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Sustainability, Volume 9, Issue 8 (August 2017)

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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Economic Costs of Sea Level Rise and Benefits of Coastal Protection: A Spatiotemporal Approach
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1495; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081495
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Sea level rise (SLR) is believed to be the most dangerous impact of climate change in coastal regions. Adapting to its impacts has become imperative since SLR is now considered inevitable. Lack of local economic analysis of SLR impacts is one of the
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Sea level rise (SLR) is believed to be the most dangerous impact of climate change in coastal regions. Adapting to its impacts has become imperative since SLR is now considered inevitable. Lack of local economic analysis of SLR impacts is one of the major obstacles impeding adaptation. To address this gap, this study employs a spatiotemporal approach to estimate the economic costs of future SLR as well as the benefits of coastal protection, a principal adaptation strategy, under four local SLR projection scenarios in the mainland Miami-Dade County, Florida. Our findings indicate that SLR impacts are nonlinear and coastal protection, while costly, can significantly reduce future potential losses. A novel spatial fishnet approach is also proposed to help local decision makers identify areas that should be prioritized for protection. Findings of this study aim to support local adaptation planning, and call for integrating adaptation for SLR and its uncertainties into local planning frameworks to achieve long-term sustainability and well-being of our precious coastal communities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Priorities of Coworking Space Operation Based on Comparison of the Hosts and Users’ Perspectives
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081494
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
More than 1,180,000 people use several thousand coworking spaces these days, but the running of coworking spaces is a rather fragile business model. Coworking spaces need entrepreneurial sustainability as well. Therefore, this study identifies success factors for sustainable business through analysis of users
[...] Read more.
More than 1,180,000 people use several thousand coworking spaces these days, but the running of coworking spaces is a rather fragile business model. Coworking spaces need entrepreneurial sustainability as well. Therefore, this study identifies success factors for sustainable business through analysis of users and hosts’ demands and priorities about coworking spaces. To identify the priorities, we conducted a questionnaire survey with 60 hosts and 56 users by using the analytic hierarchy process method. We found that hosts thought community and communication most important, followed by space and interior, service diversity, and price plan, and users considered relationship facilitation the most important, followed by service diversity, price plan, and networking event and party. After discussions with coworking space hosts and users to understand the differences in viewpoints, we combined the results to find the highest priorities. Finally, we identified relationship facilitation, service diversity, and price plan as having the highest priorities for sustainable coworking space operation for both sides. This study has major implications for research into improving management of coworking spaces as it asks users and hosts to select and focus on elements of priority in their decision making for entrepreneurial sustainability and management innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurial Sustainability: New Innovative Knowledge)
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Open AccessArticle Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in a Hilly-Plain Watershed Based on the Different Hydrological Period: A Case Study in Tiaoxi Watershed
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1493; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081493
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 29 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of
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Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of the temporal-spatial characteristics of pollution loading of nitrogen and phosphorus to provide scientific basis for reasonable estimation and targeted control measures of nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Based on data from nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural land, livestock breeding, domestic discharge and aquaculture, this study calculated the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk for each pollution source. Using the superposition of ArcGIS raster data, we also described the spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk by the formula of comprehensive loss risk. The results showed that critical risk areas of nitrogen and phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding and agricultural land during flood period in Tiaoxi watershed. Agricultural land and livestock breeding sources formed major parts of nitrogen loss, accounting for 30.85% and 36.18%, respectively, while phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding (56.28%). During non-flood period, integrated management of livestock breeding and domestic discharge requires much attention to control nitrogen and phosphorus loss in the critical risk area. Finally, it is of great practical significance to propose spatial-temporal targeted measurements to control nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in watershed for various periods and different areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessReview Processing, Valorization and Application of Bio-Waste Derived Compounds from Potato, Tomato, Olive and Cereals: A Review
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1492; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081492
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The vast and ever-growing amount of agricultural and food wastes has become a major concern throughout the whole world. Therefore, strategies for their processing and value-added reuse are needed to enable a sustainable utilization of feedstocks and reduce the environmental burden. By-products of
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The vast and ever-growing amount of agricultural and food wastes has become a major concern throughout the whole world. Therefore, strategies for their processing and value-added reuse are needed to enable a sustainable utilization of feedstocks and reduce the environmental burden. By-products of potato, tomato, cereals and olive arise in significant amounts in European countries and are consequently of high relevance. Due to their composition with various beneficial ingredients, the waste products can be valorized by different techniques leading to economic and environmental advantages. This paper focuses on the waste generation during industrial processing of potato, tomato, cereals and olives within the European Union and reviews state-of-the-art technologies for their valorization. Furthermore, current applications, future perspectives and challenges are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in Food Supply Chain and Food Industry)
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Open AccessArticle A Multiple Criteria Decision-Making Approach to Evaluate the Sustainability Indicators in the Villagers’ Lives in Iran with Emphasis on Earthquake Hazard: A Case Study
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1491; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081491
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Natural hazards such as earthquakes take place around the world and when combined with humans create natural disasters. Earthquakes, a form of natural hazard, have, in recent years, caused damage and destruction in many rural areas due to the lack of sustainability in
[...] Read more.
