller to improve the system robustness for achieving the disturbance rejection. Consequently, the novel hydraulic pitch control system shows excellent path tracking performance in the experiments. Moreover, the robustness test with a simulated disturbance load generated by FAST is performed to validate the reliability of the proposed pitch control system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study on the Wake of a Miniature Wind Turbine Using the Reynolds Stress Model
Energies 2016, 9(10), 784; doi:10.3390/en9100784
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 13 September 2016 / Published: 28 September 2016
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Abstract
The Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) is adopted to simulate the wind turbine wake and the simulation results are compared with the wind tunnel test data, simulation results from the standard k-ε model and a modified k-ε model. RSM shows good performance in predicting
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The Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) is adopted to simulate the wind turbine wake and the simulation results are compared with the wind tunnel test data, simulation results from the standard k-ε model and a modified k-ε model. RSM shows good performance in predicting the turbine wakes velocity, turbulence intensity and the kinetic shear stress, while the k-ε based models fail to predict either wakes velocity or turbulence intensity. Simulation results show that the wake velocity will be recovered up to 90% at around 10 D downstream of the turbine (D denotes turbine rotor diameter) and it stops at 91% at around 16 D downstream. The wake turbulence intensity reaches a maximum at around 5 D downstream of turbine. Further investigation shows that the horizontal profile of the wakes velocity can be approximated by a Gaussian distribution, and the turbulence intensity can be approximated by a bimodal distribution. The influence of the wakes effect is limited to within ±D in the across-wind direction. The turbine wakes show clear anisotropy, which could explain the incorrect estimation on the turbulence intensity with the extended k-ε model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Coherence Effects on the Power and Tower Loads of a 7 × 2 MW Multi-Rotor Wind Turbine System
Energies 2016, 9(9), 742; doi:10.3390/en9090742
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 23 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 13 September 2016
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Abstract
A multi-rotor system (MRS), in which multiple wind turbines are placed on one tower, is a promising concept for super-large wind turbines at over 10 MW due to the cost and weight advantages. The coherence effects on an MRS were investigated in this
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A multi-rotor system (MRS), in which multiple wind turbines are placed on one tower, is a promising concept for super-large wind turbines at over 10 MW due to the cost and weight advantages. The coherence effects on an MRS were investigated in this study. Although a wide range of coherences were measured so far, a decay constant of C = 12 is recommended in the IEC61400-1 standard. Dynamic simulations were performed for a 14-MW MRS, which consists of seven 2-MW turbines and includes wind models with three different coherences. Although the results show that a larger coherence increases the output power and the collective loads due to tower base fore-aft bending, it reduces the differential loads due to tower-base torque and tower-top nodding. The most significant case is the fatigue damage due to tower base fore-aft bending, which was more than doubled between the decay constants of C = 6 and C = 12. The present results indicate that the coherence should be defined carefully in the design of large-scale MRSs because its effect on them is not straightforward. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Axial Dynamic Stiffness of Tubular Piles in Viscoelastic Soil
Energies 2016, 9(9), 734; doi:10.3390/en9090734
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 20 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 10 September 2016
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Abstract
Large offshore wind turbines are founded on jacket structures. In this study, an elastic full-space jacket structure foundation in an elastic and viscoelastic medium is investigated by using boundary integral equations. The jacket structure foundation is modeled as a hollow, long circular cylinder
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Large offshore wind turbines are founded on jacket structures. In this study, an elastic full-space jacket structure foundation in an elastic and viscoelastic medium is investigated by using boundary integral equations. The jacket structure foundation is modeled as a hollow, long circular cylinder when the dynamic vertical excitation is applied. The smooth surface along the entire interface is considered. The Betti reciprocal theorem along with Somigliana’s identity and Green’s function are employed to drive the dynamic stiffness of jacket structures. Modes of the resonance and anti-resonance are presented in series of Bessel’s function. Important responses, such as dynamic stiffness and phase angle, are compared for different values of the loss factor as the material damping, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio in a viscoelastic soil. Results are verified with known results reported in the literature. It is observed that the dynamic stiffness fluctuates with the loss factor, and the turning point is independent of the loss factor while the turning point increases with load frequency. It is seen that the non-dimensional dynamic stiffness is dependent on Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, whilst the phase angle is independent of the properties of the soil. It is shown that the non-dimensional dynamic stiffness changes linearly with high-frequency load. The conclusion from the results of this study is that the material properties of soil are significant parameters in the dynamic stiffness of jacket structures, and the presented approach can unfold the behavior of soil and give an approachable physical meaning for wave propagation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of Load Bearing Characteristics of Jacket Foundation Piles for Offshore Wind Turbines in Taiwan
Energies 2016, 9(8), 625; doi:10.3390/en9080625
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
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Abstract
This paper presents a pioneering study on numerical modeling of load bearing characteristics of the jacket foundation pile for offshore wind turbines on the west coast of Taiwan. Because Taiwan is located in an earthquake prone area, there is significant interest in improving
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This paper presents a pioneering study on numerical modeling of load bearing characteristics of the jacket foundation pile for offshore wind turbines on the west coast of Taiwan. Because Taiwan is located in an earthquake prone area, there is significant interest in improving the prediction of the behavior of wind turbine jacket foundations subjected to seismic loading. Investigation of the bearing capacity of the jacket foundation pile for the offshore wind farm using effective stress analysis, with consideration of pore pressure generation and soil/liquid coupled analysis, was conducted. A new procedure to evaluate the design of offshore wind turbine foundation piles in the sand and clay inter-layered soil was also proposed. Static and dynamic analyses of bearing capacity of the jacket foundation pile were conducted. Results obtained demonstrate that the design process for the jacket foundation pile proposed in this study can properly reflect the interaction behavior of the foundation and the soil. In addition, the pore pressure generation model can be used to simulate soil liquefaction. The proposed method is also very useful in the evaluation of the design capabilities of offshore wind turbine jacket foundations. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review of Research on Large Scale Modern Vertical Axis Wind Turbines at Uppsala University
Energies 2016, 9(7), 570; doi:10.3390/en9070570
Received: 30 May 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
