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Viruses, Volume 5, Issue 7 (July 2013), Pages 1607-1900

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Differentiation and Distribution of Cordyline Viruses 1–4 in Hawaiian ti Plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.)
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1655-1663; doi:10.3390/v5071655
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 15 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2557 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Common green ti plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.) in Hawaii can be infected by four recently characterized closteroviruses that are tentative members of the proposed genus Velarivirus. In this study, a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay developed to detect and distinguish
[...] Read more.
Common green ti plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.) in Hawaii can be infected by four recently characterized closteroviruses that are tentative members of the proposed genus Velarivirus. In this study, a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay developed to detect and distinguish Cordyline virus 1 (CoV-1), CoV-2, CoV-3, and CoV-4 was used to determine: (i) the distribution of these viruses in Hawaii; and (ii) if they are involved in the etiology of ti ringspot disease. One hundred and thirty-seven common green ti plants with and without ti ringspot symptoms were sampled from 43 sites on five of the Hawaiian Islands and underwent the RT-PCR assay. Eleven ornamental ti varieties were also sampled and assayed. Based on this survey, it appears none of the CoVs are involved in the etiology of ti ringspot. The observation of a non-uniform geographic distribution of the CoVs in common green ti, combined with the presence of CoVs in seed-derived ornamental varieties, suggests active vector transmission. Eight herbarium specimens collected between 1903 and 2003 from plants on the island of Oahu also underwent the RT-PCR assay. Amplifiable RNA was isolated from accessions collected in 1985 or later, however only the 2003 accession was found to harbor CoVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessArticle Identification of Genes Critical for Resistance to Infection by West Nile Virus Using RNA-Seq Analysis
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1664-1681; doi:10.3390/v5071664
Received: 8 May 2013 / Revised: 21 June 2013 / Accepted: 29 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (35791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging infection of biodefense concern and there are no available treatments or vaccines. Here we used a high-throughput method based on a novel gene expression analysis, RNA-Seq, to give a global picture of differential gene expression
[...] Read more.
The West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging infection of biodefense concern and there are no available treatments or vaccines. Here we used a high-throughput method based on a novel gene expression analysis, RNA-Seq, to give a global picture of differential gene expression by primary human macrophages of 10 healthy donors infected in vitro with WNV. From a total of 28 million reads per sample, we identified 1,514 transcripts that were differentially expressed after infection. Both predicted and novel gene changes were detected, as were gene isoforms, and while many of the genes were expressed by all donors, some were unique. Knock-down of genes not previously known to be associated with WNV resistance identified their critical role in control of viral infection. Our study distinguishes both common gene pathways as well as novel cellular responses. Such analyses will be valuable for translational studies of susceptible and resistant individuals—and for targeting therapeutics—in multiple biological settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Development of a Magnetic Electrochemical Bar Code Array for Point Mutation Detection in the H5N1 Neuraminidase Gene
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1719-1739; doi:10.3390/v5071719
Received: 17 May 2013 / Revised: 10 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European.
[...] Read more.
Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European. The main issue is still to develop effective antiviral drugs. In this case, single point mutation in the neuraminidase gene, which causes resistance to antiviral drug and is, therefore, subjected to many studies including ours, was observed. In this study, we developed magnetic electrochemical bar code array for detection of single point mutations (mismatches in up to four nucleotides) in H5N1 neuraminidase gene. Paramagnetic particles Dynabeads® with covalently bound oligo (dT)25 were used as a tool for isolation of complementary H5N1 chains (H5N1 Zhejin, China and Aichi). For detection of H5N1 chains, oligonucleotide chains of lengths of 12 (+5 adenine) or 28 (+5 adenine) bp labeled with quantum dots (CdS, ZnS and/or PbS) were used. Individual probes hybridized to target molecules specifically with efficiency higher than 60%. The obtained signals identified mutations present in the sequence. Suggested experimental procedure allows obtaining further information from the redox signals of nucleic acids. Moreover, the used biosensor exhibits sequence specificity and low limits of detection of subnanogram quantities of target nucleic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
Open AccessArticle Deletions within the 3' Non-Translated Region of Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 Do Not Affect Replication but Significantly Reduce Long-Distance Movement of Chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1802-1814; doi:10.3390/v5071802
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 25 June 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
PDF Full-text (962 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3' non‑translated regions (NTRs) have been previously shown to be encapsidated into virions by coat protein (CP) expressed from RNA3, indicating that the 3' NTRs of RNAs 1 and 2 are
[...] Read more.
Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3' non‑translated regions (NTRs) have been previously shown to be encapsidated into virions by coat protein (CP) expressed from RNA3, indicating that the 3' NTRs of RNAs 1 and 2 are not required for virion assembly. Here, we constructed various mutants by deleting sequences within the 3' NTR of AlMV subgenomic (sg) RNA4 (same as of RNA3) and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) expressing AlMV sgRNA4 from the TMV CP sg promoter (Av/A4) in tobacco protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. While the Av/A4 mutants were as competent as the wild-type Av/A4 in RNA replication in protoplasts, their encapsidation, long-distance movement and virus accumulation varied significantly in N. benthamiana. These data suggest that the 3' NTR of AlMV sgRNA4 contains potential elements necessary for virus encapsidation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
Open AccessCommunication Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a South African Isolate of Grapevine Fanleaf Virus and Its Associated Satellite RNA
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1815-1823; doi:10.3390/v5071815
Received: 4 July 2013 / Revised: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (485 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The complete sequences of RNA1, RNA2 and satellite RNA have been determined for a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-SACH44). The two RNAs of GFLV-SACH44 are 7,341 nucleotides (nt) and 3,816 nt in length, respectively, and its satellite RNA (satRNA) is
[...] Read more.
The complete sequences of RNA1, RNA2 and satellite RNA have been determined for a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV-SACH44). The two RNAs of GFLV-SACH44 are 7,341 nucleotides (nt) and 3,816 nt in length, respectively, and its satellite RNA (satRNA) is 1,104 nt in length, all excluding the poly(A) tail. Multiple sequence alignment of these sequences showed that GFLV-SACH44 RNA1 and RNA2 were the closest to the South African isolate, GFLV-SAPCS3 (98.2% and 98.6% nt identity, respectively), followed by the French isolate, GFLV-F13 (87.3% and 90.1% nt identity, respectively). Interestingly, the GFLV-SACH44 satRNA is more similar to three Arabis mosaic virus satRNAs (85%–87.4% nt identity) than to the satRNA of GFLV-F13 (81.8% nt identity) and was most distantly related to the satRNA of GFLV-R2 (71.0% nt identity). Full-length infectious clones of GFLV-SACH44 satRNA were constructed. The infectivity of the clones was tested with three nepovirus isolates, GFLV-NW, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV)-NW and GFLV-SAPCS3. The clones were mechanically inoculated in Chenopodium quinoa and were infectious when co-inoculated with the two GFLV helper viruses, but not when co-inoculated with ArMV-NW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Histone Deacetylases in Herpesvirus Replication and Virus-Stimulated Host Defense
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1607-1632; doi:10.3390/v5071607
Received: 14 May 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 18 June 2013 / Published: 27 June 2013
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (16327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emerging evidence highlights a critical role for protein acetylation during herpesvirus infection. As prominent modulators of protein acetylation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are essential transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. Not surprisingly, viruses have evolved a wide array of mechanisms to subvert HDAC functions. Here, we
[...] Read more.
Emerging evidence highlights a critical role for protein acetylation during herpesvirus infection. As prominent modulators of protein acetylation, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are essential transcriptional and epigenetic regulators. Not surprisingly, viruses have evolved a wide array of mechanisms to subvert HDAC functions. Here, we review the mechanisms underlying HDAC regulation during herpesvirus infection. We next discuss the roles of acetylation in host defense against herpesvirus infection. Finally, we provide a perspective on the contribution of current mass spectrometry-based “omic” technologies to infectious disease research, offering a systems biology view of infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Control of Viral Infection) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Chromatin, Non-Coding RNAs, and the Expression of HIV
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1633-1645; doi:10.3390/v5071633
Received: 3 April 2013 / Revised: 21 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 28 June 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
HIV is a chronic viral infection affecting an estimated 34 million people worldwide. Current therapies employ the use of a cocktail of antiretroviral medications to reduce the spread and effects of HIV, however complete eradication from an individual currently remains unattainable. Viral latency
[...] Read more.
HIV is a chronic viral infection affecting an estimated 34 million people worldwide. Current therapies employ the use of a cocktail of antiretroviral medications to reduce the spread and effects of HIV, however complete eradication from an individual currently remains unattainable. Viral latency and regulation of gene expression is a key consideration when developing effective treatments. While our understanding of these processes remains incomplete new developments suggest that non-coding RNA (ncRNA) mediated regulation may provide an avenue to controlling both viral expression and latency. Here we discuss the importance of known regulatory mechanisms and suggest directions for further study, in particular the use ncRNAs in controlling HIV expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Control of Viral Infection) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Cyclophilins as Modulators of Viral Replication
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1684-1701; doi:10.3390/v5071684
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 26 June 2013 / Accepted: 3 July 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyclophilins are peptidyl‐prolyl cis/trans isomerases important in the proper folding of certain proteins. Mounting evidence supports varied roles of cyclophilins, either positive or negative, in the life cycles of diverse viruses, but the nature and mechanisms of these roles are yet to be
[...] Read more.
