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Special Issue "Plant Viruses"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Henryk Czosnek

Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture; Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Website | E-Mail
Fax: + 972 8 9468265
Interests: genetic engineering; molecular genetics; plant genetic engineering; biotechnology in agriculture; aspects of plant molecular biology

Special Issue Information

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Keywords

  • classification of plant viruses
  • diseases
  • symptoms
  • and damages to plants
  • morphology of virions and structure of genome
  • detection methods
  • origin
  • evolution and phylogeny
  • transmission and vectors
  • replication and expression
  • plant-virus interactions
  • plant defense
  • resistance genes
  • silencing of viruses

Published Papers (27 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Characterization of a Proposed Dichorhavirus Associated with the Citrus Leprosis Disease and Analysis of the Host Response
Viruses 2014, 6(7), 2602-2622; doi:10.3390/v6072602
Received: 28 February 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 7 July 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The causal agents of Citrus leprosis are viruses; however, extant diagnostic methods to identify them have failed to detect known viruses in orange, mandarin, lime and bitter orange trees with severe leprosis symptoms in Mexico, an important citrus producer. Using high throughput sequencing,
[...] Read more.
The causal agents of Citrus leprosis are viruses; however, extant diagnostic methods to identify them have failed to detect known viruses in orange, mandarin, lime and bitter orange trees with severe leprosis symptoms in Mexico, an important citrus producer. Using high throughput sequencing, a virus associated with citrus leprosis was identified, belonging to the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. The virus was termed Citrus Necrotic Spot Virus (CNSV) and contains two negative-strand RNA components; virions accumulate in the cytoplasm and are associated with plasmodesmata—channels interconnecting neighboring cells—suggesting a mode of spread within the plant. The present study provides insights into the nature of this pathogen and the corresponding plant response, which is likely similar to other pathogens that do not spread systemically in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Characterization of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus (WmCSV) from Palestine
Viruses 2014, 6(6), 2444-2462; doi:10.3390/v6062444
Received: 6 January 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 13 June 2014 / Published: 20 June 2014
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Abstract
The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[PAL]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested
[...] Read more.
The incidence of watermelon chlorotic stunt disease and molecular characterization of the Palestinian isolate of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV-[PAL]) are described in this study. Symptomatic leaf samples obtained from watermelon Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants were tested for WmCSV-[PAL] infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA). Disease incidence ranged between 25%–98% in watermelon fields in the studied area, 77% of leaf samples collected from Jenin were found to be mixed infected with WmCSV-[PAL] and SLCV. The full-length DNA-A and DNA-B genomes of WmCSV-[PAL] were amplified and sequenced, and the sequences were deposited in the GenBank. Sequence analysis of virus genomes showed that DNA-A and DNA-B had 97.6%–99.42% and 93.16%–98.26% nucleotide identity with other virus isolates in the region, respectively. Sequence analysis also revealed that the Palestinian isolate of WmCSV shared the highest nucleotide identity with an isolate from Israel suggesting that the virus was introduced to Palestine from Israel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Structural Analyses of Avocado sunblotch viroid Reveal Differences in the Folding of Plus and Minus RNA Strands
Viruses 2014, 6(2), 489-506; doi:10.3390/v6020489
Received: 3 December 2013 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viroids are small pathogenic circular single-stranded RNAs, present in two complementary sequences, named plus and minus, in infected plant cells. A high degree of complementarities between different regions of the RNAs allows them to adopt complex structures. Since viroids are naked non-coding RNAs,
[...] Read more.
Viroids are small pathogenic circular single-stranded RNAs, present in two complementary sequences, named plus and minus, in infected plant cells. A high degree of complementarities between different regions of the RNAs allows them to adopt complex structures. Since viroids are naked non-coding RNAs, interactions with host factors appear to be closely related to their structural and catalytic characteristics. Avocado sunblotch viroid (ASBVd), a member of the family Avsunviroidae, replicates via a symmetric RNA-dependant rolling-circle process, involving self-cleavage via hammerhead ribozymes. Consequently, it is assumed that ASBVd plus and minus strands adopt similar structures. Moreover, by computer analyses, a quasi-rod-like secondary structure has been predicted. Nevertheless, secondary and tertiary structures of both polarities of ASBVd remain unsolved. In this study, we analyzed the characteristic of each strand of ASBVd through biophysical analyses. We report that ASBVd transcripts of plus and minus polarities exhibit differences in electrophoretic mobility under native conditions and in thermal denaturation profiles. Subsequently, the secondary structures of plus and minus polarities of ASBVd were probed using the RNA-selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) method. The models obtained show that both polarities fold into different structures. Moreover, our results suggest the existence of a kissing-loop interaction within the minus strand that may play a role in in vivo viroid life cycle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessCommunication Association of an Alphasatellite with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Japan Is Suggestive of a Recent Introduction
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 189-200; doi:10.3390/v6010189
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 14 January 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1708 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be infected
[...] Read more.
Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). Both viruses have previously been shown to be present in Japan, although this is the first identification of AYVV on mainland Japan; the virus previously having been shown to be present on the Okinawa Islands. The plant harboring AYVV was also shown to contain the betasatellite Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite (ToLCJaB), a satellite not previously shown to be present in Japan. No betasatellite was associated with the TYLCV infected tomato plants analyzed here, consistent with earlier findings for this virus in Japan. Surprisingly both plants were also found to harbor an alphasatellite; no alphasatellites having previously been reported from Japan. The alphasatellite associated with both viruses was shown to be Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite which has previously only been identified in the Yunnan Province of China and Nepal. The results suggest that further begomoviruses, and their associated satellites, are being introduced to Japan. The significance of these findings is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Effects and Effectiveness of Two RNAi Constructs for Resistance to Pepper golden mosaic virus in Nicotiana benthamiana Plants
Viruses 2013, 5(12), 2931-2945; doi:10.3390/v5122931
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 14 November 2013 / Accepted: 20 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (507 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ToChLPV and PepGMV are Begomoviruses that have adapted to a wide host range and are able to cause major diseases in agronomic crops. We analyzed the efficacy of induced resistance to PepGMV in Nicotiana benthamiana plants with two constructs: one construct with homologous
[...] Read more.
ToChLPV and PepGMV are Begomoviruses that have adapted to a wide host range and are able to cause major diseases in agronomic crops. We analyzed the efficacy of induced resistance to PepGMV in Nicotiana benthamiana plants with two constructs: one construct with homologous sequences derived from PepGMV, and the other construct with heterologous sequences derived from ToChLPV. Plants protected with the heterologous construct showed an efficacy to decrease the severity of symptoms of 45%, while plants protected with the homologous construct showed an efficacy of 80%. Plants protected with the heterologous construct showed a reduction of incidence of 42.86%, while the reduction of incidence in plants protected with the homologous construct was 57.15%. The efficacy to decrease viral load was 95.6% in plants protected with the heterologous construct, and 99.56% in plants protected with the homologous construct. We found, in both constructs, up-regulated key components of the RNAi pathway. This demonstrates that the efficacy of the constructs was due to the activation of the gene silencing mechanism, and is reflected in the decrease of viral genome copies, as well as in recovery phenotype. We present evidence that both constructs are functional and can efficiently induce transient resistance against PepGMV infections. This observation guarantees a further exploration as a strategy to control complex Begomovirus diseases in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Stability and Fitness Impact of the Visually Discernible Rosea1 Marker in the Tobacco etch virus Genome
Viruses 2013, 5(9), 2153-2168; doi:10.3390/v5092153
Received: 26 July 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 29 August 2013 / Published: 9 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (15363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Antirrhinum majus Rosea1 (Ros1) is an MYB-related transcription factor that induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in plant tissues, and has been shown to be suitable for visual tracking of virus infection in plants. However, activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis has far reaching effects on plant physiology
[...] Read more.
Antirrhinum majus Rosea1 (Ros1) is an MYB-related transcription factor that induces anthocyanin biosynthesis in plant tissues, and has been shown to be suitable for visual tracking of virus infection in plants. However, activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis has far reaching effects on plant physiology and could consequently have negative effects on viral replication. Therefore, viruses carrying the Ros1 marker might have a low fitness and consequently rapidly lose the marker. To compare the stability of the Ros1 marker, we generated Tobacco etch virus (TEV) based constructs containing either Ros1 or the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) between the NIb and CP cistrons (TEV-Ros1 and TEV-eGFP, respectively). We measured the within-host competitive fitness of both viruses by direct competitions with a common competitor during infection of Nicotiana tabacum. The fitness of TEV-Ros1 was significantly lower than that of TEV-eGFP, and both recombinant viruses had a significantly lower fitness than the wild-type virus. Nevertheless, after seven weeks of infection in N. tabacum, similar levels of marker gene instability where found for both viruses. Despite lower fitness of the marked virus, Ros1 is therefore a viable alternative marker for tracking viral infection in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle A Naturally Occurring Defective DNA Satellite Associated with a Monopartite Begomovirus: Evidence for Recombination between Alphasatellite and Betasatellite
Viruses 2013, 5(9), 2116-2128; doi:10.3390/v5092116
Received: 2 August 2013 / Revised: 1 September 2013 / Accepted: 2 September 2013 / Published: 6 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Monopartite begomoviruses and their associated satellites form unique disease complexes that have emerged as a serious threat to agriculture worldwide. It is well known that frequent recombination contributes to the diversification and evolution of geminiviruses. In this study, we identified a novel defective
[...] Read more.
