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Sustainability, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Economic Costs of Sea Level Rise and Benefits of Coastal Protection: A Spatiotemporal Approach
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081495
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Sea level rise (SLR) is believed to be the most dangerous impact of climate change in coastal regions. Adapting to its impacts has become imperative since SLR is now considered inevitable. Lack of local economic analysis of SLR impacts is one of the
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Sea level rise (SLR) is believed to be the most dangerous impact of climate change in coastal regions. Adapting to its impacts has become imperative since SLR is now considered inevitable. Lack of local economic analysis of SLR impacts is one of the major obstacles impeding adaptation. To address this gap, this study employs a spatiotemporal approach to estimate the economic costs of future SLR as well as the benefits of coastal protection, a principal adaptation strategy, under four local SLR projection scenarios in the mainland Miami-Dade County, Florida. Our findings indicate that SLR impacts are nonlinear and coastal protection, while costly, can significantly reduce future potential losses. A novel spatial fishnet approach is also proposed to help local decision makers identify areas that should be prioritized for protection. Findings of this study aim to support local adaptation planning, and call for integrating adaptation for SLR and its uncertainties into local planning frameworks to achieve long-term sustainability and well-being of our precious coastal communities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Priorities of Coworking Space Operation Based on Comparison of the Hosts and Users’ Perspectives
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081494
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
More than 1,180,000 people use several thousand coworking spaces these days, but the running of coworking spaces is a rather fragile business model. Coworking spaces need entrepreneurial sustainability as well. Therefore, this study identifies success factors for sustainable business through analysis of users
[...] Read more.
More than 1,180,000 people use several thousand coworking spaces these days, but the running of coworking spaces is a rather fragile business model. Coworking spaces need entrepreneurial sustainability as well. Therefore, this study identifies success factors for sustainable business through analysis of users and hosts’ demands and priorities about coworking spaces. To identify the priorities, we conducted a questionnaire survey with 60 hosts and 56 users by using the analytic hierarchy process method. We found that hosts thought community and communication most important, followed by space and interior, service diversity, and price plan, and users considered relationship facilitation the most important, followed by service diversity, price plan, and networking event and party. After discussions with coworking space hosts and users to understand the differences in viewpoints, we combined the results to find the highest priorities. Finally, we identified relationship facilitation, service diversity, and price plan as having the highest priorities for sustainable coworking space operation for both sides. This study has major implications for research into improving management of coworking spaces as it asks users and hosts to select and focus on elements of priority in their decision making for entrepreneurial sustainability and management innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurial Sustainability: New Innovative Knowledge)
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Open AccessArticle Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in a Hilly-Plain Watershed Based on the Different Hydrological Period: A Case Study in Tiaoxi Watershed
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081493
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 29 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of
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Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of the temporal-spatial characteristics of pollution loading of nitrogen and phosphorus to provide scientific basis for reasonable estimation and targeted control measures of nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Based on data from nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural land, livestock breeding, domestic discharge and aquaculture, this study calculated the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk for each pollution source. Using the superposition of ArcGIS raster data, we also described the spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk by the formula of comprehensive loss risk. The results showed that critical risk areas of nitrogen and phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding and agricultural land during flood period in Tiaoxi watershed. Agricultural land and livestock breeding sources formed major parts of nitrogen loss, accounting for 30.85% and 36.18%, respectively, while phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding (56.28%). During non-flood period, integrated management of livestock breeding and domestic discharge requires much attention to control nitrogen and phosphorus loss in the critical risk area. Finally, it is of great practical significance to propose spatial-temporal targeted measurements to control nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in watershed for various periods and different areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessReview Processing, Valorization and Application of Bio-Waste Derived Compounds from Potato, Tomato, Olive and Cereals: A Review
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081492
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