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Abstract
This paper presents a review of over a decade of research on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) conducted at Uppsala University. The paper presents, among others, an overview of the 200 kW VAWT located in Falkenberg, Sweden, as well as a description of
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This paper presents a review of over a decade of research on Vertical Axis Wind Turbines (VAWTs) conducted at Uppsala University. The paper presents, among others, an overview of the 200 kW VAWT located in Falkenberg, Sweden, as well as a description of the work done on the 12 kW prototype VAWT in Marsta, Sweden. Several key aspects have been tested and successfully demonstrated at our two experimental research sites. The effort of the VAWT research has been aimed at developing a robust large scale VAWT technology based on an electrical control system with a direct driven energy converter. This approach allows for a simplification where most or all of the control of the turbines can be managed by the electrical converter system, reducing investment cost and need for maintenance. The concept features an H-rotor that is omnidirectional in regards to wind direction, meaning that it can extract energy from all wind directions without the need for a yaw system. The turbine is connected to a direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), located at ground level, that is specifically developed to control and extract power from the turbine. The research is ongoing and aims for a multi-megawatt VAWT in the near future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study of Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making Methods under Stochastic Inputs
Energies 2016, 9(7), 566; doi:10.3390/en9070566
Received: 21 April 2016 / Revised: 4 July 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
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Abstract
This paper presents an application and extension of multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods to account for stochastic input variables. More in particular, a comparative study is carried out among well-known and widely-applied methods in MCDM, when applied to the reference problem of the selection
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This paper presents an application and extension of multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods to account for stochastic input variables. More in particular, a comparative study is carried out among well-known and widely-applied methods in MCDM, when applied to the reference problem of the selection of wind turbine support structures for a given deployment location. Along with data from industrial experts, six deterministic MCDM methods are studied, so as to determine the best alternative among the available options, assessed against selected criteria with a view toward assigning confidence levels to each option. Following an overview of the literature around MCDM problems, the best practice implementation of each method is presented aiming to assist stakeholders and decision-makers to support decisions in real-world applications, where many and often conflicting criteria are present within uncertain environments. The outcomes of this research highlight that more sophisticated methods, such as technique for the order of preference by similarity to the ideal solution (TOPSIS) and Preference Ranking Organization method for enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE), better predict the optimum design alternative. Full article
Open AccessArticle On Real-Time Fault Detection in Wind Turbines: Sensor Selection Algorithm and Detection Time Reduction Analysis
Energies 2016, 9(7), 520; doi:10.3390/en9070520
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 16 June 2016 / Accepted: 30 June 2016 / Published: 5 July 2016
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Abstract
In this paper, we address the problem of real-time fault detection in wind turbines. Starting from a data-driven fault detection method, the contribution of this paper is twofold. First, a sensor selection algorithm is proposed with the goal to reduce the computational effort
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In this paper, we address the problem of real-time fault detection in wind turbines. Starting from a data-driven fault detection method, the contribution of this paper is twofold. First, a sensor selection algorithm is proposed with the goal to reduce the computational effort of the fault detection method. Second, an analysis is performed to reduce the data acquisition time needed by the fault detection method, that is, with the goal of reducing the fault detection time. The proposed methods are tested in a benchmark wind turbine where different actuator and sensor failures are simulated. The results demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms that dramatically reduce the number of sensors and the fault detection time. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis and Solution for Operations of Overcurrent Relay in Wind Power System
Energies 2016, 9(6), 458; doi:10.3390/en9060458
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 June 2016 / Published: 16 June 2016
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Abstract
Wind power systems are being integrated increasingly into the power grid because of their large capacity and easy access to the transmission grid. The reliability of wind power plants is very important and the elimination of protective relay’s malfunctions is essential to the
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Wind power systems are being integrated increasingly into the power grid because of their large capacity and easy access to the transmission grid. The reliability of wind power plants is very important and the elimination of protective relay’s malfunctions is essential to the mitigation of power quality problems due to the frequent starts and stops of high capacity wind generators. In this study, the problem of frequent false operations of the protective relays are analyzed using real data as line voltages, line currents, and wind speed. A new re-coordination of the overcurrent relay (OCR) based on the wind speed is proposed to avoid frequent operations of relays and tested for a grid-connected wind farm. This study verifies that the false actions by the OCRs that are not accompanied by actual electrical faults in the power grid or wind power system can be solved by the appropriate re-coordination of the OCR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Application of a Heat Flux Sensor in Wind Power Electronics
Energies 2016, 9(6), 456; doi:10.3390/en9060456
Received: 1 February 2016 / Revised: 23 May 2016 / Accepted: 6 June 2016 / Published: 14 June 2016
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Abstract
This paper proposes and investigates the application of the gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS) for measuring the local heat flux in power electronics. Thanks to its thinness, the sensor can be placed between the semiconductor module and the heat sink. The GHFS has
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This paper proposes and investigates the application of the gradient heat flux sensor (GHFS) for measuring the local heat flux in power electronics. Thanks to its thinness, the sensor can be placed between the semiconductor module and the heat sink. The GHFS has high sensitivity and yields direct measurements without an interruption to the normal power device operation, which makes it attractive for power electronics applications. The development of systems for monitoring thermal loading and methods for online detection of degradation and failure of power electronic devices is a topical and crucial task. However, online condition monitoring (CM) methods, which include heat flux sensors, have received little research attention so far. In the current research, an insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module-based test setup with the GHFS implemented on the base plate of one of the IGBTs is introduced. The heat flux experiments and the IGBT power losses obtained by simulations show similar results. The findings give clear evidence that the GHFS can provide an attractive condition monitoring method for the thermal loading of power devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wind Turbine Driving a PM Synchronous Generator Using Novel Recurrent Chebyshev Neural Network Control with the Ideal Learning Rate