Monopartite begomoviruses and their associated satellites form unique disease complexes that have emerged as a serious threat to agriculture worldwide. It is well known that frequent recombination contributes to the diversification and evolution of geminiviruses. In this study, we identified a novel defective satellite molecule (RecSat) in association with Tobacco leaf curl Yunnan virus (TbLCYNV) in a naturally infected tobacco plant. Sequence analysis showed that Recsat comprises 754 nucleotides in size and is a chimera involving alphasatellite and betasatellite sequences, containing both betasatellite-conserved region and alphasatellite stem-loop structure. Recombination analysis revealed that RecSat has arisen from three independent recombination events likely involving Tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite, Ageratum yellow vein China betasatellite and Tobacco curly shoot alphasatellite. Co-inoculation of RecSat with TbLCYNV induced symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by TbLCYNV alone in Nicotiana benthamiana. Southern blot hybridization showed that RecSat could be trans-replicated stably in N. benthamiana plants by TbLCYNV, and impaired the accumulation of helper virus and co-inoculated alphasatellite. Our results provide the first evidence for recombination between two distinct types of satellites among geminivirus complex and highlight recombination as a driving force for geminivirus evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Deletions within the 3' Non-Translated Region of Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 Do Not Affect Replication but Significantly Reduce Long-Distance Movement of Chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1802-1814; doi:10.3390/v5071802
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
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Abstract
Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3' non‑translated regions (NTRs) have been previously shown to be encapsidated into virions by coat protein (CP) expressed from RNA3, indicating that the 3' NTRs of RNAs 1 and 2 are
[...] Read more.
Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3' non‑translated regions (NTRs) have been previously shown to be encapsidated into virions by coat protein (CP) expressed from RNA3, indicating that the 3' NTRs of RNAs 1 and 2 are not required for virion assembly. Here, we constructed various mutants by deleting sequences within the 3' NTR of AlMV subgenomic (sg) RNA4 (same as of RNA3) and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) expressing AlMV sgRNA4 from the TMV CP sg promoter (Av/A4) in tobacco protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. While the Av/A4 mutants were as competent as the wild-type Av/A4 in RNA replication in protoplasts, their encapsidation, long-distance movement and virus accumulation varied significantly in N. benthamiana. These data suggest that the 3' NTR of AlMV sgRNA4 contains potential elements necessary for virus encapsidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessCommunication Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a South African Isolate of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus and Its Associated Satellite RNA
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1815-1823; doi:10.3390/v5071815
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The complete sequences of RNA1, RNA2 and satellite RNA have been determined for a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-SACH44). The two RNAs of GFLV-SACH44 are 7,341 nucleotides (nt) and 3,816 nt in length, respectively, and its satellite RNA (satRNA) is
[...] Read more.
The complete sequences of RNA1, RNA2 and satellite RNA have been determined for a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-SACH44). The two RNAs of GFLV-SACH44 are 7,341 nucleotides (nt) and 3,816 nt in length, respectively, and its satellite RNA (satRNA) is 1,104 nt in length, all excluding the poly(A) tail. Multiple sequence alignment of these sequences showed that GFLV-SACH44 RNA1 and RNA2 were the closest to the South African isolate, GFLV-SAPCS3 (98.2% and 98.6% nt identity, respectively), followed by the French isolate, GFLV-F13 (87.3% and 90.1% nt identity, respectively). Interestingly, the GFLV-SACH44 satRNA is more similar to three Arabis mosaic virus satRNAs (85%–87.4% nt identity) than to the satRNA of GFLV-F13 (81.8% nt identity) and was most distantly related to the satRNA of GFLV-R2 (71.0% nt identity). Full-length infectious clones of GFLV-SACH44 satRNA were constructed. The infectivity of the clones was tested with three nepovirus isolates, GFLV-NW, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV)-NW and GFLV-SAPCS3. The clones were mechanically inoculated in Chenopodium quinoa and were infectious when co-inoculated with the two GFLV helper viruses, but not when co-inoculated with ArMV-NW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Differentiation and Distribution of Cordyline Viruses 1–4 in Hawaiian ti Plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.)
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1655-1663; doi:10.3390/v5071655
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 15 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Common green ti plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.) in Hawaii can be infected by four recently characterized closteroviruses that are tentative members of the proposed genus Velarivirus. In this study, a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay developed to detect and distinguish
[...] Read more.
