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Viruses, Volume 6, Issue 1 (January 2014), Pages 1-370

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle CCR5 as a Natural and Modulated Target for Inhibition of HIV
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 54-68; doi:10.3390/v6010054
Received: 2 September 2013 / Revised: 2 December 2013 / Accepted: 11 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (286 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of target cells requires CD4 and a co-receptor, predominantly the chemokine receptor CCR5. CCR5-delta32 homozygosity results in a truncated protein providing natural protection against HIV infection—this without detrimental effects to the host—and transplantation of CCR5-delta32 [...] Read more.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of target cells requires CD4 and a co-receptor, predominantly the chemokine receptor CCR5. CCR5-delta32 homozygosity results in a truncated protein providing natural protection against HIV infection—this without detrimental effects to the host—and transplantation of CCR5-delta32 stem cells in a patient with HIV (“Berlin patient”) achieved viral eradication. As a more feasible approach gene-modification strategies are being developed to engineer cellular resistance to HIV using autologous cells. We have developed a dual therapeutic anti-HIV lentiviral vector (LVsh5/C46) that down-regulates CCR5 and inhibits HIV-1 fusion via cell surface expression of the gp41-derived peptide, C46. This construct, effective against multiple strains of both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1, is being tested in Phase I/II trials by engineering HIV-resistant hematopoietic cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Therapy for Retroviral Infections)
Open AccessArticle Identification of Cellular Proteins that Interact with Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Protein 1 by Protein Array Assay
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 89-105; doi:10.3390/v6010089
Received: 7 November 2013 / Revised: 10 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (465 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene expression during infection is characterized as a sequential process including immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L)-stage gene expression. The most abundantly expressed gene at the IE stage of infection is the major IE (MIE) gene that produces [...] Read more.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene expression during infection is characterized as a sequential process including immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L)-stage gene expression. The most abundantly expressed gene at the IE stage of infection is the major IE (MIE) gene that produces IE1 and IE2. IE1 has been the focus of study because it is an important protein, not only for viral gene expression but also for viral replication. It is believed that IE1 plays important roles in viral gene regulation by interacting with cellular proteins. In the current study, we performed protein array assays and identified 83 cellular proteins that interact with IE1. Among them, seven are RNA-binding proteins that are important in RNA processing; more than half are nuclear proteins that are involved in gene regulations. Tumorigenesis-related proteins are also found to interact with IE1, implying that the role of IE1 in tumorigenesis might need to be reevaluated. Unexpectedly, cytoplasmic proteins, such as Golgi autoantigen and GGA1 (both related to the Golgi trafficking protein), are also found to be associated with IE1. We also employed a coimmunoprecipitation assay to test the interactions of IE1 and some of the proteins identified in the protein array assays and confirmed that the results from the protein array assays are reliable. Many of the proteins identified by the protein array assay have not been previously reported. Therefore, the functions of the IE1-protein interactions need to be further explored in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent CMV Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle ABSL-4 Aerobiology Biosafety and Technology at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 137-150; doi:10.3390/v6010137
Received: 25 September 2013 / Revised: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 7 January 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7919 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The overall threat of a viral pathogen to human populations is largely determined by the modus operandi and velocity of the pathogen that is transmitted among humans. Microorganisms that can spread by aerosol are considered a more challenging enemy than those that [...] Read more.