Energies 2016, 9(6), 441; doi:10.3390/en9060441
Received: 4 March 2016 / Revised: 24 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 9 June 2016
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Abstract
A permanent magnet (PM) synchronous generator system driven by wind turbine (WT), connected with smart grid via AC-DC converter and DC-AC converter, are controlled by the novel recurrent Chebyshev neural network (NN) and amended particle swarm optimization (PSO) to regulate output power and
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A permanent magnet (PM) synchronous generator system driven by wind turbine (WT), connected with smart grid via AC-DC converter and DC-AC converter, are controlled by the novel recurrent Chebyshev neural network (NN) and amended particle swarm optimization (PSO) to regulate output power and output voltage in two power converters in this study. Because a PM synchronous generator system driven by WT is an unknown non-linear and time-varying dynamic system, the on-line training novel recurrent Chebyshev NN control system is developed to regulate DC voltage of the AC-DC converter and AC voltage of the DC-AC converter connected with smart grid. Furthermore, the variable learning rate of the novel recurrent Chebyshev NN is regulated according to discrete-type Lyapunov function for improving the control performance and enhancing convergent speed. Finally, some experimental results are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method for a WT driving a PM synchronous generator system in smart grid. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Point Method Considering the Maximum Power Point Tracking Dynamic Process for Aerodynamic Optimization of Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Blades
Energies 2016, 9(6), 425; doi:10.3390/en9060425
Received: 15 February 2016 / Revised: 22 May 2016 / Accepted: 23 May 2016 / Published: 31 May 2016
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Abstract
Due to the dynamic process of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) caused by turbulence and large rotor inertia, variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs) cannot maintain the optimal tip speed ratio (TSR) from cut-in wind speed up to the rated speed. Therefore, in order to
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Due to the dynamic process of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) caused by turbulence and large rotor inertia, variable-speed wind turbines (VSWTs) cannot maintain the optimal tip speed ratio (TSR) from cut-in wind speed up to the rated speed. Therefore, in order to increase the total captured wind energy, the existing aerodynamic design for VSWT blades, which only focuses on performance improvement at a single TSR, needs to be improved to a multi-point design. In this paper, based on a closed-loop system of VSWTs, including turbulent wind, rotor, drive train and MPPT controller, the distribution of operational TSR and its description based on inflow wind energy are investigated. Moreover, a multi-point method considering the MPPT dynamic process for the aerodynamic optimization of VSWT blades is proposed. In the proposed method, the distribution of operational TSR is obtained through a dynamic simulation of the closed-loop system under a specific turbulent wind, and accordingly the multiple design TSRs and the corresponding weighting coefficients in the objective function are determined. Finally, using the blade of a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 1.5 MW wind turbine as the baseline, the proposed method is compared with the conventional single-point optimization method using the commercial software Bladed. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Large-Eddy Simulation Study of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Wakes in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Energies 2016, 9(5), 366; doi:10.3390/en9050366
Received: 29 March 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (6447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In a future sustainable energy vision, in which diversified conversion of renewable energies is essential, vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) exhibit some potential as a reliable means of wind energy extraction alongside conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Nevertheless, there is currently a
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In a future sustainable energy vision, in which diversified conversion of renewable energies is essential, vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) exhibit some potential as a reliable means of wind energy extraction alongside conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs). Nevertheless, there is currently a relative shortage of scientific, academic and technical investigations of VAWTs as compared to HAWTs. Having this in mind, in this work, we aim to, for the first time, study the wake of a single VAWT placed in the atmospheric boundary layer using large-eddy simulation (LES). To do this, we use a previously-validated LES framework in which an actuator line model (ALM) is incorporated. First, for a typical three- and straight-bladed 1-MW VAWT design, the variation of the power coefficient with both the chord length of the blades and the tip-speed ratio is analyzed by performing 117 simulations using LES-ALM. The optimum combination of solidity (defined as N c / R , where N is the number of blades, c is the chord length and R is the rotor radius) and tip-speed ratio is found to be 0.18 and 4.5, respectively. Subsequently, the wake of a VAWT with these optimum specifications is thoroughly examined by showing different relevant mean and turbulence wake flow statistics. It is found that for this case, the maximum velocity deficit at the equator height of the turbine occurs 2.7 rotor diameters downstream of the center of the turbine, and only after that point, the wake starts to recover. Moreover, it is observed that the maximum turbulence intensity (TI) at the equator height of the turbine occurs at a distance of about 3.8 rotor diameters downstream of the turbine. As we move towards the upper and lower edges of the turbine, the maximum TI (at a certain height) increases, and its location moves relatively closer to the turbine. Furthermore, whereas both TI and turbulent momentum flux fields show clear vertical asymmetries (with larger magnitudes at the upper wake edge compared to the ones at the lower edge), only slight lateral asymmetries were observed at the optimum tip-speed ratio for which the simulations were performed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experiments on the Performance of Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine with Passive Pitch Control by Disk Pulley
Energies 2016, 9(5), 353; doi:10.3390/en9050353
Received: 23 March 2016 / Revised: 3 May 2016 / Accepted: 4 May 2016 / Published: 7 May 2016
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Abstract
The present work is to design a passive pitch-control mechanism for small horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) to generate stable power at high wind speeds. The mechanism uses a disk pulley as an actuator to passively adjust the pitch angle of blades by
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The present work is to design a passive pitch-control mechanism for small horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) to generate stable power at high wind speeds. The mechanism uses a disk pulley as an actuator to passively adjust the pitch angle of blades by centrifugal force. For this design, aerodynamic braking is caused by the adjustment of pitch angles at high wind speeds. As a marked advantage, this does not require mechanical brakes that would incur electrical burn-out and structural failure under high speed rotation. This can ensure the survival of blades and generator in sever operation environments. In this paper, the analysis uses blade element momentum theory (BEMT) to develop graphical user interface software to facilitate the performance assessment of the small-scale HAWT using passive pitch control (PPC). For verification, the HAWT system was tested in a full-scale wind tunnel for its aerodynamic performance. At low wind speeds, this system performed the same as usual, yet at high wind speeds, the equipped PPC system can effectively reduce the rotational speed to generate stable power. Full article