Common green ti plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.) in Hawaii can be infected by four recently characterized closteroviruses that are tentative members of the proposed genus Velarivirus. In this study, a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay developed to detect and distinguish Cordyline virus 1 (CoV-1), CoV-2, CoV-3, and CoV-4 was used to determine: (i) the distribution of these viruses in Hawaii; and (ii) if they are involved in the etiology of ti ringspot disease. One hundred and thirty-seven common green ti plants with and without ti ringspot symptoms were sampled from 43 sites on five of the Hawaiian Islands and underwent the RT-PCR assay. Eleven ornamental ti varieties were also sampled and assayed. Based on this survey, it appears none of the CoVs are involved in the etiology of ti ringspot. The observation of a non-uniform geographic distribution of the CoVs in common green ti, combined with the presence of CoVs in seed-derived ornamental varieties, suggests active vector transmission. Eight herbarium specimens collected between 1903 and 2003 from plants on the island of Oahu also underwent the RT-PCR assay. Amplifiable RNA was isolated from accessions collected in 1985 or later, however only the 2003 accession was found to harbor CoVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Localization, Concentration, and Transmission Efficiency of Banana bunchy top virus in Four Asexual Lineages of Pentalonia aphids
Viruses 2013, 5(2), 758-776; doi:10.3390/v5020758
Received: 21 January 2013 / Revised: 14 February 2013 / Accepted: 14 February 2013 / Published: 22 February 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of
[...] Read more.
Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is the most destructive pathogenic virus of banana plants worldwide. The virus is transmitted in a circulative non-propagative manner by the banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel. In this work, we examined the localization, accumulation, and transmission efficiency of BBTV in four laboratory-established lineages of Pentalonia aphids derived from four different host plants: taro (Colocasia esculenta), heliconia (Heliconia spp.), red ginger (Alpinia purpurata), and banana (Musa sp.). Mitochondrial sequencing identified three and one lineages as Pentalonia caladii van der Goot, a recently proposed species, and P. nigronervosa, respectively. Microsatellite analysis separated the aphid lineages into four distinct genotypes. The transmission of BBTV was tested using leaf disk and whole-plant assays, both of which showed that all four lineages are competent vectors of BBTV, although the P. caladii from heliconia transmitted BBTV to the leaf disks at a significantly lower rate than did P. nigronervosa. The concentration of BBTV in dissected guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands was quantified by real-time PCR. The BBTV titer reached similar concentrations in the guts, haemolymph, and salivary glands of aphids from all four lineages tested. Furthermore, immunofluorescence assays showed that BBTV antigens localized to the anterior midguts and the principal salivary glands, demonstrating a similar pattern of translocations across the four lineages. The results reported in this study showed for the first time that P. caladii is a competent vector of BBTV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Base Composition and Translational Selection are Insufficient to Explain Codon Usage Bias in Plant Viruses
Viruses 2013, 5(1), 162-181; doi:10.3390/v5010162
Received: 13 December 2012 / Revised: 9 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 15 January 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (647 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Viral codon usage bias may be the product of a number of synergistic or antagonistic factors, including genomic nucleotide composition, translational selection, genomic architecture, and mutational or repair biases. Most studies of viral codon bias evaluate only the relative importance of genomic base
[...] Read more.
Viral codon usage bias may be the product of a number of synergistic or antagonistic factors, including genomic nucleotide composition, translational selection, genomic architecture, and mutational or repair biases. Most studies of viral codon bias evaluate only the relative importance of genomic base composition and translational selection, ignoring other possible factors. We analyzed the codon preferences of ssRNA (luteoviruses and potyviruses) and ssDNA (geminiviruses) plant viruses that infect translationally distinct monocot and dicot hosts. We found that neither genomic base composition nor translational selection satisfactorily explains their codon usage biases. Furthermore, we observed a strong relationship between the codon preferences of viruses in the same family or genus, regardless of host or genomic nucleotide content. Our results suggest that analyzing codon bias as either due to base composition or translational selection is a false dichotomy that obscures the role of other factors. Constraints such as genomic architecture and secondary structure can and do influence codon usage in plant viruses, and likely in viruses of other hosts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Viruses are Differentially Affected by Parasitoids Depending on the Mode of Transmission
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 3069-3089; doi:10.3390/v4113069
Received: 1 October 2012 / Revised: 18 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2186 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Relationships between agents in multitrophic systems are complex and very specific. Insect-transmitted plant viruses are completely dependent on the behaviour and distribution patterns of their vectors. The presence of natural enemies may directly affect aphid behaviour and spread of plant viruses, as the
[...] Read more.