The vast and ever-growing amount of agricultural and food wastes has become a major concern throughout the whole world. Therefore, strategies for their processing and value-added reuse are needed to enable a sustainable utilization of feedstocks and reduce the environmental burden. By-products of
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The vast and ever-growing amount of agricultural and food wastes has become a major concern throughout the whole world. Therefore, strategies for their processing and value-added reuse are needed to enable a sustainable utilization of feedstocks and reduce the environmental burden. By-products of potato, tomato, cereals and olive arise in significant amounts in European countries and are consequently of high relevance. Due to their composition with various beneficial ingredients, the waste products can be valorized by different techniques leading to economic and environmental advantages. This paper focuses on the waste generation during industrial processing of potato, tomato, cereals and olives within the European Union and reviews state-of-the-art technologies for their valorization. Furthermore, current applications, future perspectives and challenges are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Food Supply Chain and Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle A Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Approach to Evaluate the Sustainability Indicators in the Villagers’ Lives in Iran with Emphasis on Earthquake Hazard: A Case Study
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081491
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Natural hazards such as earthquakes take place around the world and when combined with humans create natural disasters. Earthquakes, a form of natural hazard, have, in recent years, caused damage and destruction in many rural areas due to the lack of sustainability in
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Natural hazards such as earthquakes take place around the world and when combined with humans create natural disasters. Earthquakes, a form of natural hazard, have, in recent years, caused damage and destruction in many rural areas due to the lack of sustainability in political, economic, social, physical and operational criteria. Thus, to overcome the damage caused by earthquakes in rural areas, an assessment of sustainability status seems necessary to plan and strengthen in relation to the status of sustainability indicators. Data collection was performed through field methods and questionnaires. To test the hypothesis, T statistical methods, correlation method and F-test were performed using SPSS software (V22.0, IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). The results of the study showed that villages were at a low and undesirable level for all aspects, except social index in terms of sustainability. Comparisons showed that there was a significant mean difference among villages in terms of sustainability. The multi-criteria decision-making analysis has been considered and applied to a ranking of villages in terms of sustainability against the hazard of earthquakes. Finally, in order to improve the sustainability indicators of villages, some strategies have been presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Yields of the Major Food Crops: Implications to Food Security and Policy in Tanzania’s Semi-Arid Agro-Ecological Zone
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081490
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
While Tanzania has been facing food shortage for some decades, little efforts have been made to elicit optimal crop yields. To limit this problem, there is a need for a robust agricultural policy that aims at stabilizing agricultural production and socio-economic entitlement among
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While Tanzania has been facing food shortage for some decades, little efforts have been made to elicit optimal crop yields. To limit this problem, there is a need for a robust agricultural policy that aims at stabilizing agricultural production and socio-economic entitlement among the farmers. The present study analyses the production trend of maize, sorghum and millet (i.e., staple food crops) under rain fed agriculture in Kongwa District, the semi-arid agro-ecological zone of Central Tanzania, and envisage their implications to food security and policy. We collected a set of crop data (1980–2015) from the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries. In addition, 400 respondents were sampled randomly in the study area during household survey while a series of interviews and discussions were conducted mostly basing on the expertise. The Mann-Kendall Test and Microsoft excel (window 13) and theme content methods were employed for data analyses. The results showed that the production trends for maize, sorghum and millet yields have been decreasing at R2 = 0.40, 0.35 and 0.11 respectively and this trend was supported by 80% of the respondents. This decrease was greatly influenced by the temporal decrease in the mean annual rainfall (R2 = 0.21). The diminishing production trend has already decreased food security for 30% in the area. Since agricultural policy can be among the main sources of this poor yields, an explicit and sound agricultural policy should be the central aspect in planning and implementing agricultural activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessReview A Review of the Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project: A Sustainability Perspective
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081489
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
China’s South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) has the potential to transfer as much as 44.8 km3 year−1 of water from the Yangtze River basin to the Yellow River basin. However, the SNWTP has not been assessed from a sustainability perspective. Thus,
[...] Read more.