Open AccessArticle Optimal Coordinated Control of Power Extraction in LES of a Wind Farm with Entrance Effects
Energies 2016, 9(1), 29; doi:10.3390/en9010029
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 24 December 2015 / Accepted: 29 December 2015 / Published: 6 January 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (3689 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We investigate the use of optimal coordinated control techniques in large eddy simulations of wind farm boundary layer interaction with the aim of increasing the total energy extraction in wind farms. The individual wind turbines are considered as flow actuators, and their energy
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We investigate the use of optimal coordinated control techniques in large eddy simulations of wind farm boundary layer interaction with the aim of increasing the total energy extraction in wind farms. The individual wind turbines are considered as flow actuators, and their energy extraction is dynamically regulated in time, so as to optimally influence the flow field. We extend earlier work on wind farm optimal control in the fully-developed regime (Goit and Meyers 2015, J. Fluid Mech. 768, 5–50) to a ‘finite’ wind farm case, in which entrance effects play an important role. For the optimal control, a receding horizon framework is employed in which turbine thrust coefficients are optimized in time and per turbine. Optimization is performed with a conjugate gradient method, where gradients of the cost functional are obtained using adjoint large eddy simulations. Overall, the energy extraction is increased 7% by the optimal control. This increase in energy extraction is related to faster wake recovery throughout the farm. For the first row of turbines, the optimal control increases turbulence levels and Reynolds stresses in the wake, leading to better wake mixing and an inflow velocity for the second row that is significantly higher than in the uncontrolled case. For downstream rows, the optimal control mainly enhances the sideways mean transport of momentum. This is different from earlier observations by Goit and Meyers (2015) in the fully-developed regime, where mainly vertical transport was enhanced. Full article

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Open AccessArticle Hybrid Intelligent Control Method to Improve the Frequency Support Capability of Wind Energy Conversion Systems
Energies 2015, 8(10), 11430-11451; doi:10.3390/en81011430
Received: 10 August 2015 / Revised: 21 September 2015 / Accepted: 29 September 2015 / Published: 13 October 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a hybrid intelligent control method that enables frequency support control for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) wind turbines. The proposed method for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) is designed to have PMSG modeling and full-scale back-to-back insulated-gate bipolar transistor
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This paper presents a hybrid intelligent control method that enables frequency support control for permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) wind turbines. The proposed method for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) is designed to have PMSG modeling and full-scale back-to-back insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) converters comprising the machine and grid side. The controller of the machine side converter (MSC) and the grid side converter (GSC) are designed to achieve maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on an improved hill climb searching (IHCS) control algorithm and de-loaded (DL) operation to obtain a power margin. Along with this comprehensive control of maximum power tracking mode based on the IHCS, a method for kinetic energy (KE) discharge control of the supporting primary frequency control scheme with DL operation is developed to regulate the short-term frequency response and maintain reliable operation of the power system. The effectiveness of the hybrid intelligent control method is verified by a numerical simulation in PSCAD/EMTDC. Simulation results show that the proposed approach can improve the frequency regulation capability in the power system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Fault Current Characteristics of the DFIG under Asymmetrical Fault Conditions
Energies 2015, 8(10), 10971-10992; doi:10.3390/en81010971
Received: 20 July 2015 / Revised: 7 September 2015 / Accepted: 16 September 2015 / Published: 30 September 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame.
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During non-severe fault conditions, crowbar protection is not activated and the rotor windings of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) are excited by the AC/DC/AC converter. Meanwhile, under asymmetrical fault conditions, the electrical variables oscillate at twice the grid frequency in synchronous dq frame. In the engineering practice, notch filters are usually used to extract the positive and negative sequence components. In these cases, the dynamic response of a rotor-side converter (RSC) and the notch filters have a large influence on the fault current characteristics of the DFIG. In this paper, the influence of the notch filters on the proportional integral (PI) parameters is discussed and the simplified calculation models of the rotor current are established. Then, the dynamic performance of the stator flux linkage under asymmetrical fault conditions is also analyzed. Based on this, the fault characteristics of the stator current under asymmetrical fault conditions are studied and the corresponding analytical expressions of the stator fault current are obtained. Finally, digital simulation results validate the analytical results. The research results are helpful to meet the requirements of a practical short-circuit calculation and the construction of a relaying protection system for the power grid with penetration of DFIGs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Various Excitation Conditions on Vibrational Energy in a Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Torsional System with Piecewise-Type Nonlinearities
Energies 2015, 8(10), 10861-10882; doi:10.3390/en81010861
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 22 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
PDF Full-text (2278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dynamic behaviors in practical driveline systems for wind turbines or vehicles are inherently affected by multiple nonlinearities such as piecewise-type torsional springs. However, various excitation conditions with different levels of magnitudes also show strong relationships to the dynamic behaviors when system responses are
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Dynamic behaviors in practical driveline systems for wind turbines or vehicles are inherently affected by multiple nonlinearities such as piecewise-type torsional springs. However, various excitation conditions with different levels of magnitudes also show strong relationships to the dynamic behaviors when system responses are examined in both frequency and time domains. This study investigated the nonlinear responses of torsional systems under various excitations by using the harmonic balance method and numerical analysis. In order to understand the effect of piecewise-type nonlinearities on vibrational energy with different excitations, the nonlinear responses were investigated with various comparisons. First, two different jumping phenomena with frequency up- and down-sweeping conditions were determined under severe excitation levels. Second, practical system analysis using the phase plane and Poincaré map was conducted in various ways. When the system responses were composed of quasi-periodic components, Poincaré map analysis clearly revealed the nonlinear dynamic characteristics and thus it is suggested to investigate complicated nonlinear dynamic responses in practical driveline systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Switched Capacitor Based AC/DC Resonant Converter for High Frequency AC Power Generation
Energies 2015, 8(10), 10842-10860; doi:10.3390/en81010842
