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Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1493; doi:10.3390/su9081493

Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in a Hilly-Plain Watershed Based on the Different Hydrological Period: A Case Study in Tiaoxi Watershed

1
Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Eco-Industrial Green Technology, College of Ecology and Resource Engineering, Wuyi University, Wuyishan 354300, China;
2
Key Laboratory of Integrated Regulation and Resources Development of Shallow Lakes of Ministry of Education, College of Environment, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3
China Institute of Water Resource and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 29 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Abstract

Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of the temporal-spatial characteristics of pollution loading of nitrogen and phosphorus to provide scientific basis for reasonable estimation and targeted control measures of nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Based on data from nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural land, livestock breeding, domestic discharge and aquaculture, this study calculated the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk for each pollution source. Using the superposition of ArcGIS raster data, we also described the spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk by the formula of comprehensive loss risk. The results showed that critical risk areas of nitrogen and phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding and agricultural land during flood period in Tiaoxi watershed. Agricultural land and livestock breeding sources formed major parts of nitrogen loss, accounting for 30.85% and 36.18%, respectively, while phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding (56.28%). During non-flood period, integrated management of livestock breeding and domestic discharge requires much attention to control nitrogen and phosphorus loss in the critical risk area. Finally, it is of great practical significance to propose spatial-temporal targeted measurements to control nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in watershed for various periods and different areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-point source pollution; flood season; non-flood period; nitrogen and phosphorus loss; risk assessment; critical risk area; watershed non-point source pollution; flood season; non-flood period; nitrogen and phosphorus loss; risk assessment; critical risk area; watershed
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Ye, H.; Yuan, X.; Han, L.; Marip, J.B.; Qin, J. Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in a Hilly-Plain Watershed Based on the Different Hydrological Period: A Case Study in Tiaoxi Watershed. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1493.

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