China’s South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) has the potential to transfer as much as 44.8 km3 year−1 of water from the Yangtze River basin to the Yellow River basin. However, the SNWTP has not been assessed from a sustainability perspective. Thus, in this study we evaluated the SNWTP’s economic, social, and environmental impacts by reviewing the English literature published in journals that are part of the Web of Science database. We then synthesized this literature using a Triple Bottom Line framework of sustainability assessment. Our study has led to three main findings: (1) whether the SNWTP is economically beneficial depends largely on model assumptions, meaning that economic gains at the regional and national level are uncertain; (2) the SNWTP requires the resettlement of hundreds of thousands of people and challenges existing water management institutions, suggesting possible social concerns beyond the short term; and (3) evidently large environmental costs in water-providing areas and uncertain environmental benefits in water-receiving areas together point to an uncertain environmental future for the geographic regions involved. Thus, the overall sustainability of SNWTP is seriously questionable. Although much work has been done studying individual aspects of SNWTP’s sustainability, few studies have utilized the multi-scale, transdisciplinary approaches that such a project demands. To minimize environmental risks, ensure social equity, and sustain economic benefits, we suggest that the project be continuously monitored in all three dimensions, and that integrated sustainability assessments and policy improvements be carried out periodically. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Proximity Warning and Excavator Control System for Prevention of Collision Accidents
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081488
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Construction is a hazardous industry in which accidents occur frequently. Occupational accidents at construction sites are a serious public health issue in Korea. Construction site conditions often create dangerous situations by requiring workers and heavy equipment to work in close proximity to each
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Construction is a hazardous industry in which accidents occur frequently. Occupational accidents at construction sites are a serious public health issue in Korea. Construction site conditions often create dangerous situations by requiring workers and heavy equipment to work in close proximity to each other. In 2015, approximately 11% (46) of the 437 occupational fatalities in the construction industry in Korea resulted from workers colliding with objects or equipment. In this paper, we present a proximity warning system developed to address this issue and enhance safety at construction sites. The proposed technology functions in real time to alert workers and equipment operators of hazardous proximity situations. Also, when the radio frequency identification (RFID) sensor detects an approaching worker, the main board instantly shuts down the excavator for the prevention of accident. This system contains an RFID tag, RFID reader, alarm device, camera, a display device (the Around View Monitor), and excavator control technology. A field test demonstrated successful performance of the proposed system. It is widely applicable in small construction fields alongside excavators and other equipment because this system does not require additional communication infrastructure, such as servers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management Strategies and Innovations for Sustainable Construction)
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Open AccessArticle Understanding the Generation of Value along Supply Chains: Balancing Control Information and Relational Governance Mechanisms in Downstream and Upstream Relationships
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081487
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Firms are involved in supply chains to achieve operative efficiency, develop strategic advantages, and generate financial profits. However, there is limited evidence regarding how governance mechanisms influence the generation of value from collaboration. Furthermore, how a particular buyer or supplier position provides benefits
[...] Read more.
Firms are involved in supply chains to achieve operative efficiency, develop strategic advantages, and generate financial profits. However, there is limited evidence regarding how governance mechanisms influence the generation of value from collaboration. Furthermore, how a particular buyer or supplier position provides benefits to partners is unclear. In this paper, we examine the roles of management control information as both a governance mechanism and a source of dynamic capabilities, and its interaction with relational variables to create and capture value following a demand-side perspective. Two separate studies are developed using multigroup structural equation modelling, which analyse buyer and supplier positions played by the firm as a complex supply chain node. The results demonstrate that the characteristics of information sharing have different impacts on value, depending on the role played in the relationship. Although timely information sharing appears to be the key source of operative and financial value in downstream relationships, disaggregated information sharing generates additional strategic advantages in upstream relationships. The presence of different control-trust frameworks mediates the process of value generation, leading to different managerial and theoretical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Reframing for Sustainability: Exploring Transformative Power of Benefit Sharing
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1486; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081486
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
It is broadly agreed that development needs and effects from changing environment will increase pressure on the ways natural resources are utilized and shared at present. In most parts of the world, resource stress has already reached unprecedented levels setting resource sustainability high
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It is broadly agreed that development needs and effects from changing environment will increase pressure on the ways natural resources are utilized and shared at present. In most parts of the world, resource stress has already reached unprecedented levels setting resource sustainability high on the policy agenda on multiple governance levels. This paper aims to explain how the benefit sharing approach can help reframe the debate for sustainability, its advantages and disadvantages for transforming governance challenges and adapting to increasing resource stress. We bring together fragmented discussions of benefit sharing from three resource domains: water, land, and biodiversity. Both theoretical and empirical examples are provided to aid understanding of how benefit sharing can facilitate adaptive governance processes in complex socio-ecological systems. The findings highlight importance of integrating the long-term perspective when societies move from volumes toward values of shared natural resources, as well as setting environmental conservation and equitable allocation as the top priority for benefit sharing to be sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Governance for Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Ecological Footprint Analysis Based on Changing Food Consumption in a Poorly Developed Area of China
