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Materials, Volume 6, Issue 9 (September 2013), Pages 3676-4283

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Open AccessArticle Influence of Material Microstructures in Micromilling of Ti6Al4V Alloy
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4268-4283; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094268
Received: 8 June 2013 / Revised: 3 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 24 September 2013
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (1301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the most recent decades the introduction of unconventional machining processes allowed the development of micromachining techniques. In this work, the influence of material microstructures on the micromilling process was investigated. Ti6Al4V alloy was selected as workpiece material since it is a very
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In the most recent decades the introduction of unconventional machining processes allowed the development of micromachining techniques. In this work, the influence of material microstructures on the micromilling process was investigated. Ti6Al4V alloy was selected as workpiece material since it is a very common material for micro applications and because its duplex microstructure can be easily changed by proper thermal treatments. Four different microstructures (namely bimodal, fully equiaxed, fully lamellar and mill annealed) were obtained through recrystallization annealing treatments carried out at different times and temperatures. The mechanical properties of the samples were assessed by microhardness measurements. Nano-indentations were also performed on single grains to understand how the different hardness of phases and structures present in the Ti6Al4V alloy can affect the micromilling process. Microchannels using two flute flat end mills with a diameter equal to 200 µm were realized on the treated samples. Two different feed-per-tooth values were used during the tests. Cutting force, channel shape and burr dimension were investigated. Morphological and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were performed on tools by means of a scanning electron microscope (SEM): in this way the phenomena mainly influencing the tool status were also identified. Lower cutting forces and reduced tool wear were observed when working fully lamellar microstructures compared to the other ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Dislocation Energetics and Pop-Ins in AlN Thin Films by Berkovich Nanoindentation
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4259-4267; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094259
Received: 31 July 2013 / Revised: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (496 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanoindentation-induced multiple pop-ins were observed in the load-displacement curves when the mechanical responses of AlN films grown on c-plane sapphire substrates were investigated by using Berkovich indenters. No evidence of phase transformation is revealed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and selected
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Nanoindentation-induced multiple pop-ins were observed in the load-displacement curves when the mechanical responses of AlN films grown on c-plane sapphire substrates were investigated by using Berkovich indenters. No evidence of phase transformation is revealed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD) analyses. Instead XTEM observations suggest that these “instabilities” resulted from the sudden nucleation of dislocations propagating along the slip systems lying on the {0001} basal planes and the pyramidal planes commonly observed in hexagonal compound semiconductors. Based on this scenario, an energetic estimation of dislocation nucleation is made. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Co-Dispersion Behavior of ZrB2–SiC–B4C–C Powders with Polyethyleneimine
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4249-4258; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094249
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 20 August 2013 / Accepted: 20 August 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (957 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aqueous dispersion behavior of ZrB2, SiC powders with B4C and C as sintering aids was investigated. Well co-dispersed suspension can be obtained in acidic solutions in presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). The adsorption of PEI on the powder surface
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The aqueous dispersion behavior of ZrB2, SiC powders with B4C and C as sintering aids was investigated. Well co-dispersed suspension can be obtained in acidic solutions in presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). The adsorption of PEI on the powder surface was measured by thermal gravimetric (TG) analysis. Rheological measurements displayed the effect of dispersant on the flow behavior of as-prepared slurries. An optimum condition was obtained with 1 wt % PEI. The viscosity of 40 vol % ZrB2–SiC–B4C–C (ZSBC) suspension at 100 s−1 was as low as 0.74 Pa·s, which was suitable for aqueous processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultra-high Temperature Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle Unified Formulation for a Triaxial Elastoplastic Constitutive Law for Concrete
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4226-4248; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094226