Relationships between agents in multitrophic systems are complex and very specific. Insect-transmitted plant viruses are completely dependent on the behaviour and distribution patterns of their vectors. The presence of natural enemies may directly affect aphid behaviour and spread of plant viruses, as the escape response of aphids might cause a potential risk for virus dispersal. The spatio-temporal dynamics of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), transmitted by Aphis gossypii in a non-persistent and persistent manner, respectively, were evaluated at short and long term in the presence and absence of the aphid parasitoid, Aphidius colemani. SADIE methodology was used to study the distribution patterns of both the virus and its vector, and their degree of association. Results suggested that parasitoids promoted aphid dispersion at short term, which enhanced CMV spread, though consequences of parasitism suggest potential benefits for disease control at long term. Furthermore, A. colemani significantly limited the spread and incidence of the persistent virus CABYV at long term. The impact of aphid parasitoids on the dispersal of plant viruses with different transmission modes is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle PepGMV Rep-Protein Expression in Mammalian Cells
Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1792-1801; doi:10.3390/v4091792
Received: 27 July 2012 / Revised: 6 September 2012 / Accepted: 6 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
PDF Full-text (613 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Geminiviruses genome is a small, single strand DNA that replicates in the plant cell nucleus. Analogous to animal DNA viruses, Geminiviruses depend on the host replication machinery to amplify their genomes and only supply the factors required to initiate their replication. Consequently, Geminiviruses
[...] Read more.
The Geminiviruses genome is a small, single strand DNA that replicates in the plant cell nucleus. Analogous to animal DNA viruses, Geminiviruses depend on the host replication machinery to amplify their genomes and only supply the factors required to initiate their replication. Consequently, Geminiviruses remove the cell-cycle arrest and induce the host replication machinery using an endocycle process. They encode proteins, such as the conserved replication-associated proteins (Rep) that interact with retinoblastoma-like proteins in plants and alter the cell division cycle in yeasts. Therefore, the aim of this work is to analyze the impact of Pepper Golden Mosaic Virus (PepGMV) Rep protein in mammalian cells. Results indicate that the pTracer-SV40:Rep construction obtained in this work can be used to analyze the Rep protein effect in mammalian cells in order to compare the cell cycle regulation mechanisms in plants and animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Complete Nucleotide Sequence of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus Originating from Oman
Viruses 2012, 4(7), 1169-1181; doi:10.3390/v4071169
Received: 21 June 2012 / Revised: 6 July 2012 / Accepted: 20 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (3195 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman
[...] Read more.
Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6–99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93–98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Sequence Polymorphism and Population Structure of Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid and Potato spindle tuber viroid in Viroid-Infected Tomato Plants
Viruses 2012, 4(6), 940-953; doi:10.3390/v4060940
Received: 11 April 2012 / Revised: 15 May 2012 / Accepted: 30 May 2012 / Published: 5 June 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sequence polymorphism and population structure of Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) (isolate Trust) and Potato tuber spindle viroid (PSTVd) (isolate FN) in tomato plants were investigated. Of the 9 and 35 TCDVd clones sequenced from 2 different TCDVd-infected plants, 2 and 4
[...] Read more.
The sequence polymorphism and population structure of Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) (isolate Trust) and Potato tuber spindle viroid (PSTVd) (isolate FN) in tomato plants were investigated. Of the 9 and 35 TCDVd clones sequenced from 2 different TCDVd-infected plants, 2 and 4 sequence variants were identified, respectively, leading to a total of 4 sequence variants of 360 nucleotides in length. Variant I was identical to AF162131, the first TCDVd sequence to be reported, and the rest exhibited 1 to 3 nucleotide differences, all in the TR domain, from AF162131/variant I. Of the 33 and 29 PSTVd clones sequenced from 2 different PSTVd-infected plants, 8 and 9 sequence variants were found, respectively, leading to a total of 15 variants ranging in length from 356 to 359 nucleotides. The variant I was identical to EF044303, a PSTVd reported in Russia. The rest exhibited 1 to 11 nucleotide differences scattering in all five domains from EF044303/variant I. The results demonstrated for the first time that TCDVd, like many other viroids including PSTVd, exists in host plants as a collective group comprised of various sequence variants. However, in comparison to PSTVd, TCDVd is less polymorphic in tomato plants as fewer variants and lower haplotype/nucleotide diversities were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle The Development and Application of a Dot-ELISA Assay for Diagnosis of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Disease in the Field
Viruses 2012, 4(1), 167-183; doi:10.3390/v4010167
Received: 13 December 2011 / Revised: 5 January 2012 / Accepted: 12 January 2012 / Published: 23 January 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1996 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Outbreaks of the southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) have caused significant crop losses in southern China in recent years, especially in 2010. There are no effective, quick and practicable methods for the diagnosis of rice dwarf disease that can be used in
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Outbreaks of the southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) have caused significant crop losses in southern China in recent years, especially in 2010. There are no effective, quick and practicable methods for the diagnosis of rice dwarf disease that can be used in the field. Traditional reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methodology is accurate but requires expensive reagents and instruments, as well as complex procedures that limit its applicability for field tests. To develop a sensitive and reliable assay for routine laboratory diagnosis, a rapid dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) method was developed for testing rice plants infected by SRBSDV. Based on anti-SRBSDV rabbit antiserum, this new dot-ELISA was highly reliable, sensitive and specific toward SRBSDV. The accuracy of two blotting media, polyvinylidene fluoride membrane (PVDF membrane) and nitrocellulose filter membrane (NC membrane), was compared. In order to facilitate the on-site diagnosis, three county laboratories were established in Shidian (Yunnan province), Jianghua (Hunan Province) and Libo (Guizhou province). Suspected rice cases from Shidian, Yuanjiang and Malipo in Yunnan province were tested and some determined to be positive for SRBSDV by the dot-ELISA and confirmed by the One Step RT-PCR method. To date, hundreds of suspected rice samples collected from 61 districts in southwestern China have been tested, among which 55 districts were found to have rice crops infected by SRBSDV. Furthermore, the test results in the county laboratories showed that Libo, Dehong (suspected samples were sent to Shidian) and Jianghua were experiencing a current SRBSDV outbreak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Historical Perspective, Development and Applications of Next-Generation Sequencing in Plant Virology