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081323
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is a useful tool to compare consumption with nature's ability to support this consumption. Guyuan is an economically impoverished region in China, where EF provides important insights into whether human consumption can be sustained by the local
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The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is a useful tool to compare consumption with nature's ability to support this consumption. Guyuan is an economically impoverished region in China, where EF provides important insights into whether human consumption can be sustained by the local per capita biological capacity (BC), which represents the environment’s ability to support resource use. We estimated the EF of food consumption using local equivalence and yield factors, and compared EF in 1998 and 2013 with BC, which represented the existing biologically productive area (including cultivated land, grassland, forest, and water bodies) that supports this consumption. Data were collected from household surveys, government statistics, and land use maps. We found that food consumption changed, with decreasing consumption of staple foods and increasing consumption of meat, eggs, milk, edible oils, fruit, and vegetables. Decreased staple food consumption decreased the EF for this food group, but the large increase in meat consumption greatly increased EF from meat production (to more than 41 times the 1998 value). Cultivated land contributed greatly to both EF and BC, and staple foods and vegetables were the main EF components for this land. Overall, EF from food consumption decreased from 1998 to 2013, but local BC remained 188,356 ha below EF (i.e., current consumption is not sustainable based on local resources). The Grain for Green program, which focuses on increasing the BC of forest and grassland by replacing degraded cultivated land with these land use types, decreased the BC of cultivated land, leading to wide spatial variation in both EF and BC. These results will inform policy development by revealing the condition of each region’s use of the locally available production resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in an Urbanizing World: The Role of People)
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Open AccessArticle Let the Women Harvest the Mangrove. Carbon Policy, and Environmental Injustice
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081485
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Carbon policy is a fascinating topic in geography and political ecology, because carbon is a new exchangeable good, which links the local to the international arenas through a complex set of instruments, norms, and institutions. In this paper, after explaining my theoretical and
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Carbon policy is a fascinating topic in geography and political ecology, because carbon is a new exchangeable good, which links the local to the international arenas through a complex set of instruments, norms, and institutions. In this paper, after explaining my theoretical and conceptual framework rooted in Africanist geography and currents of political ecology, I analyze the responses of local actors (knowledge, practices, logic, and strategies) to environmental policies and consider the effects of new mechanisms, upon local dynamics in Africa. I focus my attention on the impacts of mangrove reforestation policies on women, who harvest shellfish. My research, conducted over 35 years on coastal mangroves in Africa and Madagascar, provides me with examples. Through a long-term approach to the perception of mangroves and the changing modes of policies, I highlight the weight of imperialism and neo-liberalism and analyze types of environmental injustice against mangrove harvesters, particularly the women, who are the most directly concerned by the preservation of their heritage and are rarely recognized as stakeholders in environmental policies that are defined internationally and implemented at national and local levels. They are not informed (or are deliberately kept unware) of new devices such as REDD+. They have lost their rights of access to the reforested mangrove areas. Carbon policy requires comparative and empirical research, giving voice to local actors, especially women, about their perceptions of policies and actions. The approaches in terms of political ecology must be combined with analysis of the bio-ecological and socio-cultural dynamics of the mangrove. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Restoration for Sustainable Forest Management)
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Open AccessArticle The Factors Affecting Electricity Consumption and the Consumption Characteristics in the Residential Sector—A Case Example of Taiwan
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081484
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
This article attempts to examine the factors affecting residential electricity consumption through two approaches, a socioeconomic perspective and a direct use perspective. The results of this study find that gross domestic product (GDP), employment rates, residential space, and the implementation of energy labeling
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This article attempts to examine the factors affecting residential electricity consumption through two approaches, a socioeconomic perspective and a direct use perspective. The results of this study find that gross domestic product (GDP), employment rates, residential space, and the implementation of energy labeling schemes provide significant impacts on residential electricity consumption. However, the impacts of electricity price and the energy efficiency standards do not receive significant support. The analysis of the direct use approach finds that air conditioners consume the largest portion of electricity, amounting to 1470 kWh for each household and accounting for 26.81% except for lighting. Refrigerators and rice cookers follow, consuming 815.83 kWh (14.88%) and 343.85 kWh (6.27%) of electricity. The correlation analysis reveals that GDP keeps a high relationship with the installation of electrical appliances and eventually leads to an increase in residential electricity consumption. By integrating the results obtained from these two approaches, this paper also discusses some improvement strategies. The results, derived from the case example of Taiwan’s residential electricity consumption, may provide valuable information for policy-making involving green labeling, energy standards, and electricity prices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle A Comprehensive Evaluation of Sustainable Development Ability and Pathway for Major Cities in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081483
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Sustainability consists of economic, environmental, and societal aspects. Concomitant with China’s rapid growth, the evaluation of China’s ability for sustainable development (SD) has become a topic of interest. Unlike previous studies that are based on provincial regions and focus on economic and/or environmental
[...] Read more.