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 5 September 2015 / Accepted: 14 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3139 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A switched capacitor based AC-DC resonant power converter is proposed for high frequency power generation output conversion. This converter is suitable for small scale, high frequency wind power generation. It has a high conversion ratio to provide a step down from high voltage
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A switched capacitor based AC-DC resonant power converter is proposed for high frequency power generation output conversion. This converter is suitable for small scale, high frequency wind power generation. It has a high conversion ratio to provide a step down from high voltage to low voltage for easy use. The voltage conversion ratio of conventional switched capacitor power converters is fixed to n, 1/n or −1/n (n is the switched capacitor cell). In this paper, A circuit which can provide n, 1/n and 2n/m of the voltage conversion ratio is presented (n is stepping up the switched capacitor cell, m is stepping down the switching capacitor cell). The conversion ratio can be changed greatly by using only two switches. A resonant tank is used to assist in zero current switching, and hence the current spike, which usually exists in a classical switching switched capacitor converter, can be eliminated. Both easy operation and efficiency are possible. Principles of operation, computer simulations and experimental results of the proposed circuit are presented. General analysis and design methods are given. The experimental result verifies the theoretical analysis of high frequency AC power generation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Vibro-Impact Energy Analysis of a Geared System with Piecewise-Type Nonlinearities Using Various Parameter Values
Energies 2015, 8(8), 8924-8944; doi:10.3390/en8088924
Received: 6 July 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Torsional systems with gear pairs such as the gearbox of wind turbines or vehicle driveline systems inherently show impact phenomena due to clearance-type nonlinearities when the system experiences sinusoidal excitation. This research investigates the vibro-impact energy of unloaded gears in geared systems using
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Torsional systems with gear pairs such as the gearbox of wind turbines or vehicle driveline systems inherently show impact phenomena due to clearance-type nonlinearities when the system experiences sinusoidal excitation. This research investigates the vibro-impact energy of unloaded gears in geared systems using the harmonic balance method (HBM) in both the frequency and time domains. To achieve accurate simulations, nonlinear models with piecewise and clearance-type nonlinearities and drag torques are defined and implemented in the HBM. Next, the nonlinear frequency responses are examined by focusing on the resonance areas where the impact phenomena occur, along with variations in key parameters such as clutch stiffness, drag torque, and inertias of the flywheel and the unloaded gear. Finally, the effects of the parameters on the vibro-impacts at a specific excitation frequency are explained using bifurcation diagrams. The results are correlated with prior research by defining the gear rattle criteria with key parameters. This article suggests a method to simulate the impact phenomena in torsional systems using the HBM and successfully assesses vibro-impact energy using bifurcation diagrams. Full article
Open AccessArticle Computational Fluid Dynamics Prediction of a Modified Savonius Wind Turbine with Novel Blade Shapes
Energies 2015, 8(8), 7915-7929; doi:10.3390/en8087915
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 13 July 2015 / Accepted: 15 July 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1922 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Savonius wind turbine is a type of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWTs) that is simply composed of two or three arc-type blades which can generate power even under poor wind conditions. A modified Savonius wind turbine with novel blade shapes is introduced
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The Savonius wind turbine is a type of vertical axis wind turbine (VAWTs) that is simply composed of two or three arc-type blades which can generate power even under poor wind conditions. A modified Savonius wind turbine with novel blade shapes is introduced with the aim of increasing the power coefficient of the turbine. The effect of blade fullness, which is a main shape parameter of the blade, on the power production of a two-bladed Savonius wind turbine is investigated using transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Simulations are based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with a renormalization group turbulent model. This numerical method is validated with existing experimental data and then utilized to quantify the performance of design variants. Results quantify the relationship between blade fullness and turbine performance with a blade fullness of 1 resulting in the highest coefficient of power, 0.2573. This power coefficient is 10.98% higher than a conventional Savonius turbine. Full article
Open AccessArticle Online Fault Identification Based on an Adaptive Observer for Modular Multilevel Converters Applied to Wind Power Generation Systems
Energies 2015, 8(7), 7140-7160; doi:10.3390/en8077140
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 12 June 2015 / Accepted: 6 July 2015 / Published: 15 July 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the possibility of putting a large number of modules consisting of switches and capacitors connected in series, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) can easily be scaled to high power and high voltage power conversion, which is an attractive feature for filter-less
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Due to the possibility of putting a large number of modules consisting of switches and capacitors connected in series, the modular multilevel converter (MMC) can easily be scaled to high power and high voltage power conversion, which is an attractive feature for filter-less and transformer-less design and helpful to achieve high efficiency. However, a significantly increased amount of sub-modules in a MMC may increase the requirements for sensors and also increase the risk of failures. As a result, fault detection and diagnosis of MMC sub-modules are of great importance for continuous operation and post-fault maintenance. Therefore, in this paper, an effective fault diagnosis technique for real-time diagnosis of the switching device faults covering both the open-circuit faults and the short-circuit faults in MMC sub-modules is proposed, in which the faulty phase and the fault type is detected by analyzing the difference among the three output load currents, while the localization of the faulty switches is achieved by comparing the estimation results by the adaptive observer. In contrast to other methods that use additional sensors or devices, the presented technique uses the measured phase currents only, which are already available for MMC control. In additional, its operation, effectiveness and robustness are confirmed by simulation results under different operating conditions and load conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Improving Transient Stability in a Grid-Connected Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator Wind Turbine System Using a Fuzzy Logic Controller
Energies 2015, 8(7), 6328-6349; doi:10.3390/en8076328
Received: 28 April 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (892 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A common problem in wind power plants involves fixed-speed wind turbines. In fact, being equipped with a squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG), they tend to drain a relevant amount of reactive power from the grid, potentially causing voltage drops and possible voltage instability. To