Cyclophilins are peptidyl‐prolyl cis/trans isomerases important in the proper folding of certain proteins. Mounting evidence supports varied roles of cyclophilins, either positive or negative, in the life cycles of diverse viruses, but the nature and mechanisms of these roles are yet to be defined. The potential for cyclophilins to serve as a drug target for antiviral therapy is evidenced by the success of non-immunosuppressive cyclophilin inhibitors (CPIs), including Alisporivir, in clinical trials targeting hepatitis C virus infection. In addition, as cyclophilins are implicated in the predisposition to, or severity of, various diseases, the ability to specifically and effectively modulate their function will prove increasingly useful for disease intervention. In this review, we will summarize the evidence of cyclophilins as key mediators of viral infection and prospective drug targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclophilins and Viruses)
Open AccessReview Feline Foamy Virus-Based Vectors: Advantages of an Authentic Animal Model
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1702-1718; doi:10.3390/v5071702
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
New-generation retroviral vectors have potential applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Foamy viruses are particularly interesting as vectors, because they are not associated to any disease. Vector research is mainly based on primate foamy viruses (PFV), but cats are an alternative animal model,
[...] Read more.
New-generation retroviral vectors have potential applications in vaccination and gene therapy. Foamy viruses are particularly interesting as vectors, because they are not associated to any disease. Vector research is mainly based on primate foamy viruses (PFV), but cats are an alternative animal model, due to their smaller size and the existence of a cognate feline foamy virus (FFV). The potential of replication-competent (RC) FFV vectors for vaccination and replication-deficient (RD) FFV-based vectors for gene delivery purposes has been studied over the past years. In this review, the key achievements and functional evaluation of the existing vectors from in vitro cell culture systems to out-bred cats will be described. The data presented here demonstrate the broad application spectrum of FFV-based vectors, especially in pathogen-specific prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination using RD vectors in cats and in classical gene delivery. In the cat-based system, FFV-based vectors provide an advantageous platform to evaluate and optimize the applicability, efficacy and safety of foamy virus (FV) vectors, especially the understudied aspect of FV cell and organ tropism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Foamy Virus (FV) Research)
Open AccessReview Role of Polycomb Proteins in Regulating HSV-1 Latency
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1740-1757; doi:10.3390/v5071740
Received: 29 May 2013 / Revised: 4 July 2013 / Accepted: 4 July 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (10505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes a latent infection within sensory neurons of humans. Latency is characterized by the transcriptional repression of lytic genes by the condensation of lytic gene regions into heterochromatin. Recent data suggest that facultative heterochromatin predominates, and that cellular Polycomb
[...] Read more.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes a latent infection within sensory neurons of humans. Latency is characterized by the transcriptional repression of lytic genes by the condensation of lytic gene regions into heterochromatin. Recent data suggest that facultative heterochromatin predominates, and that cellular Polycomb proteins are involved in the establishment and maintenance of transcriptional repression during latency. This review summarizes these data and discusses the implication of viral and cellular factors in regulating heterochromatin composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Control of Viral Infection) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Chromatin Dynamics during Lytic Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1758-1786; doi:10.3390/v5071758
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 6 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Latent HSV-1 genomes are chromatinized with silencing marks. Since 2004, however, there has been an apparent inconsistency in the studies of the chromatinization of the HSV-1 genomes in lytically infected cells. Nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that the genomes were not
[...] Read more.
