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Special Issue "Sustainable Water Resources Management"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050). This special issue belongs to the section "Sustainable Agriculture, Food and Wildlife".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 May 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Basant Maheshwari

School of Science & Health, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith NSW 2751, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61-2-4570-1235
Interests: water resources planning and management; sustainability; groundwater management; irrigation; balanced urban development; river health; water reuse and environmental sustainability
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Hector Malano

Professor of Water Resources Management; Department of Infrastructure Engineering, Bldg 176, University of Melbourne, Parkville Vic 3010, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +61-(0)-8344-6645
Fax: +61-(0)-8344-6215
Interests: irrigation management; water resources planning; climate change adaptation; urban water cycle modelling and management; sustainability; urbanization; water policy and environmental management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Water is a critical need for all aspects of life on Earth, and underpins the sustainability of national economy, society and the environment. Factors, such as population growth, climate change and rainfall variability, land use changes, water pollution, institutional arrangements, and water demand for food production, affect future water availability and security. Sustainable water management is increasingly becoming important and we need innovation in technology, policy and institutional arrangements to cope with future water scarcity and drive increased water use efficiency and productivity as well as environmental and social outcomes in the longer term. This Special Issue on “Sustainable Water Resources Management” includes articles that address issues, challenges and solutions of water resources management in both urban and rural contexts, and will particularly welcome articles dealing with sustainability aspects of water resources management as influenced by climate change, population and economic growth, impacts on ground and surface water quality and quantity, and developments in water use and reuse methods. Similarly, studies related to political and socio-economic challenges and constraints, agricultural and urban water management, river and waterway health, surface and ground water interactions, managed aquifer recharge and storage and water management strategies for green growth are equally welcomed.

Prof. Dr. Basant Maheshwari
Prof. Dr. Hector Malano
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • water use and management
  • water planning
  • water quality
  • sustainability approaches
  • sustainability indicators
  • urban and peri-urban water
  • water security
  • agricultural water use and reuse
  • climate change and adaptation strategies

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in a Hilly-Plain Watershed Based on the Different Hydrological Period: A Case Study in Tiaoxi Watershed
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1493; doi:10.3390/su9081493
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 29 July 2017 / Accepted: 17 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
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Abstract
Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of
[...] Read more.
Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of the temporal-spatial characteristics of pollution loading of nitrogen and phosphorus to provide scientific basis for reasonable estimation and targeted control measures of nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Based on data from nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural land, livestock breeding, domestic discharge and aquaculture, this study calculated the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk for each pollution source. Using the superposition of ArcGIS raster data, we also described the spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk by the formula of comprehensive loss risk. The results showed that critical risk areas of nitrogen and phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding and agricultural land during flood period in Tiaoxi watershed. Agricultural land and livestock breeding sources formed major parts of nitrogen loss, accounting for 30.85% and 36.18%, respectively, while phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding (56.28%). During non-flood period, integrated management of livestock breeding and domestic discharge requires much attention to control nitrogen and phosphorus loss in the critical risk area. Finally, it is of great practical significance to propose spatial-temporal targeted measurements to control nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in watershed for various periods and different areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Salinity Change on Water Quality Variables from the Sediment of an Artificial Lake under Anaerobic Conditions
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1429; doi:10.3390/su9081429
Received: 24 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
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Abstract
Artificial reservoirs are created by dike construction in coastal areas to secure the agricultural water supply on the west coast of South Korea. These systems are found to retain brackish characteristics until total desalination is achieved. To evaluate the effects of salinity on
[...] Read more.
Artificial reservoirs are created by dike construction in coastal areas to secure the agricultural water supply on the west coast of South Korea. These systems are found to retain brackish characteristics until total desalination is achieved. To evaluate the effects of salinity on the organic substances released from the sediment, a laboratory water-sediment column experiment was conducted to assess associated changes in water quality variables such as the sediment oxygen demand (SOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Under high salinity conditions, the release of N from the sediment was promoted with the enhancement of SOD and COD. This trend was accounted for by the response of the microorganisms (cell breakdown of algae and suppression of metabolic activity). Our results suggest that chemicals (N, P, and COD) released from sediment and its overall impact on the water quality of a brackish lake should vary depending on the temporal and spatial dynamics of the salinity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle Alfalfa Water Use and Yield under Different Sprinkler Irrigation Regimes in North Arid Regions of China
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1380; doi:10.3390/su9081380
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
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Abstract
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is one of the major crops grown in Northern China in recent years, however, the current serious water shortage conditions present a challenge to the growth of this crop, especially if efficient use of water is considered in