The overall threat of a viral pathogen to human populations is largely determined by the modus operandi and velocity of the pathogen that is transmitted among humans. Microorganisms that can spread by aerosol are considered a more challenging enemy than those that require direct body-to-body contact for transmission, due to the potential for infection of numerous people rather than a single individual. Additionally, disease containment is much more difficult to achieve for aerosolized viral pathogens than for pathogens that spread solely via direct person-to-person contact. Thus, aerobiology has become an increasingly necessary component for studying viral pathogens that are naturally or intentionally transmitted by aerosol. The goal of studying aerosol viral pathogens is to improve public health preparedness and medical countermeasure development. Here, we provide a brief overview of the animal biosafety level 4 Aerobiology Core at the NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Advances in Ebolavirus, Marburgvirus, and Cuevavirus Research)
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Open AccessArticle Proteomic Analyses of Human Cytomegalovirus Strain AD169 Derivatives Reveal Highly Conserved Patterns of Viral and Cellular Proteins in Infected Fibroblasts
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 172-188; doi:10.3390/v6010172
Received: 15 November 2013 / Revised: 29 December 2013 / Accepted: 30 December 2013 / Published: 7 January 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (6402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) particle morphogenesis in infected cells is an orchestrated process that eventually results in the release of enveloped virions. Proteomic analysis has been employed to reveal the complexity in the protein composition of these extracellular particles. Only limited information is [...] Read more.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) particle morphogenesis in infected cells is an orchestrated process that eventually results in the release of enveloped virions. Proteomic analysis has been employed to reveal the complexity in the protein composition of these extracellular particles. Only limited information is however available regarding the proteome of infected cells preceding the release of HCMV virions. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to address the pattern of viral and cellular proteins in cells, infected with derivatives of the AD169 laboratory strain. Our analyses revealed a remarkable conservation in the patterns of viral and of abundant cellular proteins in cells, infected for 2 hours, 2 days, or 4 days. Most viral proteins increased in abundance as the infection progressed over time. Of the proteins that were reliably detectable by mass spectrometry, only IE1 (pUL123), pTRS1, and pIRS1 were downregulated at 4 days after infection. In addition, little variation of viral proteins in the virions of the different viruses was detectable, independent of the expression of the major tegument protein pp65. Taken together these data suggest that there is little variation in the expression program of viral and cellular proteins in cells infected with related HCMVs, resulting in a conserved pattern of viral proteins ultimately associated with extracellular virions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent CMV Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessCommunication Association of an Alphasatellite with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Japan Is Suggestive of a Recent Introduction
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 189-200; doi:10.3390/v6010189
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 14 January 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be [...] Read more.
Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). Both viruses have previously been shown to be present in Japan, although this is the first identification of AYVV on mainland Japan; the virus previously having been shown to be present on the Okinawa Islands. The plant harboring AYVV was also shown to contain the betasatellite Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite (ToLCJaB), a satellite not previously shown to be present in Japan. No betasatellite was associated with the TYLCV infected tomato plants analyzed here, consistent with earlier findings for this virus in Japan. Surprisingly both plants were also found to harbor an alphasatellite; no alphasatellites having previously been reported from Japan. The alphasatellite associated with both viruses was shown to be Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite which has previously only been identified in the Yunnan Province of China and Nepal. The results suggest that further begomoviruses, and their associated satellites, are being introduced to Japan. The significance of these findings is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 201-222; doi:10.3390/v6010201
Received: 30 October 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 18 December 2013 / Published: 14 January 2014
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Abstract
We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with [...] Read more.
We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
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Open AccessArticle Functional Characterization of a Bidirectional Plant Promoter from Cotton Leaf Curl Burewala Virus Using an Agrobacterium-Mediated Transient Assay
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 223-242; doi:10.3390/v6010223
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 14 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 December 2013 / Published: 14 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The C1 promoter expressing the AC1 gene, and V1 promoter expressing the AV1 gene are located in opposite orientations in the large intergenic region of the Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV) genome. Agro-infiltration was used to transiently express putative promoter constructs [...] Read more.
The C1 promoter expressing the AC1 gene, and V1 promoter expressing the AV1 gene are located in opposite orientations in the large intergenic region of the Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV) genome. Agro-infiltration was used to transiently express putative promoter constructs in Nicotiana tabacum and Gossypium hirsutum leaves, which was monitored by a GUS reporter gene, and revealed that the bidirectional promoter of CLCuBuV transcriptionally regulates both the AC1 and AV1 genes. The CLCuBuV C1 gene promoter showed a strong, consistent transient expression of the reporter gene (GUS) in N. tabacum and G. hirsutum leaves and exhibited GUS activity two- to three-fold higher than the CaMV 35S promoter. The CLCuBuV bidirectional gene promoter is a nearly constitutive promoter that contains basic conserved elements. Many cis-regulatory elements (CREs) were also analyzed within the bidirectional plant promoters of CLCuBuV and closely related geminiviruses, which may be helpful in understanding the transcriptional regulation of both the virus and host plant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protoza)
Open AccessArticle Evidence of Epstein-Barr Virus Association with Gastric Cancer and Non-Atrophic Gastritis
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 301-318; doi:10.3390/v6010301
Received: 26 August 2013 / Revised: 8 December 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different lines of evidence support an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC). The main understood risk factor to develop GC is infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which triggers a local inflammatory response critical for progression from [...] Read more.
