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Special Issue "Sustainability of Economic Growth: Combining Technology, Market and Society"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Economic, Business and Management Aspects of Sustainability".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun *

Convergence Research Center for Future Automotive Technology, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-53-785-4410
Interests: open innovation; business model; open innovation economy; social open innovation; schumpeterian dynamics; game theory; political economics; complexity
* Managing Guest Editor
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tan Yigitcanlar

Department of Knowledge Engineering, School of Technology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Campus Universitário, Trindade, CEP 88040-900, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +55 48 99108 1160
Interests: smart and sustainable cities; urban innovation system; urban knowledge and innovation spaces; knowledge-based development
Guest Editor
Dr. KwangHo Jung

Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul Nation al University, Seoul, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +82-106-229-4479
Interests: entrepreneurship; public policy on entrepreneurial ecosystem; RFID; public service delivery system

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue includes selected studies that contribute to our understanding on how sustainability of economic growth through the combination of technology, market, and society. The Special Issue attempts to answer to the requirement of our motto of “Let’s conquer the growth limits of capitalism by combining technology, market and society”, which is the theme of SOItmC (Society of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity) 2017 conference. This Special Issue seeks to collect theoretical and empirical studies on open innovation strategy, micro and macro open innovation economy, open business models, and relevant combinations along with the critical sustainability issue. In addition to the below-listed papers, which were selected from SOItmC 2017 special sessions, up to 40 papers will be considered for publication in the Special Issue.

Dr. JinHyo Joseph Yun
Dr. Tan Yigitcanlar
Dr. Kwang Ho Jung
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • open innovation;
  • open business model;
  • new combination;
  • sustainability;
  • innovation strategy;
  • public policy

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Open Innovation of James Watt and Steve Jobs: Insights for Sustainability of Economic Growth
Sustainability 2018, 10(5), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10051553
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 12 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
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Abstract
This paper analyzes open innovation approach similarities and differences of James Watt and Steve Jobs—symbolic entrepreneurs of the First and Fourth Industrial Revolutions, respectively. The methodologic approach includes a review of the literature. Firstly, the key characteristics of the First and Fourth Industrial
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This paper analyzes open innovation approach similarities and differences of James Watt and Steve Jobs—symbolic entrepreneurs of the First and Fourth Industrial Revolutions, respectively. The methodologic approach includes a review of the literature. Firstly, the key characteristics of the First and Fourth Industrial Revolutions are determined by comprehensively reviewing the literature—particularly books on both legendary innovation entrepreneurs. Secondly, the related preceding research that describes open innovation characteristics that James Watt and Steve Jobs possessed are critically analyzed. Thirdly, open innovation strategies promoted by the two innovation entrepreneurs are scrutinized by analyzing the related literature. The findings reveal the common and differing points of the two entrepreneurs’ open innovation strategies and approaches. This paper serves as an editorial piece and introduces the special issue entitled ‘Sustainability of Economic Growth: Combining Technology, Market, and Society’, where the special issue contains 19 papers directly related to the open innovation strategy of Steve Jobs and James Watt. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Collaborative Ecosystem for an Innovation-Driven Economy: A Systems Analysis and Case Study of Science Parks
Sustainability 2018, 10(3), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10030887
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 20 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government-academia-industry) for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide
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National policies for science parks and innovation have been identified as one of the major driving forces for the innovation-driven economy, especially for publicly funded science parks. To investigate this collaborative ecosystem (government-academia-industry) for growth and sustainable development, this paper proposes a nation-wide economic impact analysis of science parks and innovation policy based on historical data drawn from one of the globally recognized high-technology industrial clusters in Taiwan. Systems thinking with causal loop analysis are adopted to improve our understanding of the collaborative ecosystem with science park policies. First, from a holistic viewpoint, the role of government in a science parks and innovation ecosystem is reviewed. A systems analysis of an innovation-driven economy with a science park policy is presented as a strategy map for policy implementers. Second, the added economic value and employment of the benchmarked science parks is evaluated from a long range perspective. Third, the concepts of government-academia-industry collaboration and policies to innovation ecosystem are introduced while addressing the measures and performance of innovation and applied R&D in the science parks. We conclude with a discussion of lessons learned and the policy implications of science park development and an innovation ecosystem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Simulation of Weak Signals of Nanotechnology Innovation in Complex System
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020486
