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Special Issue "Carbon Nanotubes"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Composites".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2013)

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Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Werner Blau (Website)

School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
Phone: 353 1 896 1708
Fax: +353 1 8962151

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Th(IV) Adsorption onto Oxidized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in the Presence of Hydroxylated Fullerene and Carboxylated Fullerene
Materials 2013, 6(9), 4168-4185; doi:10.3390/ma6094168
Received: 15 June 2013 / Revised: 18 August 2013 / Accepted: 22 August 2013 / Published: 17 September 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (808 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The adsorption of Th(IV) onto the surface of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) in the absence and presence of hydroxylated fullerene (C60(OH)n) and carboxylated fullerene (C60(C(COOH)2)n) has been investigated. C60(OH) [...] Read more.
The adsorption of Th(IV) onto the surface of oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (oMWCNTs) in the absence and presence of hydroxylated fullerene (C60(OH)n) and carboxylated fullerene (C60(C(COOH)2)n) has been investigated. C60(OH)n, C60(C(COOH)2)n and oMWCNTs have been chosen as model phases because of their representative in carbon nano-materials family. Adsorption experiments were performed by batch procedure as a function of contact time, pH, ionic strength, and temperature. The results demonstrated that the adsorption of Th(IV) was rapidly reached equilibrium and the kinetic process could be described by a pseudo-second-order rate model very well. Th(IV) adsorption on oMWCNTs was dependent on pH but independent on ionic strength. Adsorption isotherms were correlated better with the Langmuir model than with the Freundlich model. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from temperature-dependent adsorption isotherms suggested that Th(IV) adsorption on oMWCNTs was spontaneous and endothermic. Compared with the adsorption of Th(IV) on the same oMWCNTs free of C60(OH)n or C60(C(COOH)2)n, the study of a ternary system showed the inhibition effect of C60(OH)n at high concentration on the adsorption of Th(IV) in a pH range from neutral to slightly alkaline; whereas the promotion effect of C60(C(COOH)2)n, even at its low concentration, on Th(IV) adsorption was observed in acid medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
Open AccessArticle Effects on the Thermo-Mechanical and Crystallinity Properties of Nylon 6,6 Electrospun Fibres Reinforced with One Dimensional (1D) and Two Dimensional (2D) Carbon
Materials 2013, 6(8), 3494-3513; doi:10.3390/ma6083494
Received: 30 April 2013 / Revised: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 14 August 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1994 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Electrospun one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, [...] Read more.
Electrospun one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, oxidised carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. Functional groups associated with the order structure of the polymers are analysed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies; the morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy and the crystallinity properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Differences in crystallisation behaviour between 1D and 2D carbon based nanofibres are shown by their crystallinity degree and their crystal sizes. The nanocomposite crystal sizes perpendicular to the plane (100) decrease with nanofiller content in all cases. The crystallinity trend and crystal sizes are in accordance with storage modulus response. The results also suggest that functionalisation favours interfacial bonding and dispersion of the nanomaterials within the polymer matrix. As a consequence the number of nucleating sites increases which in turn decreases the crystal size in the nanocomposites. These features explain the improved thermo-mechanical properties in the nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Local Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes in Silicon Microsystems: The Effect of Temperature Distribution on Growth Structure
Materials 2013, 6(8), 3160-3170; doi:10.3390/ma6083160
Received: 21 May 2013 / Revised: 19 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 26 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Local synthesis and direct integration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into microsystems is a promising method for producing CNT-based devices in a single step, low-cost, and wafer-level, CMOS/MEMS-compatible process. In this report, the structure of the locally grown CNTs are studied by transmission [...] Read more.
Local synthesis and direct integration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into microsystems is a promising method for producing CNT-based devices in a single step, low-cost, and wafer-level, CMOS/MEMS-compatible process. In this report, the structure of the locally grown CNTs are studied by transmission imaging in scanning electron microscopy—S(T)EM. The characterization is performed directly on the microsystem, without any post-synthesis processing required. The results show an effect of temperature on the structure of CNTs: high temperature favors thin and regular structures, whereas low temperature favors “bamboo-like” structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
Open AccessArticle UV Spectrometric Indirect Analysis of Brominated MWCNTs with UV Active Thiols and an Alkene—Reaction Kinetics, Quantification and Differentiation of Adsorbed Bromine and Oxygen
Materials 2013, 6(8), 3035-3063; doi:10.3390/ma6083035
Received: 30 April 2013 / Revised: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
PDF Full-text (803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Indirect UV-absorption spectrometry was shown to be a valuable tool for chemical characterization of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It complements data from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or FTIR analysis since it helps to clarify the type and concentration of functional groups. The [...] Read more.