Different lines of evidence support an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and gastric cancer (GC). The main understood risk factor to develop GC is infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which triggers a local inflammatory response critical for progression from gastritis to GC. The role of EBV in early inflammatory gastric lesions has been poorly studied. A recent study proposed a cutoff value of 2000 EBV particles to identify patients with increased chances of infection of the gastric epithelium, which may favor the inflammatory process. To better understand the role of EBV in cancer progression, we analyzed 75 samples of GC, 147 control samples of non-tumor gastric tissue derived from GC patients and 75 biopsies from patients with non-atrophic gastritis (NAG). A first-round PCR was used for EBV detection in tumor and non-tumor controls and a more sensitive nested PCR for gastritis samples; both PCRs had lower detection limits above the proposed cutoff value. With this strategy 10.67% of GC, 1.3% of non-tumor controls and 8% of gastritis samples were found positive. An EBER1 in situ hybridization showed EBV infection of epithelial cells in GC and in a third of NAG samples, while in the other NAGs infection was restricted to the mononuclear cell infiltrate. EBV-positive GCs were enriched in lace and cribriform patterns, while these rare patterns were not observed in EBV negative samples. Our results support a role for EBV in GC and early precursor lesions, either as directly oncogenic infecting epithelial cells or indirectly as an inflammatory trigger. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in EBV Research)
Open AccessArticle Brd4-Mediated Nuclear Retention of the Papillomavirus E2 Protein Contributes to Its Stabilization in Host Cells
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 319-335; doi:10.3390/v6010319
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 4 January 2014 / Accepted: 9 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Papillomavirus E2 is a multifunctional viral protein that regulates many aspects of the viral life cycle including viral episome maintenance, transcriptional activation, and repression. E2 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 has been implicated in the stabilization of [...] Read more.
Papillomavirus E2 is a multifunctional viral protein that regulates many aspects of the viral life cycle including viral episome maintenance, transcriptional activation, and repression. E2 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 has been implicated in the stabilization of the E2 protein. E2 normally shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. In this study, we demonstrate that E2 ubiquitylation mostly occurs in the cytoplasm. We also find that the interaction with Brd4 promotes nuclear retention of papillomavirus E2 proteins and contributes to their stabilization in the nucleus. Compared to wild type E2 proteins, nuclear-localization-defective mutants are rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway; however, co-expression of Brd4 redirects these mutants into the nucleus and significantly increases their stability. We further demonstrate that tethering E2 proteins to chromatin as either double-bromodomain fusion proteins or histone 2B (H2B) fusion proteins significantly stabilizes the E2 proteins. Our studies suggest that chromatin recruitment of the E2 protein via interaction with Brd4 prevents E2 ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation in the cytoplasm, leading to its stabilization in the nucleus. These studies bring new insights for understanding Brd4-mediated E2 stabilization, and provide an additional mechanism by which the chromatin-associated Brd4 regulates E2 functions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Essential Viral Gene Functions after Highly Efficient Adenofection of Cells with Cloned Human Cytomegalovirus Genomes
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 354-370; doi:10.3390/v6010354
Received: 14 December 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2014 / Published: 23 January 2014
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Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has a large 240 kb genome that may encode more than 700 gene products with many of them remaining uncharacterized. Mutagenesis of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-cloned CMV genomes has greatly facilitated the analysis of viral gene functions. However, the [...] Read more.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has a large 240 kb genome that may encode more than 700 gene products with many of them remaining uncharacterized. Mutagenesis of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-cloned CMV genomes has greatly facilitated the analysis of viral gene functions. However, the roles of essential proteins often remain particularly elusive because their investigation requires the cumbersome establishment of suitable complementation systems. Here, we show that HCMV genomes can be introduced into cells with unprecedented efficiency by applying a transfection protocol based on replication-defective, inactivated adenovirus particles (adenofection). Upon adenofection of several permissive cell types with HCMV genomes carrying mutations in essential genes, transfection rates of up to 60% were observed and viral proteins of all kinetic classes were found expressed. This enabled further analyses of the transfected cells by standard biochemical techniques. Remarkably, HCMV genomes lacking elements essential for viral DNA replication, such as the lytic origin of replication, still expressed several late proteins. In conclusion, adenofection allows the study of essential HCMV genes directly in BAC-transfected cells without the need for sophisticated complementation strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent CMV Research) Print Edition available

Review

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Open AccessReview Stem-Cell-Based Gene Therapy for HIV Infection
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 1-12; doi:10.3390/v6010001
Received: 1 November 2013 / Revised: 16 December 2013 / Accepted: 19 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (705 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the enormous success of combined anti-retroviral therapy, HIV infection is still a lifelong disease and continues to spread rapidly worldwide. There is a pressing need to develop a treatment that will cure HIV infection. Recent progress in stem cell manipulation and [...] Read more.