Latent HSV-1 genomes are chromatinized with silencing marks. Since 2004, however, there has been an apparent inconsistency in the studies of the chromatinization of the HSV-1 genomes in lytically infected cells. Nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that the genomes were not regularly chromatinized, having only low histone occupancy. However, the chromatin modifications associated with transcribed and non-transcribed HSV-1 genes were those associated with active or repressed transcription, respectively. Moreover, the three critical HSV-1 transcriptional activators all had the capability to induce chromatin remodelling, and interacted with critical chromatin modifying enzymes. Depletion or overexpression of some, but not all, chromatin modifying proteins affected HSV-1 transcription, but often in unexpected manners. Since 2010, it has become clear that both cellular and HSV-1 chromatins are highly dynamic in infected cells. These dynamics reconcile the weak interactions between HSV-1 genomes and chromatin proteins, detected by nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation, with the proposed regulation of HSV-1 gene expression by chromatin, supported by the marks in the chromatin in the viral genomes and the abilities of the HSV-1 transcription activators to modulate chromatin. It also explains the sometimes unexpected results of interventions to modulate chromatin remodelling activities in infected cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chromatin Control of Viral Infection) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Posttranslational Modifications of HIV-1 Integrase by Various Cellular Proteins during Viral Replication
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1787-1801; doi:10.3390/v5071787
Received: 17 May 2013 / Revised: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 9 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a key viral enzyme during HIV-1 replication that catalyzes the insertion of viral DNA into the host genome. Recent studies have provided important insights into the multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of IN (e.g., ubiquitination, SUMOylation, acetylation and phosphorylation), which regulate
[...] Read more.
HIV-1 integrase (IN) is a key viral enzyme during HIV-1 replication that catalyzes the insertion of viral DNA into the host genome. Recent studies have provided important insights into the multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of IN (e.g., ubiquitination, SUMOylation, acetylation and phosphorylation), which regulate its multifaceted functions. A number of host cellular proteins, including Lens Epithelium‑derived Growth factor (LEDGF/p75), p300 and Ku70 have been shown to interact with IN and be involved in the PTM process of IN, either facilitating or counteracting the IN PTMs. Although previous studies have revealed much about the important roles of IN PTMs, how IN functions are fine-tuned by these PTMs under the physiological setting still needs to be determined. Here, we review the advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and roles of multiple IN PTMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and the Ubiquitin/Proteasome System)
Open AccessReview Nuclear Imprisonment: Viral Strategies to Arrest Host mRNA Nuclear Export
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1824-1849; doi:10.3390/v5071824
Received: 10 June 2013 / Revised: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 11 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (9901 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA) that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export
[...] Read more.
Viruses possess many strategies to impair host cellular responses to infection. Nuclear export of host messenger RNAs (mRNA) that encode antiviral factors is critical for antiviral protein production and control of viral infections. Several viruses have evolved sophisticated strategies to inhibit nuclear export of host mRNAs, including targeting mRNA export factors and nucleoporins to compromise their roles in nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of cellular mRNA. Here, we present a review of research focused on suppression of host mRNA nuclear export by viruses, including influenza A virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, and the impact of this viral suppression on host antiviral responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Nuclear Import)
Open AccessReview Structural and Functional Insights into Foamy Viral Integrase
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1850-1866; doi:10.3390/v5071850
Received: 24 June 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 12 July 2013 / Published: 18 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (236 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Successful integration of retroviral DNA into the host chromosome is an essential step for viral replication. The process is mediated by virally encoded integrase (IN) and orchestrated by 3'-end processing and the strand transfer reaction. In vitro reaction conditions, such as substrate specificity,
[...] Read more.
Successful integration of retroviral DNA into the host chromosome is an essential step for viral replication. The process is mediated by virally encoded integrase (IN) and orchestrated by 3'-end processing and the strand transfer reaction. In vitro reaction conditions, such as substrate specificity, cofactor usage, and cellular binding partners for such reactions by the three distinct domains of prototype foamy viral integrase (PFV-IN) have been described well in several reports. Recent studies on the three‑dimensional structure of the interacting complexes between PFV-IN and DNA, cofactors, binding partners, or inhibitors have explored the mechanistic details of such interactions and shown its utilization as an important target to develop anti-retroviral drugs. The presence of a potent, non-transferable nuclear localization signal in the PFV C-terminal domain extends its use as a model for investigating cellular trafficking of large molecular complexes through the nuclear pore complex and also to identify novel cellular targets for such trafficking. This review focuses on recent advancements in the structural analysis and in vitro functional aspects of PFV-IN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Foamy Virus (FV) Research)
Open AccessReview Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) Break the Species Barrier to Acquire New Host Range
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1867-1884; doi:10.3390/v5071867
Received: 31 May 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently
[...] Read more.
