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Special Issue "Self-healing Concrete"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2013)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Toshiharu Kishi (Website)

Department of Human and Social Systems(Civil Engineering),Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Interests: durability of concrete structures; crack self-healing concrete; microstructure and permeation in hardened cementitious materials; fluidity of fresh mortar and concrete; inspection of surface quality of concrete

Special Issue Information

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Evaluation and Observation of Autogenous Healing Ability of Bond Cracks along Rebar
Materials 2014, 7(4), 3136-3146; doi:10.3390/ma7043136
Received: 10 January 2014 / Revised: 22 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 17 April 2014
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Abstract
Micro cracks occurring in concrete around tensile rebar is well known latent damage phenomenon. These micro cracks develop, and can be detected after reaching the surface of the concrete. Detection of these cracks before they are fully formed is preferable, but observing [...] Read more.
Micro cracks occurring in concrete around tensile rebar is well known latent damage phenomenon. These micro cracks develop, and can be detected after reaching the surface of the concrete. Detection of these cracks before they are fully formed is preferable, but observing the whole crack structure is difficult. Another problem is repairing micro cracks under the concrete surface. The autogenous ability of bond cracks along rebar was evaluated using the air permeability test. Air permeability coefficients were measured before and after tensile loading, and experimental air permeability coefficients became larger near cracks along rebar as a result of tensile loading. Recuring for 28 days after tensile loading made the air permeability coefficients smaller, but this restriction only occurred during water recuring. Observation of crack patterns helped the understanding of change in the air permeability coefficients. Several small cracks along rebar were observed after tensile loading, and most cracks along rebar were not found after water recuring. On the other hand, the crack pattern did not change after air recuring. These results indicate that bond cracks along rebar can be closed by autogenous healing, and cause the air permeability coefficients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-healing Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Self-Healing Capability of Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites for Recovery of Watertightness and Mechanical Properties
Materials 2014, 7(3), 2141-2154; doi:10.3390/ma7032141
Received: 30 November 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 13 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1148 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Various types of fiber reinforced cementitious composites (FRCCs) were experimentally studied to evaluate their self-healing capabilities regarding their watertightness and mechanical properties. Cracks were induced in the FRCC specimens during a tensile loading test, and the specimens were then immersed in static [...] Read more.
Various types of fiber reinforced cementitious composites (FRCCs) were experimentally studied to evaluate their self-healing capabilities regarding their watertightness and mechanical properties. Cracks were induced in the FRCC specimens during a tensile loading test, and the specimens were then immersed in static water for self-healing. By water permeability and reloading tests, it was determined that the FRCCs containing synthetic fiber and cracks of width within a certain range (<0.1 mm) exhibited good self-healing capabilities regarding their watertightness. Particularly, the high polarity of the synthetic fiber (polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)) series and hybrid fiber reinforcing (polyethylene (PE) and steel code (SC)) series showed high recovery ratio. Moreover, these series also showed high potential of self-healing of mechanical properties. It was confirmed that recovery of mechanical property could be obtained only in case when crack width was sufficiently narrow, both the visible surface cracks and the very fine cracks around the bridging of the SC fibers. Recovery of the bond strength by filling of the very fine cracks around the bridging fibers enhanced the recovery of the mechanical property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-healing Concrete)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on Cementitious Composites Embedded with Organic Microcapsules
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4064-4081; doi:10.3390/ma6094064
Received: 12 July 2013 / Revised: 20 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 September 2013 / Published: 16 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (971 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The recovery behavior for strength and impermeability of cementitious composites embedded with organic microcapsules was investigated in this study. Mortar specimens were formed by mixing the organic microcapsules and a catalyst with cement and sand. The mechanical behaviors of flexural and compression [...] Read more.
The recovery behavior for strength and impermeability of cementitious composites embedded with organic microcapsules was investigated in this study. Mortar specimens were formed by mixing the organic microcapsules and a catalyst with cement and sand. The mechanical behaviors of flexural and compression strength were tested. The results showed that strength could increase by up to nine percent with the addition of a small amount of microcapsules and then decrease with an increasing amount of microcapsules. An orthogonal test for investigating the strength recovery rate was designed and implemented for bending and compression using the factors of water/cement ratio, amount of microcapsules, and preloading rate. It is shown that the amount of microcapsules plays a key role in the strength recovery rate. Chloride ion permeability tests were also carried out to investigate the recovery rate and healing effect. The initial damage was obtained by subjecting the specimens to compression. Both the recovery rate and the healing effect were nearly proportional to the amount of microcapsules. The obtained cementitious composites can be seen as self-healing owing to their recovery behavior for both strength and permeability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-healing Concrete)
