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Special Issue "H5N1 Influenza Virus"

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A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Daniel R. Perez

Associate Professor, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Room 1215, 8075 Greenmead Drive, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +(301) 314 6855
Interests: Interspecies Transmission of H9N2 avian influenza viruses; Bullet Pathogenesis and Transmission of 2009 H1N1pdm influenza strains; BulletUniversal vaccine approaches for animals and humans; BulletCross-protective immunity during H5N1 infections; BulletVirus-host interactions - Influenza receptors in avian and mammalian hosts

Keywords

  • H5N1
  • influenza virus

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Development of a Magnetic Electrochemical Bar Code Array for Point Mutation Detection in the H5N1 Neuraminidase Gene
Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1719-1739; doi:10.3390/v5071719
Received: 17 May 2013 / Revised: 10 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European.
[...] Read more.
Since its first official detection in the Guangdong province of China in 1996, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (HPAI H5N1) has reportedly been the cause of outbreaks in birds in more than 60 countries, 24 of which were European. The main issue is still to develop effective antiviral drugs. In this case, single point mutation in the neuraminidase gene, which causes resistance to antiviral drug and is, therefore, subjected to many studies including ours, was observed. In this study, we developed magnetic electrochemical bar code array for detection of single point mutations (mismatches in up to four nucleotides) in H5N1 neuraminidase gene. Paramagnetic particles Dynabeads® with covalently bound oligo (dT)25 were used as a tool for isolation of complementary H5N1 chains (H5N1 Zhejin, China and Aichi). For detection of H5N1 chains, oligonucleotide chains of lengths of 12 (+5 adenine) or 28 (+5 adenine) bp labeled with quantum dots (CdS, ZnS and/or PbS) were used. Individual probes hybridized to target molecules specifically with efficiency higher than 60%. The obtained signals identified mutations present in the sequence. Suggested experimental procedure allows obtaining further information from the redox signals of nucleic acids. Moreover, the used biosensor exhibits sequence specificity and low limits of detection of subnanogram quantities of target nucleic acids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
Open AccessArticle Characterization of Clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses Isolated from Wild Birds (Mandarin Duck and Eurasian Eagle Owl) in 2010 in Korea
Viruses 2013, 5(4), 1153-1174; doi:10.3390/v5041153
Received: 25 March 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 20 April 2013 / Published: 23 April 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated
[...] Read more.
Starting in late November 2010, the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was isolated from many types of wild ducks and raptors and was subsequently isolated from poultry in Korea. We assessed the genetic and pathogenic properties of the HPAI viruses isolated from a fecal sample from a mandarin duck and a dead Eurasian eagle owl, the most affected wild bird species during the 2010/2011 HPAI outbreak in Korea. These viruses have similar genetic backgrounds and exhibited the highest genetic similarity with recent Eurasian clade 2.3.2.1 HPAI viruses. In animal inoculation experiments, regardless of their originating hosts, the two Korean isolates produced highly pathogenic characteristics in chickens, ducks and mice without pre-adaptation. These results raise concerns about veterinary and public health. Surveillance of wild birds could provide a good early warning signal for possible HPAI infection in poultry as well as in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
Open AccessArticle Safety and Immunogenicity of a Plant-Produced Recombinant Hemagglutinin-Based Influenza Vaccine (HAI-05) Derived from A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) Influenza Virus: A Phase 1 Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Escalation Study in Healthy Adults
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 3227-3244; doi:10.3390/v4113227
Received: 25 October 2012 / Revised: 15 November 2012 / Accepted: 16 November 2012 / Published: 19 November 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (400 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, we have reported [1,2] on a subunit influenza vaccine candidate based on the recombinant hemagglutinin protein from the A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) strain of influenza virus, produced it using ‘launch vector’-based transient expression technology in Nicotiana benthamiana, and demonstrated its immunogenicity in pre-clinical
[...] Read more.