Received: 24 December 2017 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is especially indispensable for new businesses or industries to predict the innovation of new technologies. This requires an understanding of how the complex process of innovation, which is accomplished through more efficient products, processes, services, technologies, or ideas, is adopted and diffused
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It is especially indispensable for new businesses or industries to predict the innovation of new technologies. This requires an understanding of how the complex process of innovation, which is accomplished through more efficient products, processes, services, technologies, or ideas, is adopted and diffused in the market, government, and society. Furthermore, detecting “weak signals” (signs) of change in science and technology (S&T) is also important to foretell events associated with innovations in technology. Thus, we explore the dynamic behavior of weak signals of a specific technological innovation using the agent-based simulating tool NetLogo. This study provides a deeper understanding of the early stages of complex technology innovation, and the models are capable of analyzing initial complex interaction structures between components of technologies and between agents engaged in collective invention. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluating Performance and Elucidating the Mechanisms of Collaborative Development within the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020471
Received: 24 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3482 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Elucidating the performance of collaborative development within the Beijing Tianjin Hebei (BTH) region and developing an understanding of mechanisms underlying this process are of paramount importance to regional sustainable development as well as for the realization of Chinese national strategy. Thus, utilizing socioeconomic
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Elucidating the performance of collaborative development within the Beijing Tianjin Hebei (BTH) region and developing an understanding of mechanisms underlying this process are of paramount importance to regional sustainable development as well as for the realization of Chinese national strategy. Thus, utilizing socioeconomic data for 13 districts within the BTH region between 2000 and 2014, this study applies the Gini coefficient alongside the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) method supported by the entropy weight model and impulse response functions in order to assess the performance of collaborative development in this region and elucidate underlying mechanisms. The results of this study reveal that collaborative development within the BTH region has tended to slowly increase over time, but with fluctuations. Although some progress has been made in promoting urbanization, constructing traffic networks, protecting the environment, and improving living standards, very significant expansion space nevertheless remains for further improvements. The collaborative development of this region has also been increasingly affected by globalization, with either the equalization of per capita fixed asset investment or fiscal expenditure exerting a definite impact. The results show that although the equalization of per capita fixed asset investment boosts collaborative development at the start of this process, it is likely to impede it over longer time scales, while the equalization of per capita fiscal expenditure will contribute to this process within the BTH region over both the short and long term. A number of policy suggestions are therefore proposed in this paper to promote smooth collaborative development of the BTH region, including optimizing investment structures and establishing an ecological compensation mechanism. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sustainability Orientation and Entrepreneurship Orientation: Is There a Tradeoff Relationship between Them?
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 379; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020379
Received: 25 December 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability and entrepreneurship are often regarded as binary concepts that have a tradeoff relationship, meaning that the higher the social and environmental consideration, the lower the private and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of individual sustainability
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Sustainability and entrepreneurship are often regarded as binary concepts that have a tradeoff relationship, meaning that the higher the social and environmental consideration, the lower the private and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of individual sustainability orientation on opportunity recognition and sustainable entrepreneurship intention, and examine whether it has a tradeoff relationship with entrepreneurship orientation. The result of this study shows that sustainability orientation has a positive relationship with opportunity recognition and entrepreneurship intention related to sustainability. Analysis of the moderating effects of entrepreneurship orientation reveals the positive effect with sustainability orientation but negative effect with opportunity recognition on sustainable entrepreneurship intention. This study would suggest implications to entrepreneurs on how to balance sustainability and entrepreneurship and promote sustainability entrepreneurship. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Long-Term Collaboration Network Based on ClinicalTrials.gov Database in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Sustainability 2018, 10(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020322
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing costs, risks, and productivity problems in the pharmaceutical industry are important recent issues in the biomedical field. Open innovation is proposed as a solution to these issues. However, little statistical analysis related to collaboration in the pharmaceutical industry has been conducted so
