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Viruses 2013, 5(7), 1655-1663; doi:10.3390/v5071655

Differentiation and Distribution of Cordyline Viruses 1–4 in Hawaiian ti Plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.)

1,* , 1
Received: 3 May 2013 / Revised: 15 June 2013 / Accepted: 26 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Viruses)
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Common green ti plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.) in Hawaii can be infected by four recently characterized closteroviruses that are tentative members of the proposed genus Velarivirus. In this study, a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay developed to detect and distinguish Cordyline virus 1 (CoV-1), CoV-2, CoV-3, and CoV-4 was used to determine: (i) the distribution of these viruses in Hawaii; and (ii) if they are involved in the etiology of ti ringspot disease. One hundred and thirty-seven common green ti plants with and without ti ringspot symptoms were sampled from 43 sites on five of the Hawaiian Islands and underwent the RT-PCR assay. Eleven ornamental ti varieties were also sampled and assayed. Based on this survey, it appears none of the CoVs are involved in the etiology of ti ringspot. The observation of a non-uniform geographic distribution of the CoVs in common green ti, combined with the presence of CoVs in seed-derived ornamental varieties, suggests active vector transmission. Eight herbarium specimens collected between 1903 and 2003 from plants on the island of Oahu also underwent the RT-PCR assay. Amplifiable RNA was isolated from accessions collected in 1985 or later, however only the 2003 accession was found to harbor CoVs.
Keywords: cordyline virus; velarivirus; ti ringspot; herbarium sampling cordyline virus; velarivirus; ti ringspot; herbarium sampling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Melzer, M.; Ayin, C.; Sugano, J.; Uchida, J.; Kawate, M.; Borth, W.; Hu, J. Differentiation and Distribution of Cordyline Viruses 1–4 in Hawaiian ti Plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.). Viruses 2013, 5, 1655-1663.

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