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A common problem in wind power plants involves fixed-speed wind turbines. In fact, being equipped with a squirrel-cage induction generator (SCIG), they tend to drain a relevant amount of reactive power from the grid, potentially causing voltage drops and possible voltage instability. To improve SCIG power quality and transient stability, this paper investigates a new control strategy for pitch angle control based on proportional-integral (PI) controller and a fuzzy logic controller (FLC), considering both normal and fault ride-through (FRT) schemes. In the literature, often, the mechanical torque output is assumed constant for a specific wind speed. This might not be accurate, because the mechanical torque-speed typical of a wind turbine depends also on the power coefficient or pitch angle. In this paper, an analytic model of transient stability is proposed using the equivalent circuit of the SCIG and using the concepts of stable and unstable electrical-mechanical equilibrium. The method has been evaluated by comparing the results obtained by the analytic method with the dynamic simulation. The results show that the proposed hybrid controller is effective at smoothing the output power and complying with FRT requirements for SCIG in the power system. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Blade Force Measurement System for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Load Cells
Energies 2015, 8(6), 5973-5996; doi:10.3390/en8065973
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 4 June 2015 / Accepted: 5 June 2015 / Published: 18 June 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1049 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unique blade force measurements on an open site straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine have been performed. This paper presents a method for measuring the tangential and normal forces on a 12-kW vertical axis wind turbine prototype with a three-bladed H-rotor. Four single-axis load
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Unique blade force measurements on an open site straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine have been performed. This paper presents a method for measuring the tangential and normal forces on a 12-kW vertical axis wind turbine prototype with a three-bladed H-rotor. Four single-axis load cells were installed in-between the hub and the support arms on one of the blades. The experimental setup, the measurement principle, together with the necessary control and measurement system are described. The maximum errors of the forces and accompanying weather data that can be obtained with the system are carefully estimated. Measured forces from the four load cells are presented, as well as the normal and tangential forces derived from them and a comparison with theoretical data. The measured torque and bending moment are also provided. The influence of the load cells on the turbine dynamics has also been evaluated. For the aerodynamic normal force, the system provides periodic data in agreement with simulations. Unexpected mechanical oscillations are present in the tangential force, introduced by the turbine dynamics. The measurement errors are of an acceptable size and often depend on the measured variable. Equations are presented for the calculation of measurement errors. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Innovative Design of a Microtab Deployment Mechanism for Active Aerodynamic Load Control
Energies 2015, 8(6), 5885-5897; doi:10.3390/en8065885
Received: 6 May 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 8 June 2015 / Published: 17 June 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2144 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study presents an innovative design of a microtab system for aerodynamic load control on horizontal-axis wind-turbine rotors. Microtabs are small devices located near the trailing edge of the rotor blades and enable a rapid increase or decrease of the lift force through
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This study presents an innovative design of a microtab system for aerodynamic load control on horizontal-axis wind-turbine rotors. Microtabs are small devices located near the trailing edge of the rotor blades and enable a rapid increase or decrease of the lift force through deployment of the tabs on the pressure or suction side of the airfoil, respectively. The new system has been designed to replace an earlier linearly-actuated microtab mechanism whose performance was limited by space restrictions and stiction. The newly-designed microtab system is based on a four-bar linkage that overcomes the two drawbacks. Its improved kinematics allows for the tab height to increase from 1.0% to 1.7% of the airfoil chord when fully deployed, thereby making it more effective in terms of aerodynamic load control. Furthermore, the modified four-bar link mechanism provides a more robust and reliable mechanical structure. Full article
Open AccessArticle Upgrading a Shrouded Wind Turbine with a Self-Adaptive Flanged Diffuser
Energies 2015, 8(6), 5319-5337; doi:10.3390/en8065319
Received: 10 April 2015 / Revised: 20 May 2015 / Accepted: 26 May 2015 / Published: 3 June 2015
PDF Full-text (3866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a self-adaptive flange is proposed for the wind turbine shrouded by a flanged diffuser to reduce the wind loads acting on the flanged diffuser at high wind velocities. The self-adaptive flange can maintain the advantages of the flanged diffuser at
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In this paper, a self-adaptive flange is proposed for the wind turbine shrouded by a flanged diffuser to reduce the wind loads acting on the flanged diffuser at high wind velocities. The self-adaptive flange can maintain the advantages of the flanged diffuser at wind velocities lower than the rated velocity and reduce the wind loads acting on the diffuser and blades at higher wind velocities. Numerical analyses of fluid-structure interactions are carried out to investigate the flow field around the diffuser with a self-adaptive flange and the variation of wind load acting on the diffuser due to the reconfiguration of the self-adaptive flange at various wind velocities. Numerical results show that the wind load acting on the total flanged diffuser can be reduced by about 35% at 60 m/s due to the reconfiguration of the self-adaptive flange. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Electro-Thermal Analysis of a Variable-Speed Doubly-Fed Induction Generator in a Wind Turbine
Energies 2015, 8(5), 3386-3402; doi:10.3390/en8053386
Received: 5 December 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2015 / Accepted: 9 April 2015 / Published: 24 April 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper focuses on the electro-thermal analysis of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) in a wind turbine (WT) with gear transmission configuration. The study of the thermal mechanism plays an important role in the development of cost-effective fault diagnostic techniques, design for reliability
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This paper focuses on the electro-thermal analysis of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) in a wind turbine (WT) with gear transmission configuration. The study of the thermal mechanism plays an important role in the development of cost-effective fault diagnostic techniques, design for reliability and premature failure prevention. Starting from an analysis of the DFIG system control and its power losses mechanism, a model that synthesizes the thermal mechanism of the DFIG and a WT system principle is developed to study the thermodynamics of generator stator winding. The transient-state and steady-state temperature characteristics of stator winding under constant and step-cycle patterns of wind speed are studied to show an intrinsic thermal process within a variable-speed WT generator. Thermal behaviors of two failure modes, i.e., generator ventilation system failure and generator stator winding under electric voltage unbalance, are examined in details and validated by both simulation and data analysis. The effective approach presented in this paper for generator fault diagnosis using the acquired SCADA data shows the importance of simulation models in providing guidance for post-data analysis and interpretation. WT generator winding lifetime is finally estimated based on a thermal ageing model to investigate the impacts of wind speed and failure mode. Full article
Open AccessArticle Toward Isolation of Salient Features in Stable Boundary Layer Wind Fields that Influence Loads on Wind Turbines
Energies 2015, 8(4), 2977-3012; doi:10.3390/en8042977