Natural hazards such as earthquakes take place around the world and when combined with humans create natural disasters. Earthquakes, a form of natural hazard, have, in recent years, caused damage and destruction in many rural areas due to the lack of sustainability in political, economic, social, physical and operational criteria. Thus, to overcome the damage caused by earthquakes in rural areas, an assessment of sustainability status seems necessary to plan and strengthen in relation to the status of sustainability indicators. Data collection was performed through field methods and questionnaires. To test the hypothesis, T statistical methods, correlation method and F-test were performed using SPSS software (V22.0, IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). The results of the study showed that villages were at a low and undesirable level for all aspects, except social index in terms of sustainability. Comparisons showed that there was a significant mean difference among villages in terms of sustainability. The multi-criteria decision-making analysis has been considered and applied to a ranking of villages in terms of sustainability against the hazard of earthquakes. Finally, in order to improve the sustainability indicators of villages, some strategies have been presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Yields of the Major Food Crops: Implications to Food Security and Policy in Tanzania’s Semi-Arid Agro-Ecological Zone
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1490; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081490
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 17 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
While Tanzania has been facing food shortage for some decades, little efforts have been made to elicit optimal crop yields. To limit this problem, there is a need for a robust agricultural policy that aims at stabilizing agricultural production and socio-economic entitlement among
[...] Read more.
While Tanzania has been facing food shortage for some decades, little efforts have been made to elicit optimal crop yields. To limit this problem, there is a need for a robust agricultural policy that aims at stabilizing agricultural production and socio-economic entitlement among the farmers. The present study analyses the production trend of maize, sorghum and millet (i.e., staple food crops) under rain fed agriculture in Kongwa District, the semi-arid agro-ecological zone of Central Tanzania, and envisage their implications to food security and policy. We collected a set of crop data (1980–2015) from the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries. In addition, 400 respondents were sampled randomly in the study area during household survey while a series of interviews and discussions were conducted mostly basing on the expertise. The Mann-Kendall Test and Microsoft excel (window 13) and theme content methods were employed for data analyses. The results showed that the production trends for maize, sorghum and millet yields have been decreasing at R2 = 0.40, 0.35 and 0.11 respectively and this trend was supported by 80% of the respondents. This decrease was greatly influenced by the temporal decrease in the mean annual rainfall (R2 = 0.21). The diminishing production trend has already decreased food security for 30% in the area. Since agricultural policy can be among the main sources of this poor yields, an explicit and sound agricultural policy should be the central aspect in planning and implementing agricultural activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
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Open AccessReview A Review of the Economic, Social, and Environmental Impacts of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project: A Sustainability Perspective
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1489; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081489
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
China’s South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) has the potential to transfer as much as 44.8 km3 year−1 of water from the Yangtze River basin to the Yellow River basin. However, the SNWTP has not been assessed from a sustainability perspective. Thus,
[...] Read more.
China’s South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) has the potential to transfer as much as 44.8 km3 year−1 of water from the Yangtze River basin to the Yellow River basin. However, the SNWTP has not been assessed from a sustainability perspective. Thus, in this study we evaluated the SNWTP’s economic, social, and environmental impacts by reviewing the English literature published in journals that are part of the Web of Science database. We then synthesized this literature using a Triple Bottom Line framework of sustainability assessment. Our study has led to three main findings: (1) whether the SNWTP is economically beneficial depends largely on model assumptions, meaning that economic gains at the regional and national level are uncertain; (2) the SNWTP requires the resettlement of hundreds of thousands of people and challenges existing water management institutions, suggesting possible social concerns beyond the short term; and (3) evidently large environmental costs in water-providing areas and uncertain environmental benefits in water-receiving areas together point to an uncertain environmental future for the geographic regions involved. Thus, the overall sustainability of SNWTP is seriously questionable. Although much work has been done studying individual aspects of SNWTP’s sustainability, few studies have utilized the multi-scale, transdisciplinary approaches that such a project demands. To minimize environmental risks, ensure social equity, and sustain economic benefits, we suggest that the project be continuously monitored in all three dimensions, and that integrated sustainability assessments and policy improvements be carried out periodically. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Proximity Warning and Excavator Control System for Prevention of Collision Accidents
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1488; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081488
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Construction is a hazardous industry in which accidents occur frequently. Occupational accidents at construction sites are a serious public health issue in Korea. Construction site conditions often create dangerous situations by requiring workers and heavy equipment to work in close proximity to each
[...] Read more.
Construction is a hazardous industry in which accidents occur frequently. Occupational accidents at construction sites are a serious public health issue in Korea. Construction site conditions often create dangerous situations by requiring workers and heavy equipment to work in close proximity to each other. In 2015, approximately 11% (46) of the 437 occupational fatalities in the construction industry in Korea resulted from workers colliding with objects or equipment. In this paper, we present a proximity warning system developed to address this issue and enhance safety at construction sites. The proposed technology functions in real time to alert workers and equipment operators of hazardous proximity situations. Also, when the radio frequency identification (RFID) sensor detects an approaching worker, the main board instantly shuts down the excavator for the prevention of accident. This system contains an RFID tag, RFID reader, alarm device, camera, a display device (the Around View Monitor), and excavator control technology. A field test demonstrated successful performance of the proposed system. It is widely applicable in small construction fields alongside excavators and other equipment because this system does not require additional communication infrastructure, such as servers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Understanding the Generation of Value along Supply Chains: Balancing Control Information and Relational Governance Mechanisms in Downstream and Upstream Relationships
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081487
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Firms are involved in supply chains to achieve operative efficiency, develop strategic advantages, and generate financial profits. However, there is limited evidence regarding how governance mechanisms influence the generation of value from collaboration. Furthermore, how a particular buyer or supplier position provides benefits
[...] Read more.