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Increasing costs, risks, and productivity problems in the pharmaceutical industry are important recent issues in the biomedical field. Open innovation is proposed as a solution to these issues. However, little statistical analysis related to collaboration in the pharmaceutical industry has been conducted so far. Meanwhile, not many cases have analyzed the clinical trials database, even though it is the information source with the widest coverage for the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to test the clinical trials information as a probe for observing the status of the collaboration network and open innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. This study applied the social network analysis method to clinical trials data from 1980 to 2016 in ClinicalTrials.gov. Data were divided into four time periods—1980s, 1990s, 2000s, and 2010s—and the collaboration network was constructed for each time period. The characteristic of each network was investigated. The types of agencies participating in the clinical trials were classified as a university, national institute, company, or other, and the major players in the collaboration networks were identified. This study showed some phenomena related to the pharmaceutical industry that could provide clues to policymakers about open innovation. If follow-up studies were conducted, the utilization of the clinical trial database could be further expanded, which is expected to help open innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Innovation Ecosystem of CNG Vehicles: A Case Study of Its Cultivation and Characteristics in Sichuan, China
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010039
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
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Abstract
Under the constraints of resources and environment, China is eager to cultivate a new industrial system with ecological characteristics in light of local circumstances. This paper selects the innovation ecosystem of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) vehicles in Sichuan, China as the objective of
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Under the constraints of resources and environment, China is eager to cultivate a new industrial system with ecological characteristics in light of local circumstances. This paper selects the innovation ecosystem of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) vehicles in Sichuan, China as the objective of the case study to explore its cultivation and characteristics. The theoretical significance lies in three areas. Firstly, the cultivation path of the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is manifested. Secondly, the symbiotic process model among the communities within the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is found. Thirdly, the substitutive process model of the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is discovered, which reveals the substitutability among innovation ecosystems, the communities of similar products, and the enterprises of similar products. This paper is of theoretical, practical, and political significance for the development of a CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem in emerging markets in terms of regional energy security and emission reduction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Key Driving Forces for Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2363; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122363
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 14 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
With the rise of China and the implementation of the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” strategy, research on geo-economics between China and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries has become increasingly important. Current studies mainly focus on influencing factors, while there is
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With the rise of China and the implementation of the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” strategy, research on geo-economics between China and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) countries has become increasingly important. Current studies mainly focus on influencing factors, while there is little consideration about how these influencing factors act on geo-economic relationships. Therefore, this paper explores the key driving forces for geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries by use of the structural equation modeling based on Partial Lease Squares. There are three main findings: (1) Economic factors have the greatest impact on geo-economic relationships and the total path effect is 0.778. Geo-location, geopolitics and geo-culture act on geo-economic relationships directly and indirectly. Their total path effects are 0.731, 0.645 and 0.513, respectively. (2) Indirect effects of geo-location, geopolitics and geo-culture impacting geo-economic relationships are far greater than direct effects. Geo-culture, in particular, has a vital mediating effect on geo-economic relationships. (3) Economic drivers promote geo-economic relationships through market, industrial policy, technical, network and benefit-sharing mechanisms. Political drivers improve geo-economic relationships through cooperation, negotiation, coordination and institutional mechanisms. Cultural drivers enhance geo-economic relationships through transmission mechanism. Location drivers facilitate geo-economic relationships through selection mechanism. We provide new insights on the geo-economic relationships through quantitative analysis and enrich the existing literature by revealing the key driving forces and mechanisms for geo-economic relationships. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Consumer Acceptance Analysis of the Home Energy Management System
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2351; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122351
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 7 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 18 December 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to study consumer acceptance of the Home Energy Management System, which is the next generation electronic management system that the Korean government plans to implement in households. The Home Energy Management System is a critical device in