Recently, we have reported [1,2] on a subunit influenza vaccine candidate based on the recombinant hemagglutinin protein from the A/Indonesia/05/2005 (H5N1) strain of influenza virus, produced it using ‘launch vector’-based transient expression technology in Nicotiana benthamiana, and demonstrated its immunogenicity in pre-clinical studies. Here, we present the results of a first-in-human, Phase 1 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to investigate safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of three escalating dose levels of this vaccine, HAI-05, (15, 45 and 90 µg) adjuvanted with Alhydrogel® (0.75 mg aluminum per dose) and the 90 µg dose level without Alhydrogel®. Vaccine was administered intramuscularly in two injections three weeks apart to healthy adults of 18–49 years of age. At all dose levels the vaccine was generally safe and well tolerated, with no reported serious adverse events or dose-limiting toxicities. Mild local and systemic reactions were observed in all vaccine dose groups and the placebo group and their occurrence was not dose related. The incidence rates were higher in the groups receiving vaccine with Alhydrogel®. The immune response elicited by the HAI-05 vaccine was variable with respect to both hemagglutination-inhibition and virus microneutralization antibody titers, with the highest responses observed in the 90 µg unadjuvanted group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
Open AccessArticle Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Swine-Origin Influenza A Virus (H1N1/2009) from Other Seasonal Influenza A Viruses
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 3012-3019; doi:10.3390/v4113012
Received: 25 August 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 9 November 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP)-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2). In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza
[...] Read more.
We previously developed a rapid and simple gold nanoparticle(NP)-based genomic microarray assay for identification of the avian H5N1 virus and its discrimination from other influenza A virus strains (H1N1, H3N2). In this study, we expanded the platform to detect the 2009 swine-origin influenza A virus (H1N1/2009). Multiple specific capture and intermediate oligonucleotides were designed for the matrix (M), hemagglutinin (HA), and neuraminidase (NA) genes of the H1N1/2009 virus. The H1N1/2009 microarrays were printed in the same format as those of the seasonal influenza H1N1 and H3N2 for the HA, NA, and M genes. Viral RNA was tested using capture-target-intermediate oligonucleotide hybridization and gold NP-mediated silver staining. The signal from the 4 capture-target-intermediates of the HA and NA genes was specific for H1N1/2009 virus and showed no cross hybridization with viral RNA from other influenza strains H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1. All of the 3 M gene captures showed strong affinity with H1N1/2009 viral RNA, with 2 out of the 3 M gene captures showing cross hybridization with the H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 samples tested. The current assay was able to detect H1N1/2009 and distinguish it from other influenza A viruses. This new method may be useful for simultaneous detection and subtyping of influenza A viruses and can be rapidly modified to detect other emerging influenza strains in public health settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Viral and Host Factors Required for Avian H5N1 Influenza A Virus Replication in Mammalian Cells
Viruses 2013, 5(6), 1431-1446; doi:10.3390/v5061431
Received: 5 December 2012 / Revised: 7 February 2013 / Accepted: 23 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Following the initial and sporadic emergence into humans of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses in Hong Kong in 1997, we have come to realize the potential for avian influenza A viruses to be transmitted directly from birds to humans. Understanding the
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Following the initial and sporadic emergence into humans of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses in Hong Kong in 1997, we have come to realize the potential for avian influenza A viruses to be transmitted directly from birds to humans. Understanding the basic viral and cellular mechanisms that contribute to infection of mammalian species with avian influenza viruses is essential for developing prevention and control measures against possible future human pandemics. Multiple physical and functional cellular barriers can restrict influenza A virus infection in a new host species, including the cell membrane, the nuclear envelope, the nuclear environment, and innate antiviral responses. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on viral and host factors required for avian H5N1 influenza A viruses to successfully establish infections in mammalian cells. We focus on the molecular mechanisms underpinning mammalian host restrictions, as well as the adaptive mutations that are necessary for an avian influenza virus to overcome them. It is likely that many more viral and host determinants remain to be discovered, and future research in this area should provide novel and translational insights into the biology of influenza virus-host interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
Open AccessReview Development of Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccines against Outbreaks of H5N1 Influenza
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3589-3605; doi:10.3390/v4123589
Received: 2 October 2012 / Revised: 14 November 2012 / Accepted: 22 November 2012 / Published: 10 December 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several global outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus have increased the urgency of developing effective and safe vaccines against H5N1. Compared with H5N1 inactivated vaccines used widely, H5N1 live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) have advantages in vaccine efficacy, dose-saving formula, long-lasting
[...] Read more.