Received: 8 November 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 17 April 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2310 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neutral boundary layer (NBL) flow fields, commonly used in turbine load studies and design, are generated using spectral procedures in stochastic simulation. For large utility-scale turbines, stable boundary layer (SBL) flow fields are of great interest because they are often accompanied by enhanced
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Neutral boundary layer (NBL) flow fields, commonly used in turbine load studies and design, are generated using spectral procedures in stochastic simulation. For large utility-scale turbines, stable boundary layer (SBL) flow fields are of great interest because they are often accompanied by enhanced wind shear, wind veer, and even low-level jets (LLJs). The generation of SBL flow fields, in contrast to simpler stochastic simulation for NBL, requires computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures to capture the physics and noted characteristics—such as shear and veer—that are distinct from those seen in NBL flows. At present, large-eddy simulation (LES) is the most efficient CFD procedure for SBL flow field generation and related wind turbine loads studies. Design standards, such as from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), provide guidance albeit with simplifying assumptions (one such deals with assuming constant variance of turbulence over the rotor) and recommend standard target turbulence power spectra and coherence functions to allow NBL flow field simulation. In contrast, a systematic SBL flow field simulation procedure has not been offered for design or for site assessment. It is instructive to compare LES-generated SBL flow fields with stochastic NBL flow fields and associated loads which we evaluate for a 5-MW turbine; in doing so, we seek to isolate distinguishing characteristics of wind shear, wind veer, and turbulence variation over the rotor plane in the alternative flow fields and in the turbine loads. Because of known differences in NBL-stochastic and SBL-LES wind fields but an industry preference for simpler stochastic simulation in design practice, this study investigates if one can reproduce stable atmospheric conditions using stochastic approaches with appropriate corrections for shear, veer, turbulence, etc. We find that such simple tuning cannot consistently match turbine target SBL load statistics, even though this is possible in some cases. As such, when there is a need to consider different stability regimes encountered by a wind turbine, easy solutions do not exist and large-eddy simulation at least for the stable boundary layer is needed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reliability Analysis of Fatigue Failure of Cast Components for Wind Turbines
Energies 2015, 8(4), 2908-2923; doi:10.3390/en8042908
Received: 23 December 2014 / Revised: 20 March 2015 / Accepted: 7 April 2015 / Published: 15 April 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fatigue failure is one of the main failure modes for wind turbine drivetrain components made of cast iron. The wind turbine drivetrain consists of a variety of heavily loaded components, like the main shaft, the main bearings, the gearbox and the generator. The
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Fatigue failure is one of the main failure modes for wind turbine drivetrain components made of cast iron. The wind turbine drivetrain consists of a variety of heavily loaded components, like the main shaft, the main bearings, the gearbox and the generator. The failure of each component will lead to substantial economic losses such as cost of lost energy production and cost of repairs. During the design lifetime, the drivetrain components are exposed to variable loads from winds and waves and other sources of loads that are uncertain and have to be modeled as stochastic variables. The types of loads are different for offshore and onshore wind turbines. Moreover, uncertainties about the fatigue strength play an important role in modeling and assessment of the reliability of the components. In this paper, a generic stochastic model for fatigue failure of cast iron components based on fatigue test data and a limit state equation for fatigue failure based on the SN-curve approach and Miner’s rule is presented. The statistical analysis of the fatigue data is performed using the Maximum Likelihood Method which also gives an estimate of the statistical uncertainties. Finally, illustrative examples are presented with reliability analyses depending on various stochastic models and partial safety factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle High Step-Up 3-Phase Rectifier with Fly-Back Cells and Switched Capacitors for Small-Scaled Wind Generation Systems
Energies 2015, 8(4), 2742-2768; doi:10.3390/en8042742
Received: 26 November 2014 / Revised: 7 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 10 April 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes and discusses a novel AC/DC converter suitable for small-scaled wind power generation system applications. By introducing flyback cells into the three-phase single-switch Boost circuit, the proposed converter is designed as single-stage and has both rectification and high step-up power conversion
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This paper proposes and discusses a novel AC/DC converter suitable for small-scaled wind power generation system applications. By introducing flyback cells into the three-phase single-switch Boost circuit, the proposed converter is designed as single-stage and has both rectification and high step-up power conversion functions. It is able to obtain high voltage gain at low input voltage level, and high efficiency, low total harmonic distortion (THD) at rated power. The inherent power factor correction (PFC) is also determined, and can reach 0.99. Besides, since no electrolytic capacitor is employed and high voltage gain is achieved, the converter can also collect weak power at low input voltage in combination with energy storage devices, and contribute to a better low-wind-speed/low-power performance. Finally, a 400 W prototype is built to verify the theoretical analysis, and its efficiency is 87.6%, while THD is 7.4% at rated power. Full article
Open AccessArticle Forces and Moments on Flat Plates of Small Aspect Ratio with Application to PV Wind Loads and Small Wind Turbine Blades
Energies 2015, 8(4), 2438-2453; doi:10.3390/en8042438
Received: 27 January 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 19 March 2015 / Published: 26 March 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin
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To improve knowledge of the wind loads on photovoltaic structures mounted on flat roofs at the high angles required in high latitudes, and to study starting flow on low aspect ratio wind turbine blades, a series of wind tunnel tests were undertaken. Thin flat plates of aspect ratios between 0.4 and 9.0 were mounted on a sensitive three-component instantaneous force and moment sensor. The Reynolds numbers varied from 6 × 104 to 2 × 105. Measurements were made for angles of attack between 0° and 90° both in the free stream and in wall proximity with increased turbulence and mean shear. The ratio of drag to lift closely follows the inverse tangent of the angle of incidence for virtually all measurements. This implies that the forces of interest are due largely to the instantaneous pressure distribution around the plate and are not significantly influenced by shear stresses. The instantaneous forces appear most complex for the smaller aspect ratios but the intensity of the normal force fluctuations is between 10% and 20% in the free-steam but can exceed 30% near the wall. As the wind tunnel floor is approached, the lift and drag reduce with increasing aspect ratio, and there is a reduction in the high frequency components of the forces. It is shown that the centre of pressure is closer to the centre of the plates than the quarter-chord position for nearly all cases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds
Energies 2015, 8(2), 1406-1425; doi:10.3390/en8021406
Received: 2 January 2015 / Accepted: 2 February 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (663 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed.