Viruses 2014, 6(1), 106-136; doi:10.3390/v6010106
Received: 15 October 2013 / Revised: 17 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 December 2013 / Published: 6 January 2014
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (1150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Next-generation high throughput sequencing technologies became available at the onset of the 21st century. They provide a highly efficient, rapid, and low cost DNA sequencing platform beyond the reach of the standard and traditional DNA sequencing technologies developed in the late 1970s. They
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Next-generation high throughput sequencing technologies became available at the onset of the 21st century. They provide a highly efficient, rapid, and low cost DNA sequencing platform beyond the reach of the standard and traditional DNA sequencing technologies developed in the late 1970s. They are continually improved to become faster, more efficient and cheaper. They have been used in many fields of biology since 2004. In 2009, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies began to be applied to several areas of plant virology including virus/viroid genome sequencing, discovery and detection, ecology and epidemiology, replication and transcription. Identification and characterization of known and unknown viruses and/or viroids in infected plants are currently among the most successful applications of these technologies. It is expected that NGS will play very significant roles in many research and non-research areas of plant virology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessReview The Role of Bacterial Chaperones in the Circulative Transmission of Plant Viruses by Insect Vectors
Viruses 2013, 5(6), 1516-1535; doi:10.3390/v5061516
Received: 19 April 2013 / Revised: 1 June 2013 / Accepted: 4 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (9069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Persistent circulative transmission of plant viruses involves complex interactions between the transmitted virus and its insect vector. Several studies have shown that insect vector proteins are involved in the passage and the transmission of the virus. Interestingly, proteins expressed by bacterial endosymbionts that
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Persistent circulative transmission of plant viruses involves complex interactions between the transmitted virus and its insect vector. Several studies have shown that insect vector proteins are involved in the passage and the transmission of the virus. Interestingly, proteins expressed by bacterial endosymbionts that reside in the insect vector, were also shown to influence the transmission of these viruses. Thus far, the transmission of two plant viruses that belong to different virus genera was shown to be facilitated by a bacterial chaperone protein called GroEL. This protein was shown to be implicated in the transmission of Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae, and the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci. These tri-trophic levels of interactions and their possible evolutionary implications are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessReview Discovering Host Genes Involved in the Infection by the Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Complex and in the Establishment of Resistance to the Virus Using Tobacco Rattle Virus-based Post Transcriptional Gene Silencing
Viruses 2013, 5(3), 998-1022; doi:10.3390/v5030998
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 20 March 2013 / Accepted: 21 March 2013 / Published: 22 March 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (792 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of high-throughput technologies allows for evaluating gene expression at the whole-genome level. Together with proteomic and metabolomic studies, these analyses have resulted in the identification of plant genes whose function or expression is altered as a consequence of pathogen attacks. Members
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The development of high-throughput technologies allows for evaluating gene expression at the whole-genome level. Together with proteomic and metabolomic studies, these analyses have resulted in the identification of plant genes whose function or expression is altered as a consequence of pathogen attacks. Members of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) complex are among the most important pathogens impairing production of agricultural crops worldwide. To understand how these geminiviruses subjugate plant defenses, and to devise counter-measures, it is essential to identify the host genes affected by infection and to determine their role in susceptible and resistant plants. We have used a reverse genetics approach based on Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV-VIGS) to uncover genes involved in viral infection of susceptible plants, and to identify genes underlying virus resistance. To identify host genes with a role in geminivirus infection, we have engineered a Nicotiana benthamiana line, coined 2IRGFP, which over-expresses GFP upon virus infection. With this system, we have achieved an accurate description of the dynamics of virus replication in space and time. Upon silencing selected N. benthamiana genes previously shown to be related to host response to geminivirus infection, we have identified eighteen genes involved in a wide array of cellular processes. Plant genes involved in geminivirus resistance were studied by comparing two tomato lines: one resistant (R), the other susceptible (S) to the virus. Sixty-nine genes preferentially expressed in R tomatoes were identified by screening cDNA libraries from infected and uninfected R and S genotypes. Out of the 25 genes studied so far, the silencing of five led to the total collapse of resistance, suggesting their involvement in the resistance gene network. This review of our results indicates that TRV-VIGS is an exquisite reverse genetics tool that may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying plant infection and resistance to infection by begomoviruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessReview Biological Invasions of Geminiviruses: Case Study of TYLCV and Bemisia tabaci in Reunion Island
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3665-3688; doi:10.3390/v4123665
Received: 5 November 2012 / Revised: 6 December 2012 / Accepted: 6 December 2012 / Published: 12 December 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last 20 years, molecular ecology approaches have proven to be extremely useful to identify and assess factors associated with viral emerging diseases, particularly in economically and socially important tropical crops such as maize (maize streak disease) and cassava (cassava mosaic disease).
