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Special Issue "Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Liyin Shen

Faculty of Construction Management and Real Estate, Chongqing University, Shapingba District Chongqing 400045, China
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +86-23-6512-6265
Interests: sustainable construction; construction management; green building
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Weisheng (Wilson) Lu

Office: KB 515, Department of Real Estate and Construction, Faculty of Architecture, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong
Website1 | Website2 | E-Mail
Interests: international competitiveness; strategic management; procurement innovation; corporate social responsibility; Building Information Modelling (BIM); smart construction; big data; Construction waste management with a focus on its managerial, economic, and policy facets
Guest Editor
Dr. Vivian W. Y. Tam

School of Computing, Engineering and Mathematics, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith NSW 2751, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61-02-4736-0105
Fax: +61-02-4736-0833
Interests: sustainable construction; green building; life cycle assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Urbanization has been recognized by governments worldwide as one of the most important missions to boost global economic development, eradicate extreme poverty, reverse unsustainable growth, and protect the natural environment. The United Nations (UN) predicted that by 2050 about 64% of the population of the developing world and 86% of the developed world will be urbanized from a current base, whereby half of the world’s population is living in urban areas. Nevertheless, it is appreciated that urbanization in developing countries today often face greater challenges than their developed counterparts faced in such aspects as land and spatial development, resources and pollution, labor and skills, and funding. It is clear that urbanization programmes cannon be simply transplanted ‘off-the-shelf’ from developed countries. Neither is there a ‘one-size-fits-all’ progamme that can be implemented to developing countries with an acute need of sustainable urbanization.

While the triple bottom line of sustainable development, namely, social, environmental, and economical accountings, still stands in urbanization, there are emerging, relevant trends, such as smart and resilient cities, big data for city planning, smart construction and governance, urban metabolism and self-sufficiency, and urban renewable and regenerative cities. All these trends require researchers to transcend from traditional disciplinary silos and embrace a mindset of interdisciplinarity. All these trends are further intertwined with unique challenges of developing countries to make their sustainable urbanization strategies a particularly challenging research agenda of topicality and non-trivialities.

This Special Issue of Sustainability solicits original theoretical, methodological and empirical research papers, best practice and implementation on the above issues relating to “Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries”. Review and opinion papers that provide really critical perspectives on the state-of-the-art, research gaps and the further directions of topic are also welcome.

Prof. Liyin Shen
Dr. Weisheng Lu
Dr. Vivian W. Y. Tam
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • sustainable development
  • urbanization
  • developing economies
  • smart city
  • resilience
  • big data
  • smart construction
  • urban metabolism
  • self-sufficiency