Received: 14 June 2013 / Revised: 22 August 2013 / Accepted: 6 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1869 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A constitutive model to describe the triaxial load-response spectrum of plain concrete in both tension and shear was developed. The inelastic phenomena are described using the plastic flow with direction determined by the gradient of the plastic potential. A new plastic potential is
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A constitutive model to describe the triaxial load-response spectrum of plain concrete in both tension and shear was developed. The inelastic phenomena are described using the plastic flow with direction determined by the gradient of the plastic potential. A new plastic potential is introduced and experimentally fitted to ensure better estimate of the load direction. This approach allows to control the inelastic dilatancy in terms of the inelastic deformation of the material. By overlaying the plastic potential on modified Etse and Willam’s yield surface (both defined on the Haigh–Westergaard coordinates), the results showed that the two curves do not undergo similar stress states for a given strength level. It is, therefore, necessary that each surface goes through the current stress state to ensure adequate evaluation of normal vectors. A closed-form solution to accurately predict the triaxial stress state in concrete has been proposed. The predictive capabilities of the proposed model are evaluated by comparing predicted and measured stresses. The proposed model is shown to be accurate in predicting stress state of concrete. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Behavior of Composite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Healing of Fatigue Crack by High-Density Electropulsing in Austenitic Stainless Steel Treated with the Surface-Activated Pre-Coating
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4213-4225; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094213
Received: 22 August 2013 / Revised: 14 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (858 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A technique to heal a fatigue crack in austenitic stainless steel SUS316 by applying a controlled, high-density pulsed current was developed. A surface-activated pre-coating (SAPC), which eliminates the oxide layer and coats a Ni film on the crack surface, was used to improve
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A technique to heal a fatigue crack in austenitic stainless steel SUS316 by applying a controlled, high-density pulsed current was developed. A surface-activated pre-coating (SAPC), which eliminates the oxide layer and coats a Ni film on the crack surface, was used to improve the adhesion between crack surfaces. Cracks were observed by scanning electron microscopy before and after the application of high-density electropulsing. To evaluate the healing effect of the SAPC during crack propagation, fatigue tests were conducted under a constant stress intensity factor. The fatigue crack treated with the SAPC was found to be effectively healed as a result of electropulsing, and also showed a slower rate of crack propagation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Morphology Studies of Nano Zinc Oxide Obtained Using Native and Modified Chitosans
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4198-4212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094198
Received: 17 July 2013 / Revised: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nano zinc oxide (ZnO) with moderate surface area and high pore volume were prepared using a facile preparation method. Chitosan was utilized as both chelating and structure directing agent. The application of chitosans in this study suggested that even biowastes can be served
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Nano zinc oxide (ZnO) with moderate surface area and high pore volume were prepared using a facile preparation method. Chitosan was utilized as both chelating and structure directing agent. The application of chitosans in this study suggested that even biowastes can be served in a productive manner economically. The surface modification of chitosan was carried out in order to increase the interaction between chitosan and zinc ions. The effect of sodium chloroacetate and isopropyl alcohol on the surface modification process was also explored. FT-IR (Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer) and TGA (Thermogravimetric analyses) analyses revealed that modified chitosans are more stable than those of unmodified chitosan. Among surface modified chitosans, CMC1 (1.5 M sodium chloroacetate and 75% isopropyl alcohol) showed enhanced surface properties. Freundlich adsorption isotherms as preliminary studies confirmed that modified chitosan showed enhanced interaction with zinc ions. The interaction of zinc salt with chitosans produced a zinc-chitosan polymer. This finally cleaved upon calcination to produce nano ZnO. The effects of different calcination temperatures indicated that 450 °C is the optimum calcination temperature to produce the nano ZnO with favored surface area (15.45 m2/g) and pore size (221.40 nm). SEM (Scanning electron microscope) and TEM (Transmission electron microscope) of ZnO indicated that uniform particle and shape distributions were obtained at low calcination temperature (450 °C). Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Thermal Treatment on Fracture Properties and Adsorption Properties of Spruce Wood
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4186-4197; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094186