Despite the enormous success of combined anti-retroviral therapy, HIV infection is still a lifelong disease and continues to spread rapidly worldwide. There is a pressing need to develop a treatment that will cure HIV infection. Recent progress in stem cell manipulation and advancements in humanized mouse models have allowed rapid developments of gene therapy for HIV treatment. In this review, we will discuss two aspects of HIV gene therapy using human hematopoietic stem cells. The first is to generate immune systems resistant to HIV infection while the second strategy involves enhancing anti-HIV immunity to eliminate HIV infected cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Therapy for Retroviral Infections)
Open AccessReview Replication Cycle and Molecular Biology of the West Nile Virus
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 13-53; doi:10.3390/v6010013
Received: 21 October 2013 / Revised: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 27 December 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (2769 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Flaviviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and modify the host cell environment. Although much has been learned about virion structure and virion-endosomal membrane fusion, the [...] Read more.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Flaviviruses replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and modify the host cell environment. Although much has been learned about virion structure and virion-endosomal membrane fusion, the cell receptor(s) used have not been definitively identified and little is known about the early stages of the virus replication cycle. Members of the genus Flavivirus differ from members of the two other genera of the family by the lack of a genomic internal ribosomal entry sequence and the creation of invaginations in the ER membrane rather than double-membrane vesicles that are used as the sites of exponential genome synthesis. The WNV genome 3' and 5' sequences that form the long distance RNA-RNA interaction required for minus strand initiation have been identified and contact sites on the 5' RNA stem loop for NS5 have been mapped. Structures obtained for many of the viral proteins have provided information relevant to their functions. Viral nonstructural protein interactions are complex and some may occur only in infected cells. Although interactions between many cellular proteins and virus components have been identified, the functions of most of these interactions have not been delineated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
Open AccessReview Flavivirus Entry Receptors: An Update
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 69-88; doi:10.3390/v6010069
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (1176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the [...] Read more.
Flaviviruses enter host cells by endocytosis initiated when the virus particles interact with cell surface receptors. The current model suggests that flaviviruses use at least two different sets of molecules for infectious entry: attachment factors that concentrate and/or recruit viruses on the cell surface and primary receptor(s) that bind to virions and direct them to the endocytic pathway. Here, we present the currently available knowledge regarding the flavivirus receptors described so far with specific attention to C-type lectin receptors and the phosphatidylserine receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) and TYRO3, AXL and MER (TAM). Their role in flavivirus attachment and entry as well as their implication in the virus biology will be discussed in depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus)
Open AccessReview Historical Perspective, Development and Applications of Next-Generation Sequencing in Plant Virology
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 106-136; doi:10.3390/v6010106
Received: 15 October 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 December 2013 / Published: 6 January 2014
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (1150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Next-generation high throughput sequencing technologies became available at the onset of the 21st century. They provide a highly efficient, rapid, and low cost DNA sequencing platform beyond the reach of the standard and traditional DNA sequencing technologies developed in the late 1970s. [...] Read more.