Zoonotic events of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from non-human primates to humans have generated the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the most devastating infectious disease of the last century with more than 30 million people dead and about 40.3 million people currently infected worldwide. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2), the two major viruses that cause AIDS in humans are retroviruses of the lentivirus genus. The genus includes arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV) and Maedi-Visna virus (MVV), and a heterogeneous group of viruses known as small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), affecting goat and sheep. Lentivirus genome integrates into the host DNA, causing persistent infection associated with a remarkable diversity during viral replication. Direct evidence of mixed infections with these two closely related SRLVs was found in both sheep and goats. The evidence of a genetic continuum with caprine and ovine field isolates demonstrates the absence of an efficient species barrier preventing cross-species transmission. In dual-infected animals, persistent infections with both CAEV and MVV have been described, and viral chimeras have been detected. This not only complicates animal trade between countries but favors the risk that highly pathogenic variants may emerge as has already been observed in the past in Iceland and, more recently, in outbreaks with virulent strains in Spain. SRLVs affecting wildlife have already been identified, demonstrating the existence of emergent viruses adapted to new hosts. Viruses adapted to wildlife ruminants may acquire novel biopathological properties which may endanger not only the new host species but also domestic ruminants and humans. SRLVs infecting sheep and goats follow a genomic evolution similar to that observed in HIV or in other lentiviruses. Lentivirus genetic diversity and host factors leading to the establishment of naturally occurring virulent versus avirulent infections, in addition to the emergence of new strains, challenge every aspect of SRLV control measures for providing efficient tools to prevent the transmission of diseases between wild ungulates and livestock. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Small Ruminant Lentiviruses)
Open AccessReview Baculovirus Nuclear Import: Open, Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC) Sesame
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1885-1900; doi:10.3390/v5071885
Received: 30 May 2013 / Revised: 17 July 2013 / Accepted: 17 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Baculoviruses are one of the largest viruses that replicate in the nucleus of their host cells. During infection, the rod-shape, 250-nm long nucleocapsid delivers its genome into the nucleus. Electron microscopy evidence suggests that baculoviruses, specifically the Alphabaculoviruses (nucleopolyhedroviruses) and the Betabaculoviruses (granuloviruses),
[...] Read more.
Baculoviruses are one of the largest viruses that replicate in the nucleus of their host cells. During infection, the rod-shape, 250-nm long nucleocapsid delivers its genome into the nucleus. Electron microscopy evidence suggests that baculoviruses, specifically the Alphabaculoviruses (nucleopolyhedroviruses) and the Betabaculoviruses (granuloviruses), have evolved two very distinct modes for doing this. Here we review historical and current experimental results of baculovirus nuclear import studies, with an emphasis on electron microscopy studies employing the prototypical baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infecting cultured cells. We also discuss the implications of recent studies towards theories of nuclear transport mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viral Nuclear Import)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessConcept Paper Norovirus Contamination Levels in Ground Water Treatment Systems Used for Food-Catering Facilities in South Korea
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1646-1654; doi:10.3390/v5071646
Received: 24 April 2013 / Revised: 11 June 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 2 July 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010. Water samples were collected and, for the analysis of water quality, the temperature, pH, turbidity, and residual
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to inspect norovirus contamination of groundwater treatment systems used in food-catering facilities located in South Korea. A nationwide study was performed in 2010. Water samples were collected and, for the analysis of water quality, the temperature, pH, turbidity, and residual chlorine content were assessed. To detect norovirus genotypes GI and GII, RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR were performed with specific NV-GI and NV-GII primer sets, respectively. The PCR products amplified from the detected strains were then subjected to sequence analyses. Of 1,090 samples collected in 2010, seven (0.64%) were found to be norovirus-positive. Specifically, one norovirus strain was identified to have the GI-6 genotype, and six GII strains had the GII, GII-3, GII-4, and GII-17 genotypes. The very low detection rate of norovirus most likely reflects the preventative measures used. However, this virus can spread rapidly from person to person in crowded, enclosed places such as the schools investigated in this study. To promote better public health and sanitary conditions, it is necessary to periodically monitor noroviruses that frequently cause epidemic food poisoning in South Korea. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessAddendum Addendum: Bastos, J.C.S.; Kohn, L.K.; Fantinatti-Garboggini, F.; Padilla, M.A.; Flores, E.F.; da Silva, B.P.; de Menezes, C.B.A.; Arns, C.W. Antiviral Activity of Bacillus sp. Isolated from the Marine Sponge Petromica citrina against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model of the Hepatitis C Virus. Viruses 2013, 5, 1219-1230.
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1682-1683; doi:10.3390/v5071682
Received: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 5 July 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
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Abstract The authors wish to add the following Acknowledgments and completed Table 1 to their paper published in Viruses [1], doi:10.3390/v5051219, website: http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/5/5/1219. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Antivirals & Vaccines)

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