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This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI controller parameters. The parameters to be tuned are chosen by investigating participation factors of state variables, which simplifies the problem by reducing the number of parameters to be tuned. The process of adjusting these PI controller parameters is carried out using particle swarm optimization (PSO). To characterize the improvements in the control method due to the PSO method of tuning the PI controller parameters, the PMSG WT is modeled using the MATLAB/SimPowerSystems libraries with the obtained PI controller parameters. Full article
Open AccessArticle Simulating Dynamic Stall Effects for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Applying a Double Multiple Streamtube Model
Energies 2015, 8(2), 1353-1372; doi:10.3390/en8021353
Received: 21 December 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2015 / Published: 11 February 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The complex unsteady aerodynamics of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) poses significant challenges to the simulation tools. Dynamic stall is one of the phenomena associated with the unsteady conditions for VAWTs, and it is in the focus of the study. Two dynamic stall
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The complex unsteady aerodynamics of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) poses significant challenges to the simulation tools. Dynamic stall is one of the phenomena associated with the unsteady conditions for VAWTs, and it is in the focus of the study. Two dynamic stall models are compared: the widely-used Gormont model and a Leishman–Beddoes-type model. The models are included in a double multiple streamtube model. The effects of flow curvature and flow expansion are also considered. The model results are assessed against the measured data on a Darrieus turbine with curved blades. To study the dynamic stall effects, the comparison of force coefficients between the simulations and experiments is done at low tip speed ratios. Simulations show that the Leishman–Beddoes model outperforms the Gormont model for all tested conditions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Altering Kinetic Energy Entrainment in Large Eddy Simulations of Large Wind Farms Using Unconventional Wind Turbine Actuator Forcing
Energies 2015, 8(1), 370-386; doi:10.3390/en8010370
Received: 30 October 2014 / Accepted: 30 December 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (4252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, horizontally periodic large eddy simulations (LES) are utilized to study turbulent atmospheric boundary-layer flow over wind turbines in the far-downstream portion of a large wind farm where the wakes have merged and the flow is fully developed. In an attempt
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In this study, horizontally periodic large eddy simulations (LES) are utilized to study turbulent atmospheric boundary-layer flow over wind turbines in the far-downstream portion of a large wind farm where the wakes have merged and the flow is fully developed. In an attempt to increase power generation by enhancing the mean kinetic energy (MKE) entrainment to the wind turbines, hypothetical synthetic forcing is applied to the flow at the turbine rotor locations. The synthetic forcing is not meant to represent any existing devices or control schemes, but rather acts as a proof of concept to inform future designs. The turbines are modeled using traditional actuator disks, and the unconventional synthetic forcing is applied in the vertical direction with the magnitude and direction dependent on the instantaneous velocity fluctuation at the rotor disk; in one set of LES meant to enhance the vertical entrainment of MKE, a downward force is prescribed in conjunction with a positive axial velocity fluctuation, whereas a negative axial velocity fluctuation results in an upward force. The magnitude of the forcing is proportional to the instantaneous thrust force with prefactors ranging from 0.1 to 1. The synthetic vertical forcing is found to have a significant effect on the power generated by the wind farm. Consistent with previous findings, the MKE flux to the level of the turbines is found to vary along with the total power produced by the wind turbine array. The reverse strategy of downward forcing of slow axial velocity flow is found to have almost no effect on the power output or entrainment. Several of the scenarios tested, e.g., where the vertical force is of similar magnitude to the horizontal thrust, would be very difficult to implement in practice, but the simulations serve the purpose of identifying trends and bounds on possible power increases from flow modifications through action at the turbine rotor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Grid Voltage Measurement Method for Wind Power Systems during Grid Fault Conditions
Energies 2014, 7(11), 7732-7745; doi:10.3390/en7117732
Received: 18 August 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Grid codes in many countries require low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability to maintain power system stability and reliability during grid fault conditions. To meet the LVRT requirement, wind power systems must stay connected to the grid and also supply reactive currents to the grid
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Grid codes in many countries require low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) capability to maintain power system stability and reliability during grid fault conditions. To meet the LVRT requirement, wind power systems must stay connected to the grid and also supply reactive currents to the grid to support the recovery from fault voltages. This paper presents a new fault detection method and inverter control scheme to improve the LVRT capability for full-scale permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind power systems. Fast fault detection can help the wind power systems maintain the DC-link voltage in a safe region. The proposed fault detection method is based on on-line adaptive parameter estimation. The performance of the proposed method is verified in comparison to the conventional voltage measurement method defined in the IEC 61400-21 standard. Full article
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