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The purpose of this paper is to study consumer acceptance of the Home Energy Management System, which is the next generation electronic management system that the Korean government plans to implement in households. The Home Energy Management System is a critical device in maximizing the efficiency of electric energy consumption for each household by using a smart grid. Because it can visualize real-time price information on the electricity, households can easily monitor and control the amount of electricity consumption. With this feature, the Home Energy Management System can contribute to consumers’ total energy savings. This is a major reason why the Korean government wishes to implement it nationwide. Since the Home Energy Management System is a product that applies new technology that has not yet been directly encountered by consumers, there may be a difference in the level of public perception of the Home Energy Management System. Therefore, the impact of consumers’ awareness of the Home Energy Management System on their intention to use is important. To do this, the Technology Acceptance Model is utilized in this study. Traditional research on the Technology Acceptance Model includes awareness of usefulness and ease of use as well as intention to use. In contrast, in this research, an extended Technology Acceptance Model with four additional factors—economic benefit, social contribution, environmental responsibility, and innovativeness—that may affect the consumer’s awareness of usefulness and ease of use, is proposed. To collect the data, the survey was conducted with 287 respondents. As a result, the proposed model proved to be suitable in explaining the intention to use with a 70.3% explanation power. It is found that economic benefit (0.231) and innovativeness (0.259) impact on usefulness of the Home Energy Management System. Moreover, usefulness (0.551) has a bigger effect on intention to use than ease of use (0.338) does. Based on this, it is desirable for the Korean government to pursue a public relations strategy that emphasizes the economic benefits, social contributions, and environmental responsibility that will be gained when introducing the Home Energy Management System. It is effective to focus on consumers who are inclined to accept innovation. In addition, more effective results can be obtained by referring to the usefulness of the Home Energy Management System rather than referring to ease of use. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Innovation Systems for Transformations towards Sustainability? Taking the Normative Dimension Seriously
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2253; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122253
Received: 19 November 2017 / Revised: 2 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this article is to complement research on transformations towards sustainability by drawing upon the innovation systems (IS) framework. The IS framework already serves as a suitable and influential basis for research on processes of technological innovation and economic change. We
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The aim of this article is to complement research on transformations towards sustainability by drawing upon the innovation systems (IS) framework. The IS framework already serves as a suitable and influential basis for research on processes of technological innovation and economic change. We argue that improving the capacity of an IS framework for dealing with wicked problems and the normative complexity of sustainability requires a fundamental paradigm shift because in the current IS paradigm innovations are considered as per se desirable and in mostly technological terms. Therefore, we call for IS dedicated to transformations towards sustainability by opening up for systemic innovations beyond the technological dimension and by acknowledging that stakeholders have conflicting visions, interests, norms, and expectations with regard to sustainability goals. Taking the normative dimension of transformations towards sustainability seriously thus requires more explicit and integrative research on directionality, legitimacy, responsibility, and their interrelation in IS. The article concludes by proposing suggestions for future research based on IS-related approaches that can serve as building blocks for an IS framework capable of incorporating legitimate goal-orientation for transformative innovation by and for society. Full article
Open AccessArticle Innovative Production Scheduling with Customer Satisfaction Based Measurement for the Sustainability of Manufacturing Firms
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2249; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122249
Received: 1 September 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
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Abstract
Scheduling problems for the sustainability of manufacturing firms in the era of the fourth industrial revolution is addressed in this research. In terms of open innovation, innovative production scheduling can be defined as scheduling using big data, cyber-physical systems, internet of things, cloud
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Scheduling problems for the sustainability of manufacturing firms in the era of the fourth industrial revolution is addressed in this research. In terms of open innovation, innovative production scheduling can be defined as scheduling using big data, cyber-physical systems, internet of things, cloud computing, mobile network, and so on. In this environment, one of the most important things is to develop an innovative scheduling algorithm for the sustainability of manufacturing firms. In this research, a flexible flowshop scheduling problem is considered with the properties of sequence-dependent setup and different process plans for jobs. In a flexible flowshop, there are serial workstations with multiple pieces of equipment that are able to process multiple lots simultaneously. Since the scheduling in this workshop is known to be extremely difficult, it is important to devise an efficient and effective scheduling algorithm. In this research, a heuristic algorithm is proposed based on a few dispatching rules and economic lot size model with the objective of minimizing total tardiness of orders. For the purposes of performance evaluation, a simulation study is conducted on randomly generated problem instances. The results imply that our proposed method outperforms the existing ones, and greatly enhances the sustainability of manufacturing firms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Global Warming Leading to Phenological Responses in the Process of Urbanization, South Korea