Firms are involved in supply chains to achieve operative efficiency, develop strategic advantages, and generate financial profits. However, there is limited evidence regarding how governance mechanisms influence the generation of value from collaboration. Furthermore, how a particular buyer or supplier position provides benefits to partners is unclear. In this paper, we examine the roles of management control information as both a governance mechanism and a source of dynamic capabilities, and its interaction with relational variables to create and capture value following a demand-side perspective. Two separate studies are developed using multigroup structural equation modelling, which analyse buyer and supplier positions played by the firm as a complex supply chain node. The results demonstrate that the characteristics of information sharing have different impacts on value, depending on the role played in the relationship. Although timely information sharing appears to be the key source of operative and financial value in downstream relationships, disaggregated information sharing generates additional strategic advantages in upstream relationships. The presence of different control-trust frameworks mediates the process of value generation, leading to different managerial and theoretical implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Reframing for Sustainability: Exploring Transformative Power of Benefit Sharing
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1486; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081486
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
It is broadly agreed that development needs and effects from changing environment will increase pressure on the ways natural resources are utilized and shared at present. In most parts of the world, resource stress has already reached unprecedented levels setting resource sustainability high
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It is broadly agreed that development needs and effects from changing environment will increase pressure on the ways natural resources are utilized and shared at present. In most parts of the world, resource stress has already reached unprecedented levels setting resource sustainability high on the policy agenda on multiple governance levels. This paper aims to explain how the benefit sharing approach can help reframe the debate for sustainability, its advantages and disadvantages for transforming governance challenges and adapting to increasing resource stress. We bring together fragmented discussions of benefit sharing from three resource domains: water, land, and biodiversity. Both theoretical and empirical examples are provided to aid understanding of how benefit sharing can facilitate adaptive governance processes in complex socio-ecological systems. The findings highlight importance of integrating the long-term perspective when societies move from volumes toward values of shared natural resources, as well as setting environmental conservation and equitable allocation as the top priority for benefit sharing to be sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Governance for Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Ecological Footprint Analysis Based on Changing Food Consumption in a Poorly Developed Area of China
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1323; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081323
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2731 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is a useful tool to compare consumption with nature's ability to support this consumption. Guyuan is an economically impoverished region in China, where EF provides important insights into whether human consumption can be sustained by the local
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The per capita ecological footprint (EF) is a useful tool to compare consumption with nature's ability to support this consumption. Guyuan is an economically impoverished region in China, where EF provides important insights into whether human consumption can be sustained by the local per capita biological capacity (BC), which represents the environment’s ability to support resource use. We estimated the EF of food consumption using local equivalence and yield factors, and compared EF in 1998 and 2013 with BC, which represented the existing biologically productive area (including cultivated land, grassland, forest, and water bodies) that supports this consumption. Data were collected from household surveys, government statistics, and land use maps. We found that food consumption changed, with decreasing consumption of staple foods and increasing consumption of meat, eggs, milk, edible oils, fruit, and vegetables. Decreased staple food consumption decreased the EF for this food group, but the large increase in meat consumption greatly increased EF from meat production (to more than 41 times the 1998 value). Cultivated land contributed greatly to both EF and BC, and staple foods and vegetables were the main EF components for this land. Overall, EF from food consumption decreased from 1998 to 2013, but local BC remained 188,356 ha below EF (i.e., current consumption is not sustainable based on local resources). The Grain for Green program, which focuses on increasing the BC of forest and grassland by replacing degraded cultivated land with these land use types, decreased the BC of cultivated land, leading to wide spatial variation in both EF and BC. These results will inform policy development by revealing the condition of each region’s use of the locally available production resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability in an Urbanizing World: The Role of People)
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Open AccessArticle Let the Women Harvest the Mangrove. Carbon Policy, and Environmental Injustice
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1485; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081485
Received: 9 June 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Carbon policy is a fascinating topic in geography and political ecology, because carbon is a new exchangeable good, which links the local to the international arenas through a complex set of instruments, norms, and institutions. In this paper, after explaining my theoretical and
[...] Read more.
Carbon policy is a fascinating topic in geography and political ecology, because carbon is a new exchangeable good, which links the local to the international arenas through a complex set of instruments, norms, and institutions. In this paper, after explaining my theoretical and conceptual framework rooted in Africanist geography and currents of political ecology, I analyze the responses of local actors (knowledge, practices, logic, and strategies) to environmental policies and consider the effects of new mechanisms, upon local dynamics in Africa. I focus my attention on the impacts of mangrove reforestation policies on women, who harvest shellfish. My research, conducted over 35 years on coastal mangroves in Africa and Madagascar, provides me with examples. Through a long-term approach to the perception of mangroves and the changing modes of policies, I highlight the weight of imperialism and neo-liberalism and analyze types of environmental injustice against mangrove harvesters, particularly the women, who are the most directly concerned by the preservation of their heritage and are rarely recognized as stakeholders in environmental policies that are defined internationally and implemented at national and local levels. They are not informed (or are deliberately kept unware) of new devices such as REDD+. They have lost their rights of access to the reforested mangrove areas. Carbon policy requires comparative and empirical research, giving voice to local actors, especially women, about their perceptions of policies and actions. The approaches in terms of political ecology must be combined with analysis of the bio-ecological and socio-cultural dynamics of the mangrove. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecological Restoration for Sustainable Forest Management)
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Open AccessArticle The Factors Affecting Electricity Consumption and the Consumption Characteristics in the Residential Sector—A Case Example of Taiwan
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1484; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081484
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
This article attempts to examine the factors affecting residential electricity consumption through two approaches, a socioeconomic perspective and a direct use perspective. The results of this study find that gross domestic product (GDP), employment rates, residential space, and the implementation of energy labeling
[...] Read more.