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Growing ‘Smart’? Urbanization Processes in the Pune Urban Agglomeration
Sustainability 2017, 9(12), 2335; doi:10.3390/su9122335 (registering DOI)
Received: 29 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
The Indian city of Pune witnessed rapid growth and deep transformation processes in the last three decades. This paper assesses past developments and recent structures and processes against the concept of urban sustainability. Following an overview of the historical development, the dimensions of
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The Indian city of Pune witnessed rapid growth and deep transformation processes in the last three decades. This paper assesses past developments and recent structures and processes against the concept of urban sustainability. Following an overview of the historical development, the dimensions of sustainability are discussed separately, based on empirical findings. Urban growth puts enormous pressure on Pune’s land and water resources, changing the ecology of the area. The increasing water demand of Pune’s growing population competes with growing energy and water demands. An assessment of future climate change impacts indicates that the storage capacity of the reservoirs is more frequently not met during the rainy season. In addition, extreme dry years can aggravate the effects of land use change on water resources in the future. The city’s growth and especially the large in-migration has also changed Pune’s social fabric significantly. Wealth is distributed unevenly in the city and social disparities can be observed along two fault lines, namely along classes and caste groups. The population development and the increasing socioeconomic polarization are linked to the economic development of the city. Pune’s formal economy has a robust base. However, as in many cities of the Global South, the informal economy is the most relevant source of income for large parts of the population. Pune’s development is challenged by informality, poor infrastructure and inadequate planning and governance. Recently new approaches towards urban renewal and smart city development were launched. These new approaches aim at overcoming blockades in the traditional planning. A special challenge for urban planning is the transformation of urban fringe areas of the city, as this process is currently taking place in an unsustainable manner. The paper concludes that urban development has to become holistic, integrative and participative and should abandon the stereotype vision of the world class city in favor of a sustainable, locally adjusted pathway of development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle How Urbanization Economies Impact TFP of R&D Performers: Evidence from China
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1766; doi:10.3390/su9101766
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 20 September 2017 / Published: 29 September 2017
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Abstract
There have been extensive studies exploring the relationship between agglomeration economies and economic growth. However, far less attention is paid to the nonlinear relationship of urbanization economies–firm productivity nexus, especially in developing countries. This paper aims to explore how urbanization economies impact the
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There have been extensive studies exploring the relationship between agglomeration economies and economic growth. However, far less attention is paid to the nonlinear relationship of urbanization economies–firm productivity nexus, especially in developing countries. This paper aims to explore how urbanization economies impact the total factor productivity (TFP) of research and development (R&D) performers using a large sample of Chinese manufacturing firms. The generalized propensity score matching methodology is employed to not only address the selection-bias and endogenous issues, but also quantitatively investigate how firm TFP responds to urbanization economies at each urbanization level. Based on the full data sample, our results show that there exists an S-shaped relationship between urbanization economies and TFP of Chinese R&D performers. Importantly, there is an optimal interval in which urbanization economies’ impact on firm TFP can be maximized. There is also a threshold value, only beyond which a further increase in urbanization economies improves firm TFP, and a saturation point, beyond which a further increase in urbanization economies does not increase and even decrease firm TFP. The relationship between urbanization economies and TFP of Chinese R&D performers presents a consistent pattern for firms in high- and medium–low-technology industries, as well as in Eastern and North East China. However, for firms in Central and Western China, there is a much smaller and even no range of optimal interval of urbanization economies, respectively. Our research helps provide insights into policy makers to maximize urbanization economies’ positive impact on firm TFP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle How to Measure Carbon Emission Reduction in China’s Public Building Sector: Retrospective Decomposition Analysis Based on STIRPAT Model in 2000–2015
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1744; doi:10.3390/su9101744
Received: 7 August 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 25 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Productive building energy efficiency (BEE) work is an approved factor in the progress of sustainable urbanization in China, with the assessment of carbon emission reduction in China’s public buildings (CERCPB) being an essential element of this endeavor. Nevertheless, such evaluation has been hampered
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Productive building energy efficiency (BEE) work is an approved factor in the progress of sustainable urbanization in China, with the assessment of carbon emission reduction in China’s public buildings (CERCPB) being an essential element of this endeavor. Nevertheless, such evaluation has been hampered by inadequate and inefficient approaches; this is the first study to utilize the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index Type I (LMDI-I) to decompose the equation of China’s public building carbon emissions (CPBCE) with the connected driving factors (population in China, floor areas of China’s existing public buildings, building service level index of China’s existing public buildings, and the comparable CPBCE intensity), and this equation was established by the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) model. The LMDI and STIRPAT approaches subsequently assessed the CERCPB values from 2001 to 2015. The results indicated that: (1) Only the contribution of the comparable CPBCE intensity to CPBCE was negative during 2001–2015; this represents the CERCPB value for the period. (2) The assessment results indicated that CERCPB has accumulated considerably with the swift progress of BEE work in China in 2001–2015. The CERCPB values in 2001–2005, 2006–2010, and 2011–2015 were 69.29, 158.53, and 277.86 million tons of carbon dioxide, respectively. (3) This study demonstrated that the positive effect of implementing public BEE work in China had led to significant results in 2001–2015, which can be regarded as a prerequisite for producing the considerable accumulation of CERCPB over this period. Overall, this study illustrated the feasibility of employing the LMDI and STIRPAT approaches for assessing the CERCPB value. Accordingly, we believe the results of this study are a significant driving force in the next phase of the development of the carbon emission control strategy of public buildings and sustainable urbanization in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle In-Migration and Housing Choice in Ho Chi Minh City: Toward Sustainable Housing Development in Vietnam
