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Chromatin Dynamics during Lytic Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1
Department of Biochemistry, Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H7, Canada
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2013; in revised form: 6 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 16 July 2013
Abstract: Latent HSV-1 genomes are chromatinized with silencing marks. Since 2004, however, there has been an apparent inconsistency in the studies of the chromatinization of the HSV-1 genomes in lytically infected cells. Nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that the genomes were not regularly chromatinized, having only low histone occupancy. However, the chromatin modifications associated with transcribed and non-transcribed HSV-1 genes were those associated with active or repressed transcription, respectively. Moreover, the three critical HSV-1 transcriptional activators all had the capability to induce chromatin remodelling, and interacted with critical chromatin modifying enzymes. Depletion or overexpression of some, but not all, chromatin modifying proteins affected HSV-1 transcription, but often in unexpected manners. Since 2010, it has become clear that both cellular and HSV-1 chromatins are highly dynamic in infected cells. These dynamics reconcile the weak interactions between HSV-1 genomes and chromatin proteins, detected by nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation, with the proposed regulation of HSV-1 gene expression by chromatin, supported by the marks in the chromatin in the viral genomes and the abilities of the HSV-1 transcription activators to modulate chromatin. It also explains the sometimes unexpected results of interventions to modulate chromatin remodelling activities in infected cells.
Keywords: Herpes simplex virus 1; chromatin; silencing; nucleosome; histone; fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)
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Conn, K.L.; Schang, L.M. Chromatin Dynamics during Lytic Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1. Viruses 2013, 5, 1758-1786.
Conn KL, Schang LM. Chromatin Dynamics during Lytic Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1. Viruses. 2013; 5(7):1758-1786.
Conn, Kristen L.; Schang, Luis M. 2013. "Chromatin Dynamics during Lytic Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1." Viruses 5, no. 7: 1758-1786.