[...] Read more.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is one of the major crops grown in Northern China in recent years, however, the current serious water shortage conditions present a challenge to the growth of this crop, especially if efficient use of water is considered in forage production for sustainability. This study aimed to evaluate alfalfa productivity and water use efficiency (WUE) under different sprinkler irrigation levels. This experiment was conducted at Shiyanghe Experimental Station for Water-Saving in Agriculture and Ecology of China Agricultural University in Wuwei, Gansu, China, over a period of two years. There were three irrigation treatments: A1: 100% measured evapotranspiration (ETc) of alfalfa; A2: irrigation amount was 66% of A1; A3: irrigation amount was 33% of A1; and a control of A4: no irrigation during the growing season. A randomized block design with three replications were applied. The results showed that the ETc and forage yield of alfalfa decreased, while WUE and crude protein (CP) increased with the decreasing irrigation amounts. The seasonal average ETc and yield ranged from 412 mm to 809 mm and from 11,577 to 18,636 kg/ha, respectively, under different irrigation levels. The highest yields were obtained from the first growth period in all treatments in both years, due to the winter irrigation and the longest growth period. Alfalfa grown under lesser irrigation treatment conditions had higher variability in ETc and yield, mainly due to the variability in the amount of rainfall during the growth period. The seasonal average WUE of treatments ranged from 22.78 to 26.84 kg/(mm·ha), and the highest WUE was obtained at the first growth period, regardless of treatments. Seasonal average CP content ranged from 18.99% to 22.99%. A significant linear relationship was found between yield and ETc or irrigation amount, and the fitting results varied between growth periods and years. The present results also implied that winter irrigation provided the space for saving water and should be applied at the end of each growing season to fill the soil profile, and to maintain a greater yield in the next growing season. During the growing season, more irrigation should be concentrated in the early growth period, especially in the second growth period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of Turbidity Variation in Two Reservoirs Connected by a Water Transfer Tunnel in South Korea
Sustainability 2017, 9(6), 993; doi:10.3390/su9060993
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 6 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
The Andong and Imha reservoirs in South Korea are connected by a water transfer tunnel. The turbidity of the Imha reservoir is much higher than that of the Andong reservoir. Thus, it is necessary to examine the movement of turbidity between the two
[...] Read more.
The Andong and Imha reservoirs in South Korea are connected by a water transfer tunnel. The turbidity of the Imha reservoir is much higher than that of the Andong reservoir. Thus, it is necessary to examine the movement of turbidity between the two reservoirs via the water transfer tunnel. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the water transfer tunnel on the turbidity behavior of the two connecting reservoirs and to further understand the effect of reservoir turbidity distribution as a function of the selective withdrawal depth. This study applied the CE-QUAL-W2, a water quality and 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model, for simulating the hydrodynamic processes of the two reservoirs. Results indicate that, in the Andong reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was similar to that without the tunnel. However, in the Imha reservoir, the turbidity of the released water with the water transfer tunnel was lower than that without the tunnel. This can be attributed to the higher capacity of the Andong reservoir, which has double the storage of the Imha reservoir. Withdrawal turbidity in the Imha reservoir was investigated using the water transfer tunnel. This study applied three withdrawal selections as elevation (EL.) 141.0 m, 146.5 m, and 152.0 m. The highest withdrawal turbidity resulted in EL. 141.0 m, which indicates that the high turbidity current is located at a vertical depth of about 20–30 m because of the density difference. These results will be helpful for understanding the release and selective withdrawal turbidity behaviors for a water transfer tunnel between two reservoirs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle Identifying Irrigation Strategies for Improved Agricultural Water Productivity in Irrigated Maize Production through Crop Simulation Modelling
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 630; doi:10.3390/su9040630
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Identifying irrigation strategies that improve agricultural water use efficiency (WUE) have a pivotal role to play in sustainable water development. In this study, the AquaCrop model was used to examine the impact of different irrigation scheduling options on yields to identify viable strategies
[...] Read more.
Identifying irrigation strategies that improve agricultural water use efficiency (WUE) have a pivotal role to play in sustainable water development. In this study, the AquaCrop model was used to examine the impact of different irrigation scheduling options on yields to identify viable strategies to enhance WUE for irrigated maize. Two scheduling scenarios at water application depths ranging from 20 to 50 mm were investigated: schedules based on allowable depletion of total available water (TAW) in the root zone and interval schedules based on irrigating at predefined daily intervals. For both scenarios, simulated yields, seasonal water applied and percent percolation loss were within the range of 9.16 to 10.22 ton/ha, 180 to 950 mm and 0–61%, respectively. The WUE in terms of water applied (WUEIrr) and crop evapotranspiration (WUEET) ranged from 1.07 to 5.48 kg/m3 and 2.42 to 4.42 kg/m3, respectively. The results revealed that depletion levels of 40–50% TAW at water depths of 20–40 mm could be used to obtain high WUE without significant yield penalty. Moreover, a good balance between yield, improved WUEET and percolation reduction was observed at water depths of 30–40 mm for daily intervals with water applied during the vegetative-reproductive stage of 7–5, 10–5 and 10–7. The identified strategies can contribute to the development of best management practices for water conservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle Household Smart Water Metering in Spain: Insights from the Experience of Remote Meter Reading in Alicante
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 582; doi:10.3390/su9040582
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 2 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the past few years, the smart city paradigm has been influencing sustainable urban water resources management. Smart metering schemes for end users have become an important strategy for water utilities to have an in-depth and fine-grained knowledge about urban water use. Beyond
[...] Read more.