Next-generation high throughput sequencing technologies became available at the onset of the 21st century. They provide a highly efficient, rapid, and low cost DNA sequencing platform beyond the reach of the standard and traditional DNA sequencing technologies developed in the late 1970s. They are continually improved to become faster, more efficient and cheaper. They have been used in many fields of biology since 2004. In 2009, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies began to be applied to several areas of plant virology including virus/viroid genome sequencing, discovery and detection, ecology and epidemiology, replication and transcription. Identification and characterization of known and unknown viruses and/or viroids in infected plants are currently among the most successful applications of these technologies. It is expected that NGS will play very significant roles in many research and non-research areas of plant virology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessReview Were the English Sweating Sickness and the Picardy Sweat Caused by Hantaviruses?
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 151-171; doi:10.3390/v6010151
Received: 12 October 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 9 December 2013 / Published: 7 January 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (262 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The English sweating sickness caused five devastating epidemics between 1485 and 1551, England was hit hardest, but on one occasion also mainland Europe, with mortality rates between 30% and 50%. The Picardy sweat emerged about 150 years after the English sweat disappeared, [...] Read more.
The English sweating sickness caused five devastating epidemics between 1485 and 1551, England was hit hardest, but on one occasion also mainland Europe, with mortality rates between 30% and 50%. The Picardy sweat emerged about 150 years after the English sweat disappeared, in 1718, in France. It caused 196 localized outbreaks and apparently in its turn disappeared in 1861. Both diseases have been the subject of numerous attempts to define their origin, but so far all efforts were in vain. Although both diseases occurred in different time frames and were geographically not overlapping, a common denominator could be what we know today as hantavirus infections. This review aims to shed light on the characteristics of both diseases from contemporary as well as current knowledge and suggests hantavirus infection as the most likely cause for the English sweating sickness as well as for the Picardy sweat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)
Open AccessReview Gene Therapy Strategies to Exploit TRIM Derived Restriction Factors against HIV-1
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 243-263; doi:10.3390/v6010243
Received: 24 October 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2014 / Published: 14 January 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (455 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Restriction factors are a collection of antiviral proteins that form an important aspect of the innate immune system. Their constitutive expression allows immediate response to viral infection, ahead of other innate or adaptive immune responses. We review the molecular mechanism of restriction [...] Read more.
Restriction factors are a collection of antiviral proteins that form an important aspect of the innate immune system. Their constitutive expression allows immediate response to viral infection, ahead of other innate or adaptive immune responses. We review the molecular mechanism of restriction for four categories of restriction factors; TRIM5, tetherin, APOBEC3G and SAMHD1 and go on to consider how the TRIM5 and TRIMCyp proteins in particular, show promise for exploitation using gene therapy strategies. Such approaches could form an important alternative to current anti-HIV-1 drug regimens, especially if combined with strategies to eradicate HIV reservoirs. Autologous CD4+ T cells or their haematopoietic stem cell precursors engineered to express TRIMCyp restriction factors, and provided in a single therapeutic intervention could then be used to restore functional immunity with a pool of cells protected against HIV. We consider the challenges ahead and consider how early clinical phase testing may best be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Therapy for Retroviral Infections)
Open AccessReview Understanding the Process of Envelope Glycoprotein Incorporation into Virions in Simian and Feline Immunodeficiency Viruses
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 264-283; doi:10.3390/v6010264
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 1 January 2014 / Accepted: 6 January 2014 / Published: 16 January 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lentiviral envelope glycoproteins (Env) mediate virus entry by interacting with specific receptors present at the cell surface, thereby determining viral tropism and pathogenesis. Therefore, Env incorporation into the virions formed by assembly of the viral Gag polyprotein at the plasma membrane [...] Read more.
The lentiviral envelope glycoproteins (Env) mediate virus entry by interacting with specific receptors present at the cell surface, thereby determining viral tropism and pathogenesis. Therefore, Env incorporation into the virions formed by assembly of the viral Gag polyprotein at the plasma membrane of the infected cells is a key step in the replication cycle of lentiviruses. Besides being useful models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in humans and valuable tools for developing AIDS therapies and vaccines, simian and feline immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and FIV, respectively) are relevant animal retroviruses; the study of which provides important information on how lentiviral replication strategies have evolved. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the incorporation of the SIV and FIV Env glycoproteins into viral particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Glycoprotein Incorporation)
Open AccessReview Structural and Functional Comparisons of Retroviral Envelope Protein C-Terminal Domains: Still Much to Learn
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 284-300; doi:10.3390/v6010284
Received: 31 October 2013 / Accepted: 6 January 2014 / Published: 16 January 2014
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Abstract
Retroviruses are a family of viruses that cause a broad range of pathologies in animals and humans, from the apparently harmless, long-term genomic insertion of endogenous retroviruses, to tumors induced by the oncogenic retroviruses and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) resulting from human [...] Read more.