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1738; doi:10.3390/su9101738
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 18 September 2017 / Accepted: 22 September 2017 / Published: 27 September 2017
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Abstract
Since the initiation of Vietnam’s Doi Moi policy in 1986, the rate of urbanization has rapidly increased with a great influx of immigrants from rural areas. With such migration becoming a large acceleration factor for urban growth, the shortage of housing has become
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Since the initiation of Vietnam’s Doi Moi policy in 1986, the rate of urbanization has rapidly increased with a great influx of immigrants from rural areas. With such migration becoming a large acceleration factor for urban growth, the shortage of housing has become a critical problem in the cities. The Vietnamese government encouraged self-built housing and public–private partnerships to produce different types of housing stock. There are few available academic studies about housing choice in Vietnam to help understand movement dynamics and to foster sustainable housing development. The purpose of this study is to analyze housing choice and moving determinants in Ho Chi Minh City, and thereby establish recommendations for sustainable housing development in Vietnam. For an empirical study, a citizen questionnaire survey was conducted in HCMC and an in-depth analysis was carried out. The results indicate that the row house type for single-family housing is strongly preferred, but a preference for apartments is also observed for future planning. The factors influencing housing choice and movement are family income, housing ownership, housing typology, and commuting environment. These phenomena suggest that the government should prudently consider affordable housing development in many districts. The results of this study will help to establish policies for sustainable housing development in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Impacts of an Urban Living Lab from the Participants’ Perspective: Livewell Yarra
Sustainability 2017, 9(10), 1699; doi:10.3390/su9101699
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 16 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 22 September 2017
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Abstract
Urban living labs have emerged as transition arenas for undertaking process-oriented and reflexive experiments in the multi-stakeholder governance of sustainability. This paper evaluates Livewell Yarra, an urban living lab in Melbourne, Australia, that brought together academic researchers and community actors to engage in
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Urban living labs have emerged as transition arenas for undertaking process-oriented and reflexive experiments in the multi-stakeholder governance of sustainability. This paper evaluates Livewell Yarra, an urban living lab in Melbourne, Australia, that brought together academic researchers and community actors to engage in experiments for low-carbon living. This paper evaluates transition team experiments in governance of the lab itself and community experiments in carbon reduction that took place in people’s homes and small group settings known as decarb groups. This paper’s primary research question is: what are the direct impacts of urban living lab experiments from the participants’ perspective? The research methods utilised include action research, asset-based community development, participatory co-design and most significant change research. This paper evaluates experiments in low-carbon living through data collected via stories of change from participant interviews. The results indicate that experiments in urban living labs create opportunities for social learning and empowerment, but also raise issues of leadership and ownership of transition governance. The findings suggest that Livewell Yarra could have benefited from clearer agenda setting and continuous monitoring to feedback results. The paper concludes by suggesting future research directions that utilise the operational processes of transition management to support experiments in urban living labs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
Open AccessArticle Stakeholders’ Expectations in Urban Renewal Projects in China: A Key Step towards Sustainability
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1640; doi:10.3390/su9091640
Received: 30 July 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
China’s fast growth of economy and urbanization have driven large-scale urban renewal projects, thus triggering a wide spectrum of unsustainable problems. Little research has systematically explored the stakeholders’ expectations in urban renewal projects in China. A deeper understanding of the divergent interests and
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China’s fast growth of economy and urbanization have driven large-scale urban renewal projects, thus triggering a wide spectrum of unsustainable problems. Little research has systematically explored the stakeholders’ expectations in urban renewal projects in China. A deeper understanding of the divergent interests and expectations of the key stakeholder groups is an important step towards sustainable urban renewal. This paper aims to analyze the stakeholders’ expectations on urban renewal projects. Eighteen factors are identified and compared among the main stakeholders: government sectors, consulting parties, the general public and affected residents in both redevelopment and rehabilitation projects, using questionnaire survey and interviews in Chongqing, China. The results reveal that there exist enormous differences of opinions and interests among stakeholders in all economic, environmental and social aspects. To achieve sustainable urban renewal in China, the governments ought to reconsider what the “public interest” stands for. In-situ residents should be understood and treated differently, based on the type of projects. An effective dialogue mechanism as well as supportive administrative and legal system should be established. Moreover, urban-renewal-related education and publicity should be a long-term strategy to change current awareness of different stakeholders, by improving their skill and willingness to participate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle Inequality, Bi-Polarization and Mobility of Urban Infrastructure Investment in China’s Urban System