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 2 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (906 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of thermal treatment on spruce is examined by analyzing the fracture and hygroscopic properties. Specimens were heated at temperatures within the range 120–200 °C for 1 h. Fracture energy was measured using a single-edge notched bending test and the strain-softening index
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The effect of thermal treatment on spruce is examined by analyzing the fracture and hygroscopic properties. Specimens were heated at temperatures within the range 120–200 °C for 1 h. Fracture energy was measured using a single-edge notched bending test and the strain-softening index was estimated by dividing the fracture energy by the maximum load. Adsorption properties were estimated using adsorption isotherms. Fiber saturation points (FSPs) were estimated by extrapolating the moisture adsorption isotherm curve. Langmuir’s adsorption coefficient and number of adsorption sites were obtained using Langmuir’s theory and the Hailwood-Horrobin theory, respectively. The fracture energy, FSPs, and specimen weights decreased at temperatures higher than 150 °C, but the critical point for the strain-softening index and the number of adsorption sites was shown to be 180 °C. We hypothesize that the fracture energy and FSP depend on the chemical structure of the cell wall, whereas the strain-softening behavior may be influenced by the number of adsorption sites, and in turn the number of hydrogen bonds in hemicellulose. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Th(IV) Adsorption onto Oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Presence of Hydroxylated Fullerene and Carboxylated Fullerene
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4168-4185; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094168
Received: 15 June 2013 / Revised: 18 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The adsorption of Th(IV) onto the surface of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) in the absence and presence of hydroxylated fullerene (C60(OH)n) and carboxylated fullerene (C60(C(COOH)2)n) has been investigated. C60(OH)n
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The adsorption of Th(IV) onto the surface of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) in the absence and presence of hydroxylated fullerene (C60(OH)n) and carboxylated fullerene (C60(C(COOH)2)n) has been investigated. C60(OH)n, C60(C(COOH)2)n and oMWCNTs have been chosen as model phases because of their representative in carbon nano-materials family. Adsorption experiments were performed by batch procedure as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, and temperature. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Th(IV) was rapidly reached equilibrium and the kinetic process could be described by a pseudo-second-order rate model very well. Th(IV) adsorption on oMWCNTs was dependent on pH but independent on ionic strength. Adsorption isotherms were correlated better with the Langmuir model than with the Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms suggested that Th(IV) adsorption on oMWCNTs was spontaneous and endothermic. Compared with the adsorption of Th(IV) on the same oMWCNTs free of C60(OH)n or C60(C(COOH)2)n, the study of a ternary system showed the inhibition effect of C60(OH)n at high concentration on the adsorption of Th(IV) in a pH range from neutral to slightly alkaline; whereas the promotion effect of C60(C(COOH)2)n, even at its low concentration, on Th(IV) adsorption was observed in acid medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessReview SBA-15 Mesoporous Silica as Catalytic Support for Hydrodesulfurization Catalysts—Review
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4139-4167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094139
Received: 5 May 2013 / Revised: 27 August 2013 / Accepted: 28 August 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 65 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
SBA-15 is an interesting mesoporous silica material having highly ordered nanopores and a large surface area, which is widely employed as catalyst supports, absorbents, drug delivery materials, etc. Since it has a lack of functionality, heteroatoms and organic functional groups have been incorporated
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SBA-15 is an interesting mesoporous silica material having highly ordered nanopores and a large surface area, which is widely employed as catalyst supports, absorbents, drug delivery materials, etc. Since it has a lack of functionality, heteroatoms and organic functional groups have been incorporated by direct or post-synthesis methods in order to modify their functionality. The aim of this article is to review the state-of-the-art related to the use of SBA-15-based mesoporous systems as supports for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mesoporous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle High Density Polyethylene Composites Reinforced with Hybrid Inorganic Fillers: Morphology, Mechanical and Thermal Expansion Performance
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4122-4138; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094122
Received: 26 May 2013 / Revised: 5 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (1069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of individual and combined talc and glass fibers (GFs) on mechanical and thermal expansion performance of the filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was studied. Several published models were adapted to fit the measured tensile modulus and strength of various composite