Since the past few years, the smart city paradigm has been influencing sustainable urban water resources management. Smart metering schemes for end users have become an important strategy for water utilities to have an in-depth and fine-grained knowledge about urban water use. Beyond reducing certain labor costs, such as those related to manual meter reading, such detailed and continuous flow of information is said to enhance network efficiency and improve water planning by having more detailed demand patterns and forecasts. Research focusing on those initiatives has been very prolific in countries such as Australia. However, less academic attention has been paid to the development of smart metering in other geographies. This paper focuses on smart water metering in Spain and, more particularly, documents and reflects on the experience of the city of Alicante (southeastern Spain), a pioneer case of massive deployment of remote reading of water meters at the household level and for large urban customers. Through data and interviews with water managers from the water utility, we shed light on the costs and early benefits, as well as the potentialities and (unexpected) problems of this technology to contribute to more sustainable urban water cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle A Coupled Allocation for Regional Initial Water Rights in Dalinghe Basin, China
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 428; doi:10.3390/su9030428
Received: 26 August 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 11 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Regional initial water rights is a crucial part of initial water rights and clarification of it is an essential method to improve the efficiency of water use. It also promotes sustainable use of valuable water resources. Consequently, under new circumstances of China’s most
[...] Read more.
Regional initial water rights is a crucial part of initial water rights and clarification of it is an essential method to improve the efficiency of water use. It also promotes sustainable use of valuable water resources. Consequently, under new circumstances of China’s most stringent water resources management, with water quantity and quality control, we propose a new perspective for a coupled allocation model of regional initial water rights for a typical river basin. Firstly, we design an index system following principles of the “Three Red Lines” considering the real situation of Dalinghe River Basin, China. Then, under the control of total water use, we establish an allocation model of regional initial water quantity rights by the projection pursuit technology. Secondly, under total pollutant discharge control, we established an allocation model of regional initial pollutant discharge rights considering optimized objectives of economy and society. Thirdly, considering both regional initial water quantity rights and the regional pollutant discharge rights above, we provide an incentive function to build a coupled allocation model for regional initial water rights of Dalinghe River Basin. Finally, according to the scenario of the water frequency 50% and planning year 2030, the research finding shows Chaoyang City obtains the largest quantity of regional initial water rights, followed by Jinzhou, Fuxin, Panjin and Huludao, sequentially, which approximately match the pilot plans of China’s Ministry of Water Resources. The empirical research about Dalinghe River Basin further verifies effectiveness of the model in this paper. It also provides scientific decision support for implementing China’s most stringent water resources management for Dalinghe River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessCommunication An Alternative Method of Spatial Autocorrelation for Chlorophyll Detection in Water Bodies Using Remote Sensing
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 416; doi:10.3390/su9030416
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
Additional measures of in situ water quality monitoring in natural environments can be obtained through remote sensing because certain elements in water modify its spectral behavior. One of the indicators of water quality is the presence of algae, and the aim of this
[...] Read more.
Additional measures of in situ water quality monitoring in natural environments can be obtained through remote sensing because certain elements in water modify its spectral behavior. One of the indicators of water quality is the presence of algae, and the aim of this study was to propose an alternative method for the quantification of chlorophyll in water by correlating spectral data, infrared images, and limnology data. The object of study was an artificial lake located at Unisinos University, São Leopoldo/RS, Brazil. The area has been mapped with a modified NGB (near infrared (N), green (G) and blue (B)) camera coupled to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). From the orthorectified and georeferenced images, a modified normalized difference vegetation index (NDVImod) image has been generated. Additionally, 20 sampling points have been established on the lake. At these points, in situ spectral analysis with a spectroradiometer has been performed, and water samples have been collected for laboratory determination of chlorophyll concentrations. The correlation resulted in two models. The first model, based on the multivariate analysis of spectral data, and the second model, based on polynomial equations from NDVI, had coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.86 and 0.51, respectively. This study confirmed the applicability of remote sensing for water resource management using UAVs, which can be characterized as a quick and easy methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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Open AccessArticle Economic Performance of Traditional and Modern Rice Varieties under Different Water Management Systems
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 347; doi:10.3390/su9030347
Received: 6 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (855 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Italian rice production is progressively threatened by water scarcity. Some strategies have been developed to reduce water use. Nevertheless, reducing water irrigation amounts may lower paddy rice production. This publication compares the productivity and the economic performances of traditional and modern rice varieties
[...] Read more.
Italian rice production is progressively threatened by water scarcity. Some strategies have been developed to reduce water use. Nevertheless, reducing water irrigation amounts may lower paddy rice production. This publication compares the productivity and the economic performances of traditional and modern rice varieties in northern Italy using two different water management systems. The objective of this analysis is to enhance Italian rice cultivation at the economic, environmental and agronomic levels. Some positive variations of water productivity and economic water productivity were observed for the two varieties when using a lower amount of irrigation water. However, actual production costs and most water supply fees are the same for all the irrigation methods. Furthermore, the study of agronomic traits shows that during the recent years, there were no significant differences or increases of yield among varieties. Consequently, to be adopted by farmers, the irrigation costs coupled with improved rice accessions need to be optimized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Water Resources Management)
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