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1600; doi:10.3390/su9091600
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
In periods of rapid urbanization, investment in urban infrastructure should not only meet the increasing demands of all urban people, but also be equally allocated between cities to achieve social equity and sustainable development. This paper aimed to conduct quantitative research on the
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In periods of rapid urbanization, investment in urban infrastructure should not only meet the increasing demands of all urban people, but also be equally allocated between cities to achieve social equity and sustainable development. This paper aimed to conduct quantitative research on the unbalance of urban infrastructure investment between cities in China. The measurement models for inequality, bi-polarization and the mobility of urban infrastructure investment were constructed by means of the Gini coefficient, bi-polarization index and mobility function from the urban system, and an empirical study was conducted based on panel data from 2006 to 2014. The results show that: (1) The overall inequality of urban infrastructure investment in China’s urban system was relatively prominent and showed a “U-shaped” change generally. (2) The inequality between different administrative levels or regional cities only partially accounted for the overall inequality of China’s urban system. (3) Inequality and bi-polarization showed inconsistent performance. (4) Mobility played a positive role in reducing the inequality and bi-polarization. Based on the empirical findings and the reality of China’s urban infrastructure investment and financing, targeted policy suggestions were proposed in terms of adjusting inequality and bi-polarization, innovating investment and financing mechanisms, and optimizing urban infrastructure investment strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle A Comprehensive Evaluation of Sustainable Development Ability and Pathway for Major Cities in China
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1483; doi:10.3390/su9081483
Received: 10 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 20 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1974 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sustainability consists of economic, environmental, and societal aspects. Concomitant with China’s rapid growth, the evaluation of China’s ability for sustainable development (SD) has become a topic of interest. Unlike previous studies that are based on provincial regions and focus on economic and/or environmental
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Sustainability consists of economic, environmental, and societal aspects. Concomitant with China’s rapid growth, the evaluation of China’s ability for sustainable development (SD) has become a topic of interest. Unlike previous studies that are based on provincial regions and focus on economic and/or environmental evaluations, we have evaluated the comprehensive SD ability of 34 major cities in China using the context-dependent data envelopment analysis (CD-DEA) and proposed benchmark-learning pathways. The results indicate that the SD ability of China’s major cities may be classified and ordered from low tiers to high tiers: high energy consumption and polluting industries—intensive industries—fixed asset investments and service industries—innovation, quality of life and societal services industries. As a whole, cities along the coast have a higher ability for SD than inland cities, and southern cities also rate higher than northern cities. Cities that are prioritized by government policies and funding also have higher SD abilities than other cities. We recommend that cities with lower abilities (i.e., cities in the second, third, and fourth tiers) should adopt the following points in their developmental pathways (in this order): the control of energy consumption and environmental pollution, industry upgrading and redevelopment of the city, and the development of an environment that encourages innovation and provides ample employment. This study finds that GDP is no longer an issue that restricts the SD ability of China’s major cities, as compared to other factors. As China progresses towards the sustainable cities, focus should be placed on the development of a knowledge-intensive economy, balanced development, and pollution prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle Strategic Approaches to Sustainable Urban Renewal in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Shenzhen, China
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1460; doi:10.3390/su9081460
Received: 15 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 17 August 2017
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Abstract
Successful urban renewal requires a multifaceted strategic approach incorporating both local and regional regulations, developed through multi-sector and multi-agency partnerships. In practice, developments in China unfold as discrete projects without a broader consideration for city planning or long-term sustainability. Critically, no strategic manifesto
[...] Read more.
Successful urban renewal requires a multifaceted strategic approach incorporating both local and regional regulations, developed through multi-sector and multi-agency partnerships. In practice, developments in China unfold as discrete projects without a broader consideration for city planning or long-term sustainability. Critically, no strategic manifesto has yet emerged to direct sustainable urban renewal (SUR) as a whole in Chinese cities. To improve understanding of existing practices and their applicability to current issues facing urban renewal programs, this study performs a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of urban renewal within Shenzhen City, China. Data identifying specific strategies are collected from a literature review, relevant urban renewal regulations, government documents, interviews with experts and focus group meetings. Findings identify six potential strategies able to uphold SUR development in Shenzhen, with further transferability to other Chinese cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle Formalizing the Informal: Understanding the Position of Informal Settlements and Slums in Sustainable Urbanization Policies and Strategies in Bandung, Indonesia
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1436; doi:10.3390/su9081436
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 August 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
Sustainable urbanization policies and strategies are posited as a major tool by which to achieve the sustainable development of growing towns and cities. A major challenge for sustainable urbanization policies and strategies is how to address the complexity of urbanization, especially the ongoing
[...] Read more.