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2203; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122203
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
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Abstract
Current studies are either region-limited, sole-species, or have short researching periods; so, studies about various species are necessary throughout South Korea. In this study, trends of changes in the budding and flowering dates of spring plants by climate factors served to explore the
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Current studies are either region-limited, sole-species, or have short researching periods; so, studies about various species are necessary throughout South Korea. In this study, trends of changes in the budding and flowering dates of spring plants by climate factors served to explore the process of urbanization. Four common species, such as Forsythia koreana (forsythia), Rhododendron mucronulatum (azalea), Prunus yedoensis (Yoshino cherry) and Prunus mume (Japanese apricot), are examined during the period from 1973 to 2008 due to the limitation of recent datasets. Budding of forsythia, azalea, Yoshino cherry and the flowering of Japanese apricot are defined as Type I (inland, of reverse letter ‘L’) and flowering of forsythia, azalea and Yoshino cherry were grouped as Type II (inland and south coastline). Prunus mume budding was different from others, so it was defined as Type III (subtropical climate). The inland phonological response is relatively cold and dry and areas are affected by the Siberian high atmospheric pressure. On the other hand, the south and east coastlines are humid and warm areas even in the winter season due to the southeastern wind. There were advancements for 3.1 days of forsythia, 5.5 days of azalea, 6.5 days of Yoshino cherry and 18.6 days of Japanese apricot during the research period. The greatest changes occurred with respect to the minimum temperature in January and the maximum temperature in February, while the precipitation change was not significant. However, in Type II, the precipitation significantly impacted plant flowering events. Precipitation was the lowest in early spring in South Korea and especially the flowering of plants was impacted by the small amount of precipitation in this region. Additionally, if precipitation after budding was over 1 mm for forsythia and azalea, 2 mm for Yoshino cherry and 7 mm for apricot, flowering occurred in over 80% of the region. South Korea is characterized as having a small amount of land and a high population density in cities. As such, it encounters strong influences due to global warming, as well as urbanization. Seven metropolitan cities and Suwon have populations over 1 million and showed more remarkable phenological events and changes of climate factors than the other regions. Especially in the case of shrubs, the phenological events were delayed in urban areas during this research. In conclusion, climate change, as well as urbanization, serve as strong factors leading to phonological and regional events in the ecosystem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Relationship between the Efficiency, Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction for State-Owned Commercial Banks in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9122163
Received: 10 October 2017 / Revised: 10 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
In 2006, China fully opened up its financial markets. This means that the banking industry is facing a more severe competitive environment, which requires not only the operational efficiency of the bank but also customer satisfaction for the quality of service. As the
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In 2006, China fully opened up its financial markets. This means that the banking industry is facing a more severe competitive environment, which requires not only the operational efficiency of the bank but also customer satisfaction for the quality of service. As the reform and opening up policy started from the eastern costal areas in China, there are differences in economic development levels by the region, and so are the levels of financial development. Therefore, it is necessary to study the effect of regional differences on bank efficiency. Prior studies also showed a lot of limitations about using data envelopment analysis, in that the efficiencies of the bank are only measured without consideration of other managerial aspects of the service and customer satisfaction. Thus, this study aims to analyze the efficiencies of twenty state-owned commercial banks in five provinces of China. The relationships between bank efficiency, service quality, and customer satisfaction are analyzed. The data used for the analysis was obtained from the 2015 Chinese Banking Statistics. As a result, the average technical efficiency of twenty state-owned banks is as high as 81.9%. It is also found that the bank’s service quality has a positive impact on efficiency and customer satisfaction. In the case of banks that are located in areas with high economic levels, customer satisfaction is lower than that of banks in lower regions. This is because customers in high economic level regions have higher expectations for service quality and it leads to lower customer satisfaction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Exploring Effective Incentive Design to Reduce Food Waste: A Natural Experiment of Policy Change from Community Based Charge to RFID Based Weight Charge
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9112046
Received: 13 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 8 November 2017
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Abstract
This research explores the impact of the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Household-Based Food Waste Charging System (RHWC) on the reduction of food waste in Mapo-Gu district located in Seoul city from June 2013 to July 2016. Through comparing the amount of food waste
