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Materials 2013, 6(9), 4198-4212; doi:10.3390/ma6094198
Article

Preparation and Morphology Studies of Nano Zinc Oxide Obtained Using Native and Modified Chitosans

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Received: 17 July 2013; in revised form: 26 August 2013 / Accepted: 16 September 2013 / Published: 18 September 2013
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Abstract: Nano zinc oxide (ZnO) with moderate surface area and high pore volume were prepared using a facile preparation method. Chitosan was utilized as both chelating and structure directing agent. The application of chitosans in this study suggested that even biowastes can be served in a productive manner economically. The surface modification of chitosan was carried out in order to increase the interaction between chitosan and zinc ions. The effect of sodium chloroacetate and isopropyl alcohol on the surface modification process was also explored. FT-IR (Fourier transform-infrared spectrometer) and TGA (Thermogravimetric analyses) analyses revealed that modified chitosans are more stable than those of unmodified chitosan. Among surface modified chitosans, CMC1 (1.5 M sodium chloroacetate and 75% isopropyl alcohol) showed enhanced surface properties. Freundlich adsorption isotherms as preliminary studies confirmed that modified chitosan showed enhanced interaction with zinc ions. The interaction of zinc salt with chitosans produced a zinc-chitosan polymer. This finally cleaved upon calcination to produce nano ZnO. The effects of different calcination temperatures indicated that 450 °C is the optimum calcination temperature to produce the nano ZnO with favored surface area (15.45 m2/g) and pore size (221.40 nm). SEM (Scanning electron microscope) and TEM (Transmission electron microscope) of ZnO indicated that uniform particle and shape distributions were obtained at low calcination temperature (450 °C).
Keywords: chitosans; modification; nano ZnO; SEM; BET chitosans; modification; nano ZnO; SEM; BET
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Thirumavalavan, M.; Huang, K.-L.; Lee, J.-F. Preparation and Morphology Studies of Nano Zinc Oxide Obtained Using Native and Modified Chitosans. Materials 2013, 6, 4198-4212.

AMA Style

Thirumavalavan M, Huang K-L, Lee J-F. Preparation and Morphology Studies of Nano Zinc Oxide Obtained Using Native and Modified Chitosans. Materials. 2013; 6(9):4198-4212.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thirumavalavan, Munusamy; Huang, Kai-Lin; Lee, Jiunn-Fwu. 2013. "Preparation and Morphology Studies of Nano Zinc Oxide Obtained Using Native and Modified Chitosans." Materials 6, no. 9: 4198-4212.


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