This article attempts to examine the factors affecting residential electricity consumption through two approaches, a socioeconomic perspective and a direct use perspective. The results of this study find that gross domestic product (GDP), employment rates, residential space, and the implementation of energy labeling schemes provide significant impacts on residential electricity consumption. However, the impacts of electricity price and the energy efficiency standards do not receive significant support. The analysis of the direct use approach finds that air conditioners consume the largest portion of electricity, amounting to 1470 kWh for each household and accounting for 26.81% except for lighting. Refrigerators and rice cookers follow, consuming 815.83 kWh (14.88%) and 343.85 kWh (6.27%) of electricity. The correlation analysis reveals that GDP keeps a high relationship with the installation of electrical appliances and eventually leads to an increase in residential electricity consumption. By integrating the results obtained from these two approaches, this paper also discusses some improvement strategies. The results, derived from the case example of Taiwan’s residential electricity consumption, may provide valuable information for policy-making involving green labeling, energy standards, and electricity prices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle A Comprehensive Evaluation of Sustainable Development Ability and Pathway for Major Cities in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081483
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1974 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability consists of economic, environmental, and societal aspects. Concomitant with China’s rapid growth, the evaluation of China’s ability for sustainable development (SD) has become a topic of interest. Unlike previous studies that are based on provincial regions and focus on economic and/or environmental
[...] Read more.
Sustainability consists of economic, environmental, and societal aspects. Concomitant with China’s rapid growth, the evaluation of China’s ability for sustainable development (SD) has become a topic of interest. Unlike previous studies that are based on provincial regions and focus on economic and/or environmental evaluations, we have evaluated the comprehensive SD ability of 34 major cities in China using the context-dependent data envelopment analysis (CD-DEA) and proposed benchmark-learning pathways. The results indicate that the SD ability of China’s major cities may be classified and ordered from low tiers to high tiers: high energy consumption and polluting industries—intensive industries—fixed asset investments and service industries—innovation, quality of life and societal services industries. As a whole, cities along the coast have a higher ability for SD than inland cities, and southern cities also rate higher than northern cities. Cities that are prioritized by government policies and funding also have higher SD abilities than other cities. We recommend that cities with lower abilities (i.e., cities in the second, third, and fourth tiers) should adopt the following points in their developmental pathways (in this order): the control of energy consumption and environmental pollution, industry upgrading and redevelopment of the city, and the development of an environment that encourages innovation and provides ample employment. This study finds that GDP is no longer an issue that restricts the SD ability of China’s major cities, as compared to other factors. As China progresses towards the sustainable cities, focus should be placed on the development of a knowledge-intensive economy, balanced development, and pollution prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Biochar Application on CO2 Emissions from a Cultivated Soil under Semiarid Climate Conditions in Northwest China
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1482; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081482
Received: 8 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Biochar amendments to soil have potential as a climate change mitigation strategy. However, their effect on carbon exchange in different ecosystems has not been well evaluated. Understanding how biochar affects carbon exchange from agricultural soil is essential for clarifying the contribution of biochar
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Biochar amendments to soil have potential as a climate change mitigation strategy. However, their effect on carbon exchange in different ecosystems has not been well evaluated. Understanding how biochar affects carbon exchange from agricultural soil is essential for clarifying the contribution of biochar management to the carbon budget. We performed a laboratory and a two-year field experiment to investigate the short- and medium-term effects of biochar application on CO2 emissions from semiarid farmland. There was no statistically significant alteration in the cumulative CO2 emissions from the mixture of soil with biochar alone, while the emissions increased significantly with additional nitrogen amendment over the 46-day experimental period. Over the two-year experimental period, the cumulative CO2 emissions from the field experiment decreased in the biochar-amended treatment, and the effects were significant at high application rates (20 and 30 t·ha−1) relative to the control in the MS. The seasonal CO2 dynamics were strongly dependent on soil temperature, with a higher correlation with the temperature at a depth of 10cm than with the temperature at a depth of 0cm. Soil temperature, rather than soil water content, was the major environmental factor controlling the soil carbon exchange in the semiarid farmland of the Loess Plateau. In general, biochar additions enhanced aboveground dry matter accumulation in both the early and late stages of maize growth. The results suggested that biochar amendment was a preferable management practice to help maintain or increase carbon sequestration for this region with lower CO2 emissions and higher dry matter production over a longer period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Urban Metabolism of Three Cities in Jing-Jin-Ji Urban Agglomeration, China: Using the MuSIASEM Approach
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081481
Received: 12 June 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Urban problems—such as resources depletion, environment pollution and waste generation—usually occur during rapid urbanisation processes, especially in mega-urban agglomerations. Finding solutions to sustainable urban development is a global research interest, and urban metabolism is an effective approach to analysing the socio-economic system and
[...] Read more.
