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Molecules, Volume 23, Issue 7 (July 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Paeonol-Loaded Ethosomes as Transdermal Delivery Carriers: Design, Preparation and Evaluation
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1756; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071756 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Paeonol exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic as well as pain-relieving activities. However, its intrinsic properties, such as low water solubility, poor stability and low oral bioavailability, restrict its clinical application. The current study aimed to optimize paeonol-loaded
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Paeonol exhibits a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic as well as pain-relieving activities. However, its intrinsic properties, such as low water solubility, poor stability and low oral bioavailability, restrict its clinical application. The current study aimed to optimize paeonol-loaded ethosomal formulation and characterize it in terms of encapsulation efficiency (EE), vesicle size (VS), zeta potential (ZP) and polydispersity index (PDI), in addition to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) studies. Here, paeonol-loaded ethosomes were prepared by the injection method and optimized by the single-factor test and central composite design-response surface methodology. The optimized paeonol-loaded ethosomes had an EE of 84.33 ± 1.34%, VS of 120.2 ± 1.3 nm, negative charge of −16.8 ± 0.36 mV, and PDI of 0.131 ± 0.006. Ethosomes showed a spherical morphology under the transmission electron microscope (TEM). DSC, XRD and FT-IR results indicated that paeonol was successfully incorporated into the ethosomes. In-vitro transdermal absorption and skin retention of paeonol from