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Association of an Alphasatellite with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Japan Is Suggestive of a Recent Introduction
Department of International Agricultural Development, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan
Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000, Pakistan
Agricultural Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 September 2013; in revised form: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 14 January 2014
Abstract: Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). Both viruses have previously been shown to be present in Japan, although this is the first identification of AYVV on mainland Japan; the virus previously having been shown to be present on the Okinawa Islands. The plant harboring AYVV was also shown to contain the betasatellite Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite (ToLCJaB), a satellite not previously shown to be present in Japan. No betasatellite was associated with the TYLCV infected tomato plants analyzed here, consistent with earlier findings for this virus in Japan. Surprisingly both plants were also found to harbor an alphasatellite; no alphasatellites having previously been reported from Japan. The alphasatellite associated with both viruses was shown to be Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite which has previously only been identified in the Yunnan Province of China and Nepal. The results suggest that further begomoviruses, and their associated satellites, are being introduced to Japan. The significance of these findings is discussed.
Keywords: geminivirus; begomovirus; betasatellite; alphasatellite; tomato
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MDPI and ACS Style
Shahid, M.S.; Ikegami, M.; Waheed, A.; Briddon, R.W.; Natsuaki, K.T. Association of an Alphasatellite with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Japan Is Suggestive of a Recent Introduction. Viruses 2014, 6, 189-200.
Shahid MS, Ikegami M, Waheed A, Briddon RW, Natsuaki KT. Association of an Alphasatellite with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Japan Is Suggestive of a Recent Introduction. Viruses. 2014; 6(1):189-200.
Shahid, Muhammad S.; Ikegami, Masato; Waheed, Abdul; Briddon, Rob W.; Natsuaki, Keiko T. 2014. "Association of an Alphasatellite with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus and Ageratum Yellow Vein Virus in Japan Is Suggestive of a Recent Introduction." Viruses 6, no. 1: 189-200.