Sustainability consists of economic, environmental, and societal aspects. Concomitant with China’s rapid growth, the evaluation of China’s ability for sustainable development (SD) has become a topic of interest. Unlike previous studies that are based on provincial regions and focus on economic and/or environmental evaluations, we have evaluated the comprehensive SD ability of 34 major cities in China using the context-dependent data envelopment analysis (CD-DEA) and proposed benchmark-learning pathways. The results indicate that the SD ability of China’s major cities may be classified and ordered from low tiers to high tiers: high energy consumption and polluting industries—intensive industries—fixed asset investments and service industries—innovation, quality of life and societal services industries. As a whole, cities along the coast have a higher ability for SD than inland cities, and southern cities also rate higher than northern cities. Cities that are prioritized by government policies and funding also have higher SD abilities than other cities. We recommend that cities with lower abilities (i.e., cities in the second, third, and fourth tiers) should adopt the following points in their developmental pathways (in this order): the control of energy consumption and environmental pollution, industry upgrading and redevelopment of the city, and the development of an environment that encourages innovation and provides ample employment. This study finds that GDP is no longer an issue that restricts the SD ability of China’s major cities, as compared to other factors. As China progresses towards the sustainable cities, focus should be placed on the development of a knowledge-intensive economy, balanced development, and pollution prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Biochar Application on CO2 Emissions from a Cultivated Soil under Semiarid Climate Conditions in Northwest China
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081482
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Biochar amendments to soil have potential as a climate change mitigation strategy. However, their effect on carbon exchange in different ecosystems has not been well evaluated. Understanding how biochar affects carbon exchange from agricultural soil is essential for clarifying the contribution of biochar
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Biochar amendments to soil have potential as a climate change mitigation strategy. However, their effect on carbon exchange in different ecosystems has not been well evaluated. Understanding how biochar affects carbon exchange from agricultural soil is essential for clarifying the contribution of biochar management to the carbon budget. We performed a laboratory and a two-year field experiment to investigate the short- and medium-term effects of biochar application on CO2 emissions from semiarid farmland. There was no statistically significant alteration in the cumulative CO2 emissions from the mixture of soil with biochar alone, while the emissions increased significantly with additional nitrogen amendment over the 46-day experimental period. Over the two-year experimental period, the cumulative CO2 emissions from the field experiment decreased in the biochar-amended treatment, and the effects were significant at high application rates (20 and 30 t·ha−1) relative to the control in the MS. The seasonal CO2 dynamics were strongly dependent on soil temperature, with a higher correlation with the temperature at a depth of 10cm than with the temperature at a depth of 0cm. Soil temperature, rather than soil water content, was the major environmental factor controlling the soil carbon exchange in the semiarid farmland of the Loess Plateau. In general, biochar additions enhanced aboveground dry matter accumulation in both the early and late stages of maize growth. The results suggested that biochar amendment was a preferable management practice to help maintain or increase carbon sequestration for this region with lower CO2 emissions and higher dry matter production over a longer period. Full article
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