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This research explores the impact of the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Household-Based Food Waste Charging System (RHWC) on the reduction of food waste in Mapo-Gu district located in Seoul city from June 2013 to July 2016. Through comparing the amount of food waste disposal between 12 apartment complexes with the RHWC policy (treatment group) and 61 apartment complexes (control group) without the policy, we attempt to identify whether the RHWC can contribute in reducing food waste. In June 2013, all these apartment complexes adopted an apartment complex unit-based food-waste system (i.e., Community-Based Waste Charging system-CWC), but, in January 2016, the 12 apartment complexes introduced the RHWC policy, while the other 61 apartment complexes kept the CWC policy. This natural experiment setting allows us to compare the difference in the quantity of food waste disposal between these two payment policies. The RHWC uses a weight based payment design, through which each household is electronically charged for the weight of food waste they disposes, while the CWC uses a group incentive system where residents pay the same price by dividing total amount of waste charge by total number of household in apartment complex. We, relying on propensity score matching and Difference-In-Difference (PSM-DID) methodology, found a significant difference in the amount of food waste disposal between these two payment systems. Our empirical finding shows that the RHWC deign can reduce more food waste than the CWC design. This study suggests that municipalities can reduce food waste through redesigning incentive mechanism in which it is able to reduce free riding by electronically identifying and monitoring how much residents throw out thanks to RFID technology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fashion Trendsetting, Creative Traits and Behaviors, and Pro-Environmental Behaviors: Comparing Korean and U.S. College Students
Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9111979
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 23 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
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Abstract
According to Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions, cultures differ in cultural values and norms; values and norms that may influence differences in trendsetting, creative traits, and behaviors, and pro-environmental behaviors. Further, because men and women have been socialized within particular cultures, gender differences
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According to Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions, cultures differ in cultural values and norms; values and norms that may influence differences in trendsetting, creative traits, and behaviors, and pro-environmental behaviors. Further, because men and women have been socialized within particular cultures, gender differences may exist in trendsetting, creative traits and behaviors, and pro-environmental behaviors. Trendsetters have characteristics that are interrelated with creative traits and behaviors, perhaps inclining them to endorse pro-environmental behaviors. However, the interrelationships among these variables remain unexplored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine these three variables among college students in South Korea and the United States (U.S.), specifically looking at cultural and gender differences. Participants were 225 Korean college students and 221 U.S. college students. Questionnaires included demographic items and scales measuring trendsetting, creative traits and behaviors, and pro-environmental behaviors. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha reliability, MANOVA, ANOVA, and SNK posthoc test. Results show that U.S. (vs. Korean) students indicated greater trendsetting and creative traits and behaviors but not greater pro-environmental behaviors. Fashion trendsetting groups in both Korea and the U.S. differed in creative traits and behaviors and pro-environmental behaviors. Among Korean trendsetting groups, reluctant adopters scored lowest on creative traits and behaviors and pro-environmental behaviors. Among U.S. trendsetting groups, trendsetters the scored highest on creative traits and behaviors and pro-environmental behaviors; reluctant adopters scored lowest on pro-environmental behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are provided for researchers and marketers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Efficiency Analysis of Retail Chain Stores in Korea
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1629; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091629
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
In today’s low-growth business environment, efficiency management is becoming more important to improve corporate sustainability. In a chain store, the efficiency of individual stores must be well managed to improve the efficiency of the entire enterprise. To do this, it is important to
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In today’s low-growth business environment, efficiency management is becoming more important to improve corporate sustainability. In a chain store, the efficiency of individual stores must be well managed to improve the efficiency of the entire enterprise. To do this, it is important to measure the efficiency of individual stores and to find factors that affect efficiency. The main purpose of this study is to find out the factors affecting the efficiency of chain stores and to analyze the results to find out the implications that contribute to an improvement in efficiency. We measured the relative efficiency of individual stores using data envelopment analysis (DEA) and analyzed the factors that affect efficiency with the Tobit regression model. As a result, we found that the number of items per employee and a competitive environment influence the efficiency of stores. An excessive number of items may cause efficiency to be lowered. Therefore, it is necessary to manage the life cycle of the product, considering the trade-off between assortment and efficiency. Competition helps to improve efficiency to some extent, but too much competition can reduce efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Does Social Media Use Influence Entrepreneurial Opportunity? A Review of its Moderating Role
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9091593
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 12 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Social media platforms are an indispensable part of entrepreneurship practices. They offer entrepreneurs a platform for business growth and brand development. However, little is known about the effect of social media use on identifying entrepreneurial opportunities. Utilizing social cognition theory, this research focuses