Urban problems—such as resources depletion, environment pollution and waste generation—usually occur during rapid urbanisation processes, especially in mega-urban agglomerations. Finding solutions to sustainable urban development is a global research interest, and urban metabolism is an effective approach to analysing the socio-economic system and ecosystem. In this study, three cities in the Jing-Jin-Ji urban agglomeration in China—Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan—were selected as study cases. Multiscale integrated analysis of the societal and ecosystem metabolism (MuSIASEM) method and complete decomposition model were applied to reveal the metabolic characteristics and evolutionary trajectories of the three cities from multiple levels and dimensions. Results showed that the metabolic patterns of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan were service-dominated, technology and capital aggregation-dominated and traditional industry-dominated, respectively. The evolution of economic efficiency, ecological pressure and social welfare in the three cities were different because of the stage of urban development where they were located. Tianjin and Tangshan showed positive correlations between economic growth and energy consumption, whereas Beijing demonstrated a more neutral correlation. In the future, issues—such as overpopulation, labour shortage and low efficiency of energy and labour—are likely to be the key factors that impede sustainable development in the three cities, respectively. Several policy implications were raised, including the combination of population dispersal and competitive industry relocation policies for Beijing, attracting young labour in the short term and transforming the economic growth patterns in the long term for Tianjin, and industrial upgrades and technical innovation for Tangshan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Social Ecology and Sustainability)
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Open AccessArticle Network Vulnerability Analysis of Rail Transit Plans in Beijng-Tianjin-Hebei Region Considering Connectivity Reliability
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1479; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081479
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
In the context of the urban agglomeration and the rapid development of rail transit, the planning of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region (BTHR) rail transit 2020 is attracting attention. The BTHR is a natural disaster-prone area and a high-risk area for terrorist attacks; the robustness
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In the context of the urban agglomeration and the rapid development of rail transit, the planning of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region (BTHR) rail transit 2020 is attracting attention. The BTHR is a natural disaster-prone area and a high-risk area for terrorist attacks; the robustness of the area is critical to the sustainable development of North China. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the vulnerability of the regional planning rail transit network. This paper builds a model of planning regional rail transit in BTHR. A critical node recognition measure is designed according to the connectivity reliability of nodes. The method of Monte Carlo simulation of node connectivity reliability is applied based on link connectivity probability. In addition, a model of detecting multi-measure recognition and detecting Core-Nodes is proposed. Finally, the paper analyzes the impact of multiple attack modes on the network performance from the aspects of network performance within region and transit demand outside the region, and analyzes the vulnerability of the BTHR planning rail transit network. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Distance on Open Innovation: Differences among Institutions According to Patent Citation and Reference
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081478
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The main topic of this paper is the effects of distance between technology and the market, on open innovation. For this, we set up two research questions, as follows: Is there any relation between the distance between technology and the market, and open
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The main topic of this paper is the effects of distance between technology and the market, on open innovation. For this, we set up two research questions, as follows: Is there any relation between the distance between technology and the market, and open innovation? If there is, what differences are there in the relation among Fortune 500 companies, non-Fortune 500 companies, laboratories, universities, and start-ups? First, this study measured the distance between technology and the market of a patent by the size of its list of references and citations. Second, the OI network among patent application subjects was described based on patent similarity. Third and most importantly, regression analyses were used to answer the research questions. The first result was that there were differences in the distance and OI among Fortune 500 firms, Fortune non-500 firms, laboratories, universities, and start-ups. Thus, there are relations between the distance between technology and the market, and open innovation. The second result was that the distance between technology and the market was found to moderate the open innovation effect in Fortune 500 companies and laboratories. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adoption of Energy Design Strategies for Retrofitting Mass Housing Estates in Northern Cyprus
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1477; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081477
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 11 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
This research project is undertaken in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (T.R.N.C.). The objective of the research is to investigate the occupants’ behaviour and role in the refurbishment activity by exploring how and why occupants decide to change building systems and how
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This research project is undertaken in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (T.R.N.C.). The objective of the research is to investigate the occupants’ behaviour and role in the refurbishment activity by exploring how and why occupants decide to change building systems and how to understand why and how occupants consider using energy-efficient measurements. The housing estates are chosen from 16 different projects in four different regions of the T.R.N.C. that include urban and suburban areas. The study is conducted through semi-structured interviews to identify occupants’ behaviour as it is associated with refurbishment activity. This paper presents the results of semi-structured interviews with 70 homeowners in a selected group of 16 housing estates in four different parts of the T.R.N.C. Alongside the construction process and its impact on the environment, the results point out the need for control mechanisms in the housing sector to promote and support the adoption of retrofit strategies and to minimise non-controlled refurbishment activities. The results demonstrate that European Union Energy Efficiency directives need not only inform households about technological improvements that can be installed in their residential properties, but should also strongly encourage and incentivise them to use them efficiently. Furthermore, the occupants’ energy consumption behaviour and the applicable policy interventions will make the difference between implementing policy which in fact delivers on its aims for energy efficiency and sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tillage Effects on Soil Quality after Three Years of Irrigation in Northern Spain