Sustainable urbanization policies and strategies are posited as a major tool by which to achieve the sustainable development of growing towns and cities. A major challenge for sustainable urbanization policies and strategies is how to address the complexity of urbanization, especially the ongoing growth of informal settlements and slums in developing countries. It is acknowledged that those living their lives in such housing and settlements suffer greater levels of spatial, economic and social exclusion from the benefits of urbanization that other segments of the urban population. Using a case study approach, this paper examines the range of challenges associated with the growth of informal settlements and slums, seeking to understand how they are positioned via upgrading policies in city urbanization plans and strategies in Indonesia’s third largest city, Bandung. The research finds that there has been a shift in kampung and slum upgrading policy from in-situ solutions to vertical housing towers which appear incompatible in accommodating the way of life practiced in kampung adaptive urbanism contexts. The manner in which city governments manage informal settlements and slums by seeking to reshape and restructure the lifestyles of residents to align with formal market measures has a major impact on existing disadvantaged communities. The paper concludes with a call for greater leadership, political commitment and recognition of contextual responses when developing slum upgrading policies set within urbanization policies and strategies branded as sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancing Urban Development Quality Based on the Results of Appraising Efficient Performance of Investors—A Case Study in Vietnam
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1397; doi:10.3390/su9081397
Received: 4 July 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Economic development and the overpopulation in Vietnam have led to rapid urbanization, which has posed countless difficulties and challenges to its government. In particular, creating adequate accommodation, life activities, and entertainment are extremely urgent issues. The planning and investment in industry zones, urban
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Economic development and the overpopulation in Vietnam have led to rapid urbanization, which has posed countless difficulties and challenges to its government. In particular, creating adequate accommodation, life activities, and entertainment are extremely urgent issues. The planning and investment in industry zones, urban areas, residential districts, and amusement parks at the right time and right place contribute to social stability and economic development, and are important issues for every government—especially in Vietnam which remains a developing country with regard to rapid industrialization and modernization speed. The population density in many localities is too dense, while in others it is too thin, resulting in a state where inhabitants have no shelter, whereas many of the buildings have been abandoned. To deal with these matters, the authors used this study to assess the investment effectiveness of leading corporations in the field of investment in urban development and infrastructure investment in Vietnam. The study focused on addressing the following issues: assessing the effectiveness of corporations in urban development and infrastructure investment in Vietnam and predicting the business state of the groups. Through business data of corporations from 2013–2016, the authors used a Grey system theory to forecast business situations for the period from 2017–2020. The authors also used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the effectiveness of investments of the group from 2013–2020. The results will help corporations in creating suitable investment and business strategies with the changes of the domestic and world economy, and can be considered as a foundation for management units, for local government to create planning projects with feasible content, for long-term vision, and practical efficiency to quickly meet the needs of urban development plans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in Developing Countries)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Simulating Future Urban Growth Patterns and its Energy Implications in Shanghai, China
Author: Haozhi Pan, Brian Deal, Xizhe Peng, Yina Zhang
Abstract: In sustainable urban scenario-planning practices, scholars have been adopting Planning Support Systems (PSSs) to forecast potential, future urban land-use transformation and evaluate its associated social and environmental impacts. The availability of of terrestrial carbon flux data from satellite-driven sources, and spatial energy use data from ground-driven sources, enables a spatially explicit, energy and GHG emission assessment to be included in a given PSS modeled scenario analysis. This additional information will help reduce uncertainty and avoid potential environmental market driven failures.
We do this through the application and enhancement of the University of Illinois’ Land use Evolution and Impact Assessment Model (LEAM) PSS. The LEAM PSS is a dynamic spatio-temporal simulation environment and visualization tool that has been useful in scenario planning exercises around the world. In this work, we used Shanghai neighborhood-level population data from the Sixth National Population Census of China as the starting point of our simulation, with policy scenario input from the Shanghai 2040 Master Plan. We then forecast future urban population distributions in the Shanghai region. We use the spatial energy usage and carbon flux data to produce spatially explicitly energy use demand impacts. From this we derive GHG and CO2e changes. We analyze these for each land-use scenario tested to discern least impact policy approaches. Throughout this example, we demonstrate the usefulness of current, spatially explicit environmental data in PSS development and information creation.

Title: Struggling for Equality - the Position of Informal Settlements in Sustainable Urbanization Strategies in South East Asia and the Pacific
Author: Paul Jones
Abstract: Sustainable urbanization strategies are posited as a major tool by which to achieve the sustainable development of growing cities. These plans and policies state the social, economic and environmental objectives, activities and processes of sustainable urbanization and urban areas. A major challenge for sustainable urbanization strategies is how to address the growth of informal settlements given many planning responses continue to take a hard-line view on their permanency, such as by evictions, demolition and resettlement. This paper looks at the range of challenges that come with the growth of informal settlements, and importantly, examines the different perspectives of how informal settlements are positioned and dealt with in urbanization policies, plans and practice in developing countries in South East Asia and the Pacific. The paper concludes with a call for a deeper understanding of the causes of informal settlements and more sympathetic planning responses within sustainable urbanization strategies.

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