Indirect UV-absorption spectrometry was shown to be a valuable tool for chemical characterization of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It complements data from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) or FTIR analysis since it helps to clarify the type and concentration of functional groups. The principles of indirect application of UV-spectrometry and its mathematical interpretation are discussed. Their facile application, together with their adequate sensitivity and high flexibility, make UV-absorption-based approaches a valuable alternative to fluorescence spectrometry. Here, the approach was applied to the chemical analysis of oxidizing substances on CNTs. For this, pristine CNTs of low but finite oxygen content as well as brominated CNTs were analyzed by reaction in suspension with UV-active thiol reagents and a styrene derivative. It was shown that carefully selected reagents allow differentiation and quantification of bromine and generally oxidizing entities like oxygen. For brominated CNTs, it was shown that physisorbed bromine may dominate the overall bromine content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Enrichment of Large-Diameter Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) with Metallo-Octaethylporphyrins
Materials 2013, 6(8), 3064-3078; doi:10.3390/ma6083064
Received: 25 March 2013 / Revised: 2 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (905 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We report here a detailed experimental investigation on noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with four different metallo-octaethylporphyrins (MOEPs). It has been found that the identity of the center metal of MOEP strongly influences the solubilization of SWNTs. MnOEPs and ZnOEPs [...] Read more.
We report here a detailed experimental investigation on noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with four different metallo-octaethylporphyrins (MOEPs). It has been found that the identity of the center metal of MOEP strongly influences the solubilization of SWNTs. MnOEPs and ZnOEPs successfully extracted SWNTs in methanol, as confirmed by absorption spectroscopy, while CoOEPs and CuOEPs were not able to extract SWNTs at all. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies revealed that large SWNTs bundles could be exfoliated into either individual SWNTs or very small bundles by complexation with ZnOEP molecules. As for enrichment of SWNTs, ZnOEPs and MnOEPs show similar diameter discrimination ability toward 76-CoMoCAT, providing the extracted SWNTs with relatively large diameters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Integration of Carbon Nanotubes in Microsystems: Local Growth and Electrical Properties of Contacts
Materials 2013, 6(8), 3094-3107; doi:10.3390/ma6083094
Received: 30 April 2013 / Revised: 10 July 2013 / Accepted: 18 July 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (932 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been directly grown onto a silicon microsystem by a local synthesis method. This method has potential for wafer-level complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistor-compatible integration of CNTs into more complex Si microsystems; enabling, e.g., gas sensors at low cost. In [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been directly grown onto a silicon microsystem by a local synthesis method. This method has potential for wafer-level complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistor-compatible integration of CNTs into more complex Si microsystems; enabling, e.g., gas sensors at low cost. In this work, we demonstrate that the characteristics of CNTs grown on specific locations can be changed by tuning the synthesis conditions. We also investigate the role of the contact between CNTs and the Si microsystem; observing a large influence on the electrical characteristics of our devices. Different contact modes can render either an ohmic or Schottky-like rectifying characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes of Few Walls Using Aliphatic Alcohols as a Carbon Source
Materials 2013, 6(6), 2534-2542; doi:10.3390/ma6062534
Received: 19 April 2013 / Revised: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 9 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2859 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes with single and few walls are highly appreciated for their technological applications, regardless of the limited availability due to their high production cost. In this paper we present an alternative process that can lead to lowering the manufacturing cost of [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes with single and few walls are highly appreciated for their technological applications, regardless of the limited availability due to their high production cost. In this paper we present an alternative process that can lead to lowering the manufacturing cost of CNTs of only few walls by means of the use of the spray pyrolysis technique. For this purpose, ferrocene is utilized as a catalyst and aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol or butanol) as the carbon source. The characterization of CNTs was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The study of the synthesized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) show important differences in the number of layers that constitute the nanotubes, the diameter length, the quantity and the quality as a function of the number of carbons employed in the alcohol. The main interest of this study is to give the basis of an efficient synthesis process to produce CNTs of few walls for applications where small diameter is required. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Structural Properties of Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Thin Films
Materials 2013, 6(6), 2360-2371; doi:10.3390/ma6062360
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 5 June 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (496 KB) | XML Full-text
Abstract
Buckypapers are thin sheets of randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, which are highly porous networks. They are strong candidates for a number of applications, such as reinforcing materials for composites. In this work, buckypapers were produced from multiwall carbon nanotubes, pre-treated by two [...] Read more.