Retroviruses are a family of viruses that cause a broad range of pathologies in animals and humans, from the apparently harmless, long-term genomic insertion of endogenous retroviruses, to tumors induced by the oncogenic retroviruses and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) resulting from human immunodeficiency virus infection. Disease can be the result of diverse mechanisms, including tumorigenesis induced by viral oncogenes or immune destruction, leading to the gradual loss of CD4 T-cells. Of the virally encoded proteins common to all retroviruses, the envelope (Env) displays perhaps the most diverse functionality. Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. The remaining C-terminal domain may have the most variable functionality of all retroviral proteins. The C-terminal domains from three prototypical retroviruses are discussed, focusing on the different structures and functions, which include fusion activation, tumorigenesis and viral assembly and lifecycle influences. Despite these genetic and functional differences, however, the C-terminal domains of these viruses share a common feature in the modulation of Env ectodomain conformation. Despite their differences, perhaps each system still has information to share with the others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Glycoprotein Incorporation)

Other

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Open AccessIntroduction Preface of the Special Issue: “Recent CMV Research”
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 336-339; doi:10.3390/v6010336
Received: 9 December 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
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Abstract
This Viruses Special Issue on Recent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Research is dedicated to the patients who have suffered CMV infection and to their parents, families and caregivers. We are including as a Preface to this issue the insights of a young college student, [...] Read more.
This Viruses Special Issue on Recent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Research is dedicated to the patients who have suffered CMV infection and to their parents, families and caregivers. We are including as a Preface to this issue the insights of a young college student, Kayla Dufrene, who suffered congenital CMV infection and contacted me and Dr. Roberta DeBiasi, to interview us to learn more about CMV. As I was just returning to the DC area from the 4th Congenital CMV Conference in San Francisco, I was particularly receptive to her request. When we met Kayla, we were both impressed with her personal strength and ability to cope with her disabilities and needed medical treatments. Despite it all, Kayla has an exceptionally positive outlook on life, feeling even lucky. She has not only coped, but has transcended her difficulties. I am proud to say that she was on the Dean’s List (Figure 1) at Gallaudet University. Ultimately, her hope lies in our fields’ efforts to develop a vaccine to prevent CMV disease in other children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent CMV Research) Print Edition available
Open AccessBrief Report First Molecular Evidence for Puumala Hantavirus in Poland
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 340-353; doi:10.3390/v6010340
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 14 January 2014 / Published: 23 January 2014
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Abstract
Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is responsible for the majority of hantavirus infections of humans in Fennoscandia, Central and Western Europe. Although there are relatively many PUUV sequences available from different [...] Read more.
Puumala virus (PUUV) causes mild to moderate cases of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and is responsible for the majority of hantavirus infections of humans in Fennoscandia, Central and Western Europe. Although there are relatively many PUUV sequences available from different European countries, little is known about the presence of this virus in Poland. During population studies in 2009 a total of 45 bank voles were trapped at three sites in north-eastern Poland, namely islands on Dejguny and Dobskie Lakes and in a forest near Mikołajki. S and M segment-specific RT-PCR assays detected PUUV RNA in three animals from the Mikołajki site. The obtained partial S and M segment sequences demonstrated the highest similarity to the corresponding segments of a PUUV strain from Latvia. Analysis of chest cavity fluid samples by IgG ELISA using a yeast-expressed PUUV nucleocapsid protein resulted in the detection of two seropositive samples, both being also RT-PCR positive. Interestingly, at the trapping site in Mikołajki PUUV-positive bank voles belong to the Carpathian and Eastern genetic lineages within this species. In conclusion, we herein present the first molecular evidence for PUUV in the rodent reservoir from Poland. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hantaviruses)

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