Several global outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus have increased the urgency of developing effective and safe vaccines against H5N1. Compared with H5N1 inactivated vaccines used widely, H5N1 live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) have advantages in vaccine efficacy, dose-saving formula, long-lasting effect, ease of administration and some cross-protective immunity. Furthermore, H5N1 LAIVs induce both humoral and cellular immune responses, especially including improved IgA production at the mucosa. The current trend of H5N1 LAIVs development is toward cold-adapted, temperature-sensitive or replication-defective vaccines, and moreover, H5N1 LAIVs plus mucosal adjuvants are promising candidates. This review provides an update on the advantages and development of H5N1 live-attenuated influenza vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
Open AccessReview Innate Immunity to H5N1 Influenza Viruses in Humans
Viruses 2012, 4(12), 3363-3388; doi:10.3390/v4123363
Received: 3 November 2012 / Revised: 19 November 2012 / Accepted: 21 November 2012 / Published: 26 November 2012
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (1998 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Avian influenza virus infections in the human population are rare due to their inefficient direct human-to-human transmission. However, when humans are infected, a strong inflammatory response is usually induced, characterized by elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines in serum, believed to be important
[...] Read more.
Avian influenza virus infections in the human population are rare due to their inefficient direct human-to-human transmission. However, when humans are infected, a strong inflammatory response is usually induced, characterized by elevated levels of cytokines and chemokines in serum, believed to be important in the severe pathogenesis that develops in a high proportion of these patients. Extensive research has been performed to understand the molecular viral mechanisms involved in the H5N1 pathogenesis in humans, providing interesting insights about the virus-host interaction and the regulation of the innate immune response by these highly pathogenic viruses. In this review we summarize and discuss the most important findings in this field, focusing mainly on H5N1 virulence factors and their impact on the modulation of the innate immunity in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
Open AccessReview Insight into Alternative Approaches for Control of Avian Influenza in Poultry, with Emphasis on Highly Pathogenic H5N1
Viruses 2012, 4(11), 3179-3208; doi:10.3390/v4113179
Received: 23 September 2012 / Revised: 4 November 2012 / Accepted: 8 November 2012 / Published: 19 November 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 causes a devastating disease in poultry but when it accidentally infects humans it can cause death. Therefore, decrease the incidence of H5N1 in humans needs to focus on prevention and control of poultry infections.
[...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) of subtype H5N1 causes a devastating disease in poultry but when it accidentally infects humans it can cause death. Therefore, decrease the incidence of H5N1 in humans needs to focus on prevention and control of poultry infections. Conventional control strategies in poultry based on surveillance, stamping out, movement restriction and enforcement of biosecurity measures did not prevent the virus spreading, particularly in developing countries. Several challenges limit efficiency of the vaccines to prevent outbreaks of HPAIV H5N1 in endemic countries. Alternative and complementary approaches to reduce the current burden of H5N1 epidemics in poultry should be encouraged. The use of antiviral chemotherapy and natural compounds, avian-cytokines, RNA interference, genetic breeding and/or development of transgenic poultry warrant further evaluation as integrated intervention strategies for control of HPAIV H5N1 in poultry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)
Open AccessReview Updated Values for Molecular Diagnosis for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus
Viruses 2012, 4(8), 1235-1257; doi:10.3390/v4081235
Received: 20 July 2012 / Revised: 31 July 2012 / Accepted: 3 August 2012 / Published: 7 August 2012
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2273 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 strain pose a pandemic threat. H5N1 strain virus is extremely lethal and contagious for poultry. Even though mortality is 59% in infected humans, these viruses do not spread efficiently between humans. In 1997, an
[...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 strain pose a pandemic threat. H5N1 strain virus is extremely lethal and contagious for poultry. Even though mortality is 59% in infected humans, these viruses do not spread efficiently between humans. In 1997, an outbreak of H5N1 strain with human cases occurred in Hong Kong. This event highlighted the need for rapid identification and subtyping of influenza A viruses (IAV), not only to facilitate surveillance of the pandemic potential of avian IAV, but also to improve the control and treatment of infected patients. Molecular diagnosis has played a key role in the detection and typing of IAV in recent years, spurred by rapid advances in technologies for detection and characterization of viral RNAs and proteins. Such technologies, which include immunochromatography, quantitative real-time PCR, super high-speed real-time PCR, and isothermal DNA amplification, are expected to contribute to faster and easier diagnosis and typing of IAV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue H5N1 Influenza Virus)

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