Buckypapers are thin sheets of randomly entangled carbon nanotubes, which are highly porous networks. They are strong candidates for a number of applications, such as reinforcing materials for composites. In this work, buckypapers were produced from multiwall carbon nanotubes, pre-treated by two different chemical processes, either an oxidation or an epoxidation reaction. Properties, such as porosity, the mechanical and electrical response are investigated. It was found that the chemical pretreatment of carbon nanotubes strongly affects the structural properties of the buckypapers and, consecutively, their mechanical and electrical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
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Open AccessArticle Dynamic Behavior of Nanocomposites Reinforced with Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)
Materials 2013, 6(6), 2274-2284; doi:10.3390/ma6062274
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 28 May 2013 / Accepted: 30 May 2013 / Published: 3 June 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (448 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the structural dynamic behavior of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Two different types of MWCNTs, pristine MWCNT and functionalized MWCNT, were used in this study. Carboxylic acid-functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNT-COOH) were obtained by oxidation pristine MWCNTs [...] Read more.
The influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on the structural dynamic behavior of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites was investigated. Two different types of MWCNTs, pristine MWCNT and functionalized MWCNT, were used in this study. Carboxylic acid-functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNT-COOH) were obtained by oxidation pristine MWCNTs via sonication in sulfuric-nitric acid and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Dynamic behaviors of the MWCNT reinforced nanocomposite including the natural frequency and damping ratio were determined using free vibration test. Experimental results showed that the damping ratio of the nanocomposite decreases with the increase of the MWCNT addition, while the natural frequency is increasing with the increase of the MWCNT addition. Functionalized MWCNTs improved the interfacial bonding between the nanotubes and epoxy resin resulting in the reduction of the interfacial energy dissipation ability and enhancement of the stiffness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
Open AccessCommunication Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition of Horizontally Aligned Carbon Nanotubes
Materials 2013, 6(6), 2262-2273; doi:10.3390/ma6062262
Received: 10 May 2013 / Revised: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 31 May 2013
PDF Full-text (1277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor has been developed to synthesis horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes. The width of the aligning sheath was modelled based on a collisionless, quasi-neutral, Child’s law ion sheath where these estimates were empirically validated by direct Langmuir probe [...] Read more.
A plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition reactor has been developed to synthesis horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes. The width of the aligning sheath was modelled based on a collisionless, quasi-neutral, Child’s law ion sheath where these estimates were empirically validated by direct Langmuir probe measurements, thereby confirming the proposed reactors ability to extend the existing sheath fields by up to 7 mm. A 7 mbar growth atmosphere combined with a 25 W plasma permitted the concurrent growth and alignment of carbon nanotubes with electric fields of the order of 0.04 V μm−1 with linear packing densities of up to ~5 × 104 cm−1. These results open up the potential for multi-directional in situ alignment of carbon nanotubes providing one viable route to the fabrication of many novel optoelectronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Structural Polymer-Based Carbon Nanotube Composite Fibers: Understanding the Processing–Structure–Performance Relationship
Materials 2013, 6(6), 2543-2577; doi:10.3390/ma6062543
Received: 2 May 2013 / Revised: 21 May 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 20 June 2013
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (2476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among the many potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT), its usage to strengthen polymers has been paid considerable attention due to the exceptional stiffness, excellent strength, and the low density of CNT. This has provided numerous opportunities for the invention of new [...] Read more.
Among the many potential applications of carbon nanotubes (CNT), its usage to strengthen polymers has been paid considerable attention due to the exceptional stiffness, excellent strength, and the low density of CNT. This has provided numerous opportunities for the invention of new material systems for applications requiring high strength and high modulus. Precise control over processing factors, including preserving intact CNT structure, uniform dispersion of CNT within the polymer matrix, effective filler–matrix interfacial interactions, and alignment/orientation of polymer chains/CNT, contribute to the composite fibers’ superior properties. For this reason, fabrication methods play an important role in determining the composite fibers’ microstructure and ultimate mechanical behavior. The current state-of-the-art polymer/CNT high-performance composite fibers, especially in regards to processing–structure–performance, are reviewed in this contribution. Future needs for material by design approaches for processing these nano-composite systems are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)
Open AccessReview Applications of Carbon Nanotubes for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes
Materials 2013, 6(3), 1138-1158; doi:10.3390/ma6031138
Received: 21 February 2013 / Revised: 18 March 2013 / Accepted: 18 March 2013 / Published: 21 March 2013
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (2057 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have displayed great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to their unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. The measured reversible lithium ion capacities of CNT-based anodes are considerably improved compared to the conventional graphite-based anodes. [...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have displayed great potential as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) due to their unique structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. The measured reversible lithium ion capacities of CNT-based anodes are considerably improved compared to the conventional graphite-based anodes. Additionally, the opened structure and enriched chirality of CNTs can help to improve the capacity and electrical transport in CNT-based LIBs. Therefore, the modification of CNTs and design of CNT structure provide strategies for improving the performance of CNT-based anodes. CNTs could also be assembled into free-standing electrodes without any binder or current collector, which will lead to increased specific energy density for the overall battery design. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of lithium ion intercalation and diffusion in CNTs, and the influence of different structures and morphologies on their performance as anode materials for LIBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanotubes)

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