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1476; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081476
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Irrigation is being initiated on large areas of traditionally rainfed land to meet increasing global demand for food, feed, fiber and fuel. However, the consequences of this transition on soil quality (SQ) have scarcely been studied. Therefore, after previously identifying the most tillage-sensitive
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Irrigation is being initiated on large areas of traditionally rainfed land to meet increasing global demand for food, feed, fiber and fuel. However, the consequences of this transition on soil quality (SQ) have scarcely been studied. Therefore, after previously identifying the most tillage-sensitive SQ indicators under long-term rainfed conditions, conversion of a research site on a Haplic Calcisol in Navarre, in northeast Spain provided an ideal location to reevaluate those SQ indicators after three years of irrigated management. The Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) was used to test our hypothesis that adopting irrigation could change the sensitivity and importance of non-irrigated SQ indicators. Several soil physical, chemical, and biological indicators along with crop yields were used to evaluate SQ three years after initiating irrigation on a long-term conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and no-tillage (NT) study where either barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) or wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was being grown. The results confirmed our hypothesis that irrigation would change the relative importance of various SQ indicators and suggested that some SMAF algorithms, such as those used to assess bulk density, needed to be recalibrated for these Mediterranean soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife)
Open AccessArticle Analyzing Farmers’ Perceptions of Ecosystem Services and PES Schemes within Agricultural Landscapes in Mengyin County, China: Transforming Trade-Offs into Synergies
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081459
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
Researchers aspire to strike a balance between the production and consumption of ecosystem services (ES) in agriculture for long-term farm sustainability. One approach is to provide payments for ecosystem services (PES) through government programs. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate ecosystem services and
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Researchers aspire to strike a balance between the production and consumption of ecosystem services (ES) in agriculture for long-term farm sustainability. One approach is to provide payments for ecosystem services (PES) through government programs. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate ecosystem services and use the evaluated information to determine what policy designs could effectively induce more services in agricultural landscapes. This research uses a theoretical and analytical framework. In this framework, farmers’ perceptions of the obtained ES, importance of ES, design rules of PES programs and management practices of PES programs are identified in Mengyin County by using surveys. The results show: (1) farmers could possibly recognize the limitations of the obtained ES and reduce their demand appropriately; (2) regulating services (e.g., pollination and biological pest control) provision is central to transforming trade-offs into synergies among ecosystem services; (3) farmers should not only attach great importance to the maintenance of soil fertility and health but also to the maintenance of semi-natural habitat, and the adoption of such an attitude could positively affect their behavior to maximize synergies among ES; and (4) farmers are program implementers; if they have a better understanding of the perceptions of ES and PES programs, the theoretical and analytical framework could help farmers, policy-makers and relevant institutions design effective schemes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Consumers’ Attitudes towards Surcharges on Distributed Renewable Energy Generation and Energy Efficiency Programs
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1475; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081475
Received: 9 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Increasing penetration of energy efficiency programs and distributed renewable energy generation has imposed significant challenges for utilities to recoup their large upfront costs. There is a heated debate on what surcharges should be implemented to help the utilities recover their fixed costs; however,
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Increasing penetration of energy efficiency programs and distributed renewable energy generation has imposed significant challenges for utilities to recoup their large upfront costs. There is a heated debate on what surcharges should be implemented to help the utilities recover their fixed costs; however, very few studies focus on consumers’ attitudes regarding this topic. This study surveys about 190 residential consumers throughout the United States in November 2015, investigating their preferences and attitudes towards extra demand charges and volumetric energy price increases. We apply probit models and regress consumers’ attitudes on selected socio-demographic and behavioral variables. The results indicate the homeowners are more likely to prefer demand charges when compared to renters. The demographic and behavioral factors impact consumers’ perception of bill savings from energy efficiency programs or solar panel installation and also influence how consumers perceive the fairness of utilities recovering revenue losses by increasing volumetric energy price. In this paper, we demonstrate there is preference heterogeneity among consumers and that policy makers should be aware of such preference heterogeneity and apply policy targeting based on the identified demographics and behavioral factors impacting consumer preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Conceptual Design and Energy Analysis of Integrated Combined Cycle Gasification System
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081474
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 9 August 2017 / Accepted: 10 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, an integrated gasification combined cycle conceptual design that achieves optimum energy efficiency and 82.9% heat integration between hot and cold utilities is illustrated. The integrated combined gasification cycle (IGCC) is also modeled and evaluated for the co-production of electricity, ammonia
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In this paper, an integrated gasification combined cycle conceptual design that achieves optimum energy efficiency and 82.9% heat integration between hot and cold utilities is illustrated. The integrated combined gasification cycle (IGCC) is also modeled and evaluated for the co-production of electricity, ammonia and methane for 543.13 kilo tonne per annum (KTA) of municipal solid waste (MSW). The final products are 1284.89 MW, 8731.07 kg/h of liquid ammonia at 8 °C and 32,468 kg/h of methane gas at 271 °C. The conceptual design includes advanced heat integration between syngas and hot and cold streams in all process units. The water gas shift (WGS) unit includes integration between equilibrium reactors and cold streams. The air separation unit (ASU) includes four air compressors followed by a pressure swing adsorber (PSA), which separates oxygen and nitrogen gases into separate streams. Both O2 and N2 gases are compressed and sent to gasifier and syngas cleaning unit, respectively. The overall design shows reliability and solved steady state equations for all process units with improvements in thermal efficiency in comparison with single cycle gasification plants. The environmental emissions for GHGs such CO2 and SO2 are lower due to higher overall energy efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clean Waste to Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Developmental Progress in Some Cities of Punjab, Pakistan, Using Urban Sustainability Indicators