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The effect of individual and combined talc and glass fibers (GFs) on mechanical and thermal expansion performance of the filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites was studied. Several published models were adapted to fit the measured tensile modulus and strength of various composite systems. It was shown that the use of silane-modified GFs had a much larger effect in improving mechanical properties and in reducing linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) values of filled composites, compared with the use of un-modified talc particles due to enhanced bonding to the matrix, larger aspect ratio, and fiber alignment for GFs. Mechanical properties and LCTE values of composites with combined talc and GF fillers varied with talc and GF ratio at a given total filler loading level. The use of a larger portion of GFs in the mix can lead to better composite performance, while the use of talc can help lower the composite costs and increase its recyclability. The use of 30 wt % combined filler seems necessary to control LCTE values of filled HDPE in the data value range generally reported for commercial wood plastic composites. Tensile modulus for talc-filled composite can be predicted with rule of mixture, while a PPA-based model can be used to predict the modulus and strength of GF-filled composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Constitutive Behavior of Composite Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Tension and Puncture Properties of HDPE Geomembrane under the Corrosion of Leachate
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4109-4121; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094109
Received: 29 July 2013 / Revised: 28 August 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
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Abstract
To investigate the gradual failure of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane as a result of long-term corrosion, four dynamic corrosion tests were conducted at different temperatures and durations. By combining tension and puncture tests, we systematically studied the variation law of tension and puncture
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To investigate the gradual failure of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane as a result of long-term corrosion, four dynamic corrosion tests were conducted at different temperatures and durations. By combining tension and puncture tests, we systematically studied the variation law of tension and puncture properties of the HDPE geomembrane under different corrosion conditions. Results showed that tension and puncture failure of the HDPE geomembrane was progressive, and tensile strength in the longitudinal grain direction was evidently better than that in the transverse direction. Punctures appeared shortly after puncture force reached the puncture strength. The tensile strength of geomembrane was in inversely proportional to the corrosion time, and the impact of corrosion was more obvious in the longitudinal direction than transverse direction. As corrosion time increased, puncture strength decreased and corresponding deformation increased. As with corrosion time, the increase of corrosion temperature induced the decrease of geomembrane tensile strength. Tensile and puncture strength were extremely sensitive to temperature. Overall, residual strength had a negative correlation with corrosion time or temperature. Elongation variation increased initially and then decreased with the increase in temperature. However, it did not show significant law with corrosion time. The reduction in puncture strength and the increase in puncture deformation had positive correlations with corrosion time or temperature. The geomembrane softened under corrosion condition. The conclusion may be applicable to the proper designing of the HDPE geomembrane in landfill barrier system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Complete Permittivity Tensor in Sputtered CuFe2O4 Thin Films at Photon Energies between 2 and 5 eV
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4096-4108; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094096
Received: 26 July 2013 / Revised: 19 August 2013 / Accepted: 26 August 2013 / Published: 16 September 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work is devoted to the systematic study of the optical and magneto-optical properties of sputter deposited CuFe2O4 thin films in the photon energy region between 2 and 5 eV using spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopy. The spectral dependence
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This work is devoted to the systematic study of the optical and magneto-optical properties of sputter deposited CuFe2O4 thin films in the photon energy region between 2 and 5 eV using spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopy. The spectral dependence of both the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of the permittivity tensor is determined. A complete picture about the electron transitions in CuFe2O4 is suggested in the frame of intervalence charge transfer and intersublattice charge transfer transitions. The effect of deposition conditions and post-deposition treatment in CuFe2O4 films upon the optical and magneto-optical properties is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Aqueous ZrO2 and YSZ Colloidal Systems through Microwave Assisted Hydrothermal Synthesis
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4082-4095; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094082