Open AccessArticle Self-Healing of Microcracks in Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) Under a Natural Environment
Materials 2013, 6(7), 2831-2845; doi:10.3390/ma6072831
Received: 5 June 2013 / Revised: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 July 2013 / Published: 15 July 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper builds on previous self-healing engineered cementitious composites (ECC) research by allowing ECC to heal outdoors, in the natural environment, under random and sometimes extreme environmental conditions. Development of an ECC material that can heal itself in the natural environment could [...] Read more.
This paper builds on previous self-healing engineered cementitious composites (ECC) research by allowing ECC to heal outdoors, in the natural environment, under random and sometimes extreme environmental conditions. Development of an ECC material that can heal itself in the natural environment could lower infrastructure maintenance costs and allow for more sustainable development in the future by increasing service life and decreasing the amount of resources and energy needed for repairs. Determining to what extent current ECC materials self-heal in the natural environment is the first step in the development of an ECC that can completely heal itself when exposed to everyday environmental conditions. This study monitored outdoor ECC specimens for one year using resonant frequency (RF) and mechanical reloading to determine the rate and extent of self-healing in the natural environment. It was found that the level of RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery increased as the duration of natural environment exposure increased. For specimens that underwent multiple damage cycles, it was found that the level of recovery was highly dependent on the average temperature and amount of precipitation between each damage event. However, RF, stiffness, and first cracking strength recovery data for specimens that underwent multiple loading cycles suggest that self-healing functionality can be maintained under multiple damage events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-healing Concrete)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Self-Healing in Cementitious Materials—A Review
Materials 2013, 6(6), 2182-2217; doi:10.3390/ma6062182
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 19 April 2013 / Accepted: 25 April 2013 / Published: 27 May 2013
Cited by 59 | PDF Full-text (1275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Concrete is very sensitive to crack formation. As wide cracks endanger the durability, repair may be required. However, these repair works raise the life-cycle cost of concrete as they are labor intensive and because the structure becomes in disuse during repair. In [...] Read more.
Concrete is very sensitive to crack formation. As wide cracks endanger the durability, repair may be required. However, these repair works raise the life-cycle cost of concrete as they are labor intensive and because the structure becomes in disuse during repair. In 1994, C. Dry was the first who proposed the intentional introduction of self-healing properties in concrete. In the following years, several researchers started to investigate this topic. The goal of this review is to provide an in-depth comparison of the different self-healing approaches which are available today. Among these approaches, some are aimed at improving the natural mechanism of autogenous crack healing, while others are aimed at modifying concrete by embedding capsules with suitable healing agents so that cracks heal in a completely autonomous way after they appear. In this review, special attention is paid to the types of healing agents and capsules used. In addition, the various methodologies have been evaluated based on the trigger mechanism used and attention has been paid to the properties regained due to self-healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-healing Concrete)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessConcept Paper Mechanical Characterization of High-Performance Steel-Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites with Self-Healing Effect
Materials 2014, 7(1), 508-526; doi:10.3390/ma7010508
Received: 10 December 2013 / Revised: 2 January 2014 / Accepted: 7 January 2014 / Published: 20 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2408 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The crack self-healing behavior of high-performance steel-fiber reinforced cement composites (HPSFRCs) was investigated. High-strength deformed steel fibers were employed in a high strength mortar with very fine silica sand to decreasing the crack width by generating higher interfacial bond strength. The width [...] Read more.
The crack self-healing behavior of high-performance steel-fiber reinforced cement composites (HPSFRCs) was investigated. High-strength deformed steel fibers were employed in a high strength mortar with very fine silica sand to decreasing the crack width by generating higher interfacial bond strength. The width of micro-cracks, strongly affected by the type of fiber and sand, clearly produced the effects on the self-healing behavior. The use of fine silica sand in HPSFRCs with high strength deformed steel fibers successfully led to rapid healing owing to very fine cracks with width less than 20 µm. The use of very fine silica sand instead of normal sand produced 17%–19% higher tensile strength and 51%–58% smaller width of micro-cracks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-healing Concrete)

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