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1473; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081473
Received: 11 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
Sustainable urbanization is a challenge to human beings in the modern era of technology. Cities all over the world are facing several problems due to urbanization and industrialization. Urban problems could be assessed through development of indices of urban sustainability on the basis
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Sustainable urbanization is a challenge to human beings in the modern era of technology. Cities all over the world are facing several problems due to urbanization and industrialization. Urban problems could be assessed through development of indices of urban sustainability on the basis of its three dimensions: environment, economics and social. The present study was conducted to identify indicators to develop indices for assessment of sustainability in some populated cities of Punjab. The study focused on the indicators based on environmental, economic and social development to develop a rational indicator system on the basis of secondary data collected from 2004 to 2014. A total of 40 indicators were identified to assess the urban sustainability progress in Lahore, Rawalpindi, Multan, Gujranwala and Faisalabad cities. The result of the sub-indices indicated that poor performance was evident in the environmental sector, rather than in the economic and social sectors. The cities scored between 0.27 and 0.58 in environmental dimensions, showing a decreasing trend from 2004 to 2014. The declining trend of indices was due to population influx, rapid urbanization, reduction in green areas, industrialization, high level of atmospheric and water pollutants. In case of the economic sector, an increasing trend was observed which indicates the gradual improvement in living standards of people. In the social dimensions of the indicator system, less variations were observed among the cities and ranged between 0.49 and 0.58. Overall, the results of the urban sustainability index showed score was ranges between 0.41 to 0.52. None of the Punjab cities attained the position as a sustainable city (0.75) Lahore (0.52) and Faisalabad (0.52) were ranked as moderately sustainable cities, whereas, Rawalpindi (0.48), Gujranwala (0.47) and Multan (0.41) were ranked as weak sustainable cities. The study highlighted that the urban sustainability indicator system could be useful to determine the existing sustainability in cities of the developing countries for better resource management practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Open AccessArticle Energy and Sustainable Strategies in the Renovation of Existing Buildings: An Italian Case Study
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081472
Received: 6 July 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
The re-use of historical buildings, in some cases those that have been abandoned for years, is currently generating a lot of interest, and brings into discussion topics such as land recycling and the use of new resources. Our project on the rehabilitation of
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The re-use of historical buildings, in some cases those that have been abandoned for years, is currently generating a lot of interest, and brings into discussion topics such as land recycling and the use of new resources. Our project on the rehabilitation of the former San Salvatore hospital in L’Aquila is an example of this re-use, and illustrates how best-practice strategies can be implemented in the rehabilitation of an existing building. There were two themes of evaluation: firstly, the adaptive re-use of a historical building of great impact in a strategic position within the urban core; secondly, the implementation of sustainable strategies when upgrading both the building envelope and building systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Tunisian Extra Virgin Olive Oil Traceability in the EEC Market: Tunisian/Italian (Coratina) EVOOs Blend as a Case Study
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1471; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081471
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
In order to check the reliability of an NMR-based metabolomic approach to evaluating blend composition (and declaration), a series of 81 Italian/Tunisian blends samples at different percentage composition (from 10/90 to 90/10% Coratina/Tunisian oil by 10% increase step) were prepared starting from five
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In order to check the reliability of an NMR-based metabolomic approach to evaluating blend composition (and declaration), a series of 81 Italian/Tunisian blends samples at different percentage composition (from 10/90 to 90/10% Coratina/Tunisian oil by 10% increase step) were prepared starting from five Coratina (Apulia) and five Tunisian extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) batches. Moreover, a series of nine binary mixtures blend oils were obtained, starting from the two batches’ oil sums. The models built showed the linear relationship between the NMR signals and the percentage composition of the blends. In particular, a high correlation with the percentage composition of blends was obtained from the partial least squares (PLS) regression model, when the two batches oil sums were used for the binary mixtures of blend samples. These proposed methods suggest that a multivariate analysis (MVA)-based NMR approach—in particular PLS regression (PLSR)—could be a very useful tool (including for trading purposes) to assess quantitative blend composition. This is important for the sustainability of the goods’ free movement, especially in the agrifood sector. This cornerstone policy of current common markets is also clearly linked to the availability of methods for certifying the origin of the foodstuffs and their use in the assembly of final product for the consumer. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Inclusion of Forest Hydrological Services in the Sustainable Development Strategy of South Korea
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1470; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081470
Received: 30 May 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 19 August 2017
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Abstract
In the last decade, the South Korean government has implemented an unprecedented series of plans and policy actions to promote sustainable development, including the National Strategy for Green Growth. Some of these initiatives were direct responses to the evolving challenges in the water