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In the last 20 years, molecular ecology approaches have proven to be extremely useful to identify and assess factors associated with viral emerging diseases, particularly in economically and socially important tropical crops such as maize (maize streak disease) and cassava (cassava mosaic disease). Molecular ecology approaches were applied in Reunion Island to analyze the epidemic of tomato yellow leaf curl disease, which has been affecting the island since the end of the 1990s. Before the invasive biotype B (currently known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 cryptic species) of Bemisia tabaci spread across the world, Reunion Island (South West Indian Ocean) only hosted an indigenous biotype of B. tabaci, Ms (currently known as Indian Ocean cryptic species). Wild hybrids between invasive and indigenous species were subsequently characterized over multiple generations. Endosymbiont analysis of the hybrid population indicated that matings were non-random. Similarly, while no indigenous begomoviruses have ever been reported on Reunion Island, the two main strains of one of the most damaging and emerging plant viruses in the world, the Mild and Israel strains of the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV-Mld and TYLCV-IL), were introduced in 1997 and 2004 respectively. While these introductions extensively modified the agricultural landscape of Reunion Island, they also provided an invaluable opportunity to study the ecological and genetic mechanisms involved in biological invasion and competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessReview Sharka: The Past, The Present and The Future
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 2853-2901; doi:10.3390/v4112853
Received: 15 October 2012 / Revised: 25 October 2012 / Accepted: 30 October 2012 / Published: 7 November 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1005 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Members the Potyviridae family belong to a group of plant viruses that are causing devastating plant diseases with a significant impact on agronomy and economics. Plum pox virus (PPV), as a causative agent of sharka disease, is widely discussed. The understanding of the
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Members the Potyviridae family belong to a group of plant viruses that are causing devastating plant diseases with a significant impact on agronomy and economics. Plum pox virus (PPV), as a causative agent of sharka disease, is widely discussed. The understanding of the molecular biology of potyviruses including PPV and the function of individual proteins as products of genome expression are quite necessary for the proposal the new antiviral strategies. This review brings to view the members of Potyviridae family with respect to plum pox virus. The genome of potyviruses is discussed with respect to protein products of its expression and their function. Plum pox virus distribution, genome organization, transmission and biochemical changes in infected plants are introduced. In addition, techniques used in PPV detection are accentuated and discussed, especially with respect to new modern techniques of nucleic acids isolation, based on the nanotechnological approach. Finally, perspectives on the future of possibilities for nanotechnology application in PPV determination/identification are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
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Open AccessReview New and Emerging Viruses of Blueberry and Cranberry
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 2831-2852; doi:10.3390/v4112831
Received: 4 October 2012 / Revised: 22 October 2012 / Accepted: 31 October 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses
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Blueberry and cranberry are fruit crops native to North America and they are well known for containing bioactive compounds that can benefit human health. Cultivation is expanding within North America and other parts of the world raising concern regarding distribution of existing viruses as well as the appearance of new viruses. Many of the known viruses of these crops are latent or asymptomatic in at least some cultivars. Diagnosis and detection procedures are often non-existent or unreliable. Whereas new viruses can move into cultivated fields from the wild, there is also the threat that devastating viruses can move into native stands of Vaccinium spp. or other native plants from cultivated fields. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Silencing and Innate Immunity in Plant Defense Against Viral and Non-Viral Pathogens
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 2578-2597; doi:10.3390/v4112578
Received: 27 September 2012 / Revised: 20 October 2012 / Accepted: 24 October 2012 / Published: 29 October 2012
Cited by 50 | PDF Full-text (451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The frontline of plant defense against non-viral pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and oomycetes is provided by transmembrane pattern recognition receptors that detect conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), leading to pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). To counteract this innate defense, pathogens deploy effector proteins with