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Social media platforms are an indispensable part of entrepreneurship practices. They offer entrepreneurs a platform for business growth and brand development. However, little is known about the effect of social media use on identifying entrepreneurial opportunities. Utilizing social cognition theory, this research focuses on how certain factors—prior knowledge, alertness, and social media—may impact two aspects of opportunity: the discovery and the creation of entrepreneurial opportunity. This study focuses on the investigation of the moderating role of social media use on entrepreneurial opportunities. The findings have important practical and academic implications for how social media impacts entrepreneurship and can be used to increase the ability of entrepreneurs to find new opportunities. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Distance on Open Innovation: Differences among Institutions According to Patent Citation and Reference
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1478; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081478
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
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Abstract
The main topic of this paper is the effects of distance between technology and the market, on open innovation. For this, we set up two research questions, as follows: Is there any relation between the distance between technology and the market, and open
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The main topic of this paper is the effects of distance between technology and the market, on open innovation. For this, we set up two research questions, as follows: Is there any relation between the distance between technology and the market, and open innovation? If there is, what differences are there in the relation among Fortune 500 companies, non-Fortune 500 companies, laboratories, universities, and start-ups? First, this study measured the distance between technology and the market of a patent by the size of its list of references and citations. Second, the OI network among patent application subjects was described based on patent similarity. Third and most importantly, regression analyses were used to answer the research questions. The first result was that there were differences in the distance and OI among Fortune 500 firms, Fortune non-500 firms, laboratories, universities, and start-ups. Thus, there are relations between the distance between technology and the market, and open innovation. The second result was that the distance between technology and the market was found to moderate the open innovation effect in Fortune 500 companies and laboratories. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dismantling of the Inverted U-Curve of Open Innovation
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/su9081423
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 4 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
The purpose of this study is to address the following research question: What is the relationship between open innovation and firm performance? The study built up a research framework with three factors—i.e., open innovation strategy, time scope, and industry condition—to find out the
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The purpose of this study is to address the following research question: What is the relationship between open innovation and firm performance? The study built up a research framework with three factors—i.e., open innovation strategy, time scope, and industry condition—to find out the concrete open innovation effects on firm performance. This study adopted four different research methods. Firstly, we applied the aforementioned factors to a game of life simulation in order to identify the concrete differences of open innovation effects on firm performance. Secondly, the study examined the real dynamics of open innovation effects on firm performance in the aircraft industry—one of the oldest modern industries—through a quantitative patent analysis. It then looked into the effects of major factors that impact open innovation effects. Thirdly, this study developed a mathematical model and tried to open the black box of open innovation effects on firm performance. Lastly, the study logically compiled research on open innovation effects on firm performance through the presentation of a causal loop model and derived the possible implications. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Participatory Public Service Design by Gov.3.0 Design Group
Sustainability 2018, 10(1), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/su10010245
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
Citizen satisfaction levels with public service have become a key indicator in evaluating a nation’s policy capability; as such, it has become important to realize citizen-centered public service that enhances the satisfaction of citizens. Governments need to adopt new and creative methods to
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Citizen satisfaction levels with public service have become a key indicator in evaluating a nation’s policy capability; as such, it has become important to realize citizen-centered public service that enhances the satisfaction of citizens. Governments need to adopt new and creative methods to respond to changes and redefine the conditions of their policy processes. This study reviews the effectiveness of utilizing open innovation by design thinking for policy processes, and aims to detail the conditions for a policy process geared towards citizen-centered public service. The study reviews open innovation as a means of overcoming the insular tendencies of organizations, and also reviews the advantages of design thinking in identifying the diversified needs of citizens and coordinating their interests. Based on those, we conducted a case study and applied open innovation by design thinking for policy processes. The results revealed that key conditions include cooperation among designers, the diversification of communication channels between internal and external organizations, the joining of citizen experiences, repeated verification of citizen needs, and visualization of the whole progression. Such conditions are principal factors that contribute to citizen orientation and participation, and are expected to play a conducive role in the realization of citizen-centered public service in the future. Full article
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