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In the last decade, the South Korean government has implemented an unprecedented series of plans and policy actions to promote sustainable development, including the National Strategy for Green Growth. Some of these initiatives were direct responses to the evolving challenges in the water sector, and put forest hydrological services into perspective. To a certain extent, water was managed within a wider environmental context through the combination of forest and water management. However, the efforts to enhance forest hydrological services did not correspond to the immense potential of forests for the achievement of sustainable water management. We present a comprehensive and current view of the major challenges and opportunities related to forest hydrological services in South Korea. We identify key forest hydrological services in view of the major biophysical, environmental, and economic challenges in the water sector. We propose guidelines for the enhancement of forest hydrological services and for a better inclusion of these services in South Korea’s sustainable development strategy. An increased contribution of forests to the provision of high-quality water in sufficient, regulated amounts, and to the preservation of a safe environment in regards to natural hazards is imperative for the long-term development of South Korea. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Water Pollution Policy Regime Shift and Boundary Pollution: Evidence from the Change of Water Pollution Levels in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081469
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 10 August 2017 / Accepted: 13 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
Boundary environmental pollution and pollution spillovers are important issues for improving the water quality of trans-boundary rivers. This paper explores the empirical effects of the evolution of the pollution reduction mandates on boundary pollution by studying the change of water pollution levels (as
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Boundary environmental pollution and pollution spillovers are important issues for improving the water quality of trans-boundary rivers. This paper explores the empirical effects of the evolution of the pollution reduction mandates on boundary pollution by studying the change of water pollution levels (as proxied by pH, BOD, COD and NH3-N) of key state monitoring stations from 2004 to 2014. The empirical findings support the existence of boundary pollution and indicate the association between environmental policy and boundary pollution levels using propensity score matching, although the relation is conditional on which water pollution measure is considered. The pollution levels of monitoring stations on provincial borders are significantly higher than those of interior monitoring stations. The pollution of tributaries is more serious than that of the main stream, which was quickly reversed after the pollution reduction mandates changed. The improvement of the water environment showed great differences with the change of policy when we compare the water quality of monitoring stations in the upper reaches of provincial borders with the water quality downstream of provincial borders. Our empirical analysis finds strong evidence of strategic polluting across provincial borders. Local officials may manipulate pollution within their jurisdictions, and the overall pollution reduction target will exacerbate border pollution, whereas water quality inspection can reduce marginal pollution. Finally, we further validate the net impact of the policies on boundary pollution using a difference in difference (DID) approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Alternative Use of Medicinal Plants for Sustainable Weed Management
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1468; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081468
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents the first application of ethnobotanical studies to screen for allelopathic species among medicinal plants for sustainable weed management. This study assesses the possible relationship between ethnobotanical indices and allelopathy of medicinal plants. Ethnobotanical data were collected in 2016 by using
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This paper presents the first application of ethnobotanical studies to screen for allelopathic species among medicinal plants for sustainable weed management. This study assesses the possible relationship between ethnobotanical indices and allelopathy of medicinal plants. Ethnobotanical data were collected in 2016 by using semi-structured interviews with 140 informants in the Ejisu-Juaben Municipality, Ghana. Data were analysed using statistical tool and ethnobotanical indices including use value (UV), Fidelity Level (FL), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC). The Sandwich and Dish pack methods were respectively used to evaluate allelopathy through leachates and volatiles of collected samples. Ninety-five species belonging to 43 families are reported in this study, with leaves (52%) cited the most utilised plant part. Cleistopholis patens (UV = 0.54; FL = 90.7%; RFC = 0.37) and Ocimum gratissimum (UV = 0.37; FL = 38.4%; RFC = 0.35) were among the most cited species. Thirty-two species showed inhibition (≥49.3%) by leachates, while twenty-four species were found with potential volatile inhibitory compounds against lettuce radicle growth. There was a significant positive correlation (Pearson) between the UV and RFC of medicinal plants and allelopathy by leaf leachates (r = 0.639 **; p = 0.01 and r = 0.653 **; p = 0.01 respectively). This systematic documentation of medicinal plants in Ejisu-Juaben Municipality shows medicinal plants with ethnomedicinal values and potential allelopathy that can be utilised in sustainable weed control. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Heatstroke Risk Predictions for Current and Near-Future Summers in Sendai, Japan, Based on Mesoscale WRF Simulations
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1467; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081467
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 13 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 18 August 2017
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Abstract
The incidence of heatstroke has been increasing in Japan, and future climate change is likely to increase heatstroke risk. We therefore developed a method to quantify the spatial distribution of outdoor heatstroke risk and predicted future changes in this risk considering the predicted
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The incidence of heatstroke has been increasing in Japan, and future climate change is likely to increase heatstroke risk. We therefore developed a method to quantify the spatial distribution of outdoor heatstroke risk and predicted future changes in this risk considering the predicted climate change in Sendai, Japan. Heatstroke risk was quantified by assessing hazard, vulnerability and exposure. Daily maximum wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) was selected as the hazard index. The distribution of WBGT was predicted by mesoscale meteorological simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The relationship between daily maximum WBGT and the daily incidence rate was approximated by analyzing emergency transport data. This relationship was selected as the vulnerability index. Using the hazard and vulnerability indices, a spatial distribution of the monthly incidence rate was obtained. Finally, the total number of heatstroke patients per month was estimated by multiplying the monthly incidence rate by the population density. The outdoor heatstroke risk for August was then estimated for current (2000s) and near-future (2030s) climatic conditions in Sendai. WBGT at coastal areas in the 2030s increased owing to increases in humidity, while WBGT at inland areas increased owing to increases in air temperature. This increase in WBGT drove increases in heatstroke risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Heat Island)
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