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The frontline of plant defense against non-viral pathogens such as bacteria, fungi and oomycetes is provided by transmembrane pattern recognition receptors that detect conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), leading to pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). To counteract this innate defense, pathogens deploy effector proteins with a primary function to suppress PTI. In specific cases, plants have evolved intracellular resistance (R) proteins detecting isolate-specific pathogen effectors, leading to effector-triggered immunity (ETI), an amplified version of PTI, often associated with hypersensitive response (HR) and programmed cell death (PCD). In the case of plant viruses, no conserved PAMP was identified so far and the primary plant defense is thought to be based mainly on RNA silencing, an evolutionary conserved, sequence-specific mechanism that regulates gene expression and chromatin states and represses invasive nucleic acids such as transposons. Endogenous silencing pathways generate 21-24 nt small (s)RNAs, miRNAs and short interfering (si)RNAs, that repress genes post-transcriptionally and/or transcriptionally. Four distinct Dicer-like (DCL) proteins, which normally produce endogenous miRNAs and siRNAs, all contribute to the biogenesis of viral siRNAs in infected plants. Growing evidence indicates that RNA silencing also contributes to plant defense against non-viral pathogens. Conversely, PTI-based innate responses may contribute to antiviral defense. Intracellular R proteins of the same NB-LRR family are able to recognize both non-viral effectors and avirulence (Avr) proteins of RNA viruses, and, as a result, trigger HR and PCD in virus-resistant hosts. In some cases, viral Avr proteins also function as silencing suppressors. We hypothesize that RNA silencing and innate immunity (PTI and ETI) function in concert to fight plant viruses. Viruses counteract this dual defense by effectors that suppress both PTI-/ETI-based innate responses and RNA silencing to establish successful infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessReview Virus-Induced Aggregates in Infected Cells
Viruses 2012, 4(10), 2218-2232; doi:10.3390/v4102218
Received: 29 August 2012 / Revised: 27 September 2012 / Accepted: 29 September 2012 / Published: 17 October 2012
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1701 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their
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During infection, many viruses induce cellular remodeling, resulting in the formation of insoluble aggregates/inclusions, usually containing viral structural proteins. Identification of aggregates has become a useful diagnostic tool for certain viral infections. There is wide variety of viral aggregates, which differ by their location, size, content and putative function. The role of aggregation in the context of a specific virus is often poorly understood, especially in the case of plant viruses. The aggregates are utilized by viruses to house a large complex of proteins of both viral and host origin to promote virus replication, translation, intra- and intercellular transportation. Aggregated structures may protect viral functional complexes from the cellular degradation machinery. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of virus components in aggregates, followed by their neutralization as toxic for the host cell. The diversity of virus-induced aggregates in mammalian and plant cells is the subject of this review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessReview Diversity of Dicotyledenous-Infecting Geminiviruses and Their Associated DNA Molecules in Southern Africa, Including the South-West Indian Ocean Islands
Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1753-1791; doi:10.3390/v4091753
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 4 September 2012 / Accepted: 5 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of
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The family Geminiviridae comprises a group of plant-infecting circular ssDNA viruses that severely constrain agricultural production throughout the temperate regions of the world, and are a particularly serious threat to food security in sub-Saharan Africa. While geminiviruses exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their nucleotide sequences, genome structures, host ranges and insect vectors, the best characterised and economically most important of these viruses are those in the genus Begomovirus. Whereas begomoviruses are generally considered to be either monopartite (one ssDNA component) or bipartite (two circular ssDNA components called DNA-A and DNA-B), many apparently monopartite begomoviruses are associated with additional subviral ssDNA satellite components, called alpha- (DNA-as) or betasatellites (DNA-βs). Additionally, subgenomic molecules, also known as defective interfering (DIs) DNAs that are usually derived from the parent helper virus through deletions of parts of its genome, are also associated with bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses. The past three decades have witnessed the emergence and diversification of various new begomoviral species and associated DI DNAs, in southern Africa, East Africa, and proximal Indian Ocean islands, which today threaten important vegetable and commercial crops such as, tobacco, cassava, tomato, sweet potato, and beans. This review aims to describe what is known about these viruses and their impacts on sustainable production in this sensitive region of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessReview Emaravirus: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses
Viruses 2012, 4(9), 1515-1536; doi:10.3390/v4091515
Received: 29 July 2012 / Revised: 22 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 12 September 2012
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (Cajanus cajan) and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics.
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Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (Cajanus cajan) and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV), Fig mosaic virus (FMV), rose rosette virus (RRV), raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus Emaravirus was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)

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