Received: 9 July 2013 / Revised: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 16 September 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the formation of ZrO2 and yttria-stabilised-zirconia (YSZ) aqueous colloidal systems via microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis is studied. Microwave synthesis allows a fast screening of the influence of different parameters such as time and temperature. The temperature varied from 140
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In this paper, the formation of ZrO2 and yttria-stabilised-zirconia (YSZ) aqueous colloidal systems via microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis is studied. Microwave synthesis allows a fast screening of the influence of different parameters such as time and temperature. The temperature varied from 140 °C up to 180 °C and the used reaction time varied from 5 min up to 1 h. The synthesised zirconia nanoparticles have a particle size of 50 nm confirmed by TEM. A 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) study helped to understand the stabilization mechanism of the synthesised particles. By the addition of ytrrium ions into the zirconia colloidal solution, YSZ could be formed via an additional thermal treatment. Hereby, the samples are heated up to 400 °C for 1 h. YSZ colloidal solutions are synthesised by making use of complexing agents such as nitrilotriacetic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and citric acid to control the hydrolysis and condensation of both ions to avoid non-stoichiometric phases. The ratio of Zr/Y in the particles is quantified by XRF. The amorphous structure of those particles necessitates an additional thermal treatment up to 600 °C during 1 h in order to obtain crystalline YSZ. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on Cementitious Composites Embedded with Organic Microcapsules
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4064-4081; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094064
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 20 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 16 September 2013
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recovery behavior for strength and impermeability of cementitious composites embedded with organic microcapsules was investigated in this study. Mortar specimens were formed by mixing the organic microcapsules and a catalyst with cement and sand. The mechanical behaviors of flexural and compression strength
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The recovery behavior for strength and impermeability of cementitious composites embedded with organic microcapsules was investigated in this study. Mortar specimens were formed by mixing the organic microcapsules and a catalyst with cement and sand. The mechanical behaviors of flexural and compression strength were tested. The results showed that strength could increase by up to nine percent with the addition of a small amount of microcapsules and then decrease with an increasing amount of microcapsules. An orthogonal test for investigating the strength recovery rate was designed and implemented for bending and compression using the factors of water/cement ratio, amount of microcapsules, and preloading rate. It is shown that the amount of microcapsules plays a key role in the strength recovery rate. Chloride ion permeability tests were also carried out to investigate the recovery rate and healing effect. The initial damage was obtained by subjecting the specimens to compression. Both the recovery rate and the healing effect were nearly proportional to the amount of microcapsules. The obtained cementitious composites can be seen as self-healing owing to their recovery behavior for both strength and permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-healing Concrete)
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Open AccessReview Consolidation of Hierarchy-Structured Nanopowder Agglomerates and Its Application to Net-Shaping Nanopowder Materials
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4046-4063; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma6094046
Received: 5 August 2013 / Revised: 6 September 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 16 September 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1719 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper provides an overview on our recent investigations on the consolidation of hierarchy-structured nanopowder agglomerates and related applications to net-shaping nanopowder materials. Understanding the nanopowder agglomerate sintering (NAS) process is essential to processing of net-shaped nanopowder materials and components with small and
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This paper provides an overview on our recent investigations on the consolidation of hierarchy-structured nanopowder agglomerates and related applications to net-shaping nanopowder materials. Understanding the nanopowder agglomerate sintering (NAS) process is essential to processing of net-shaped nanopowder materials and components with small and complex shape. The key concept of the NAS process is to enhance material transport through controlling the powder interface volume of nanopowder agglomerates. Based upon this concept, we have suggested a new idea of full density processing for fabricating micro-powder injection molded part using metal nanopowder agglomerates produced by hydrogen reduction of metal oxide powders. Studies on the full density sintering of die compacted- and powder injection molded iron base nano-agglomerate powders are introduced and discussed in terms of densification process and microstructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Net-shaped PM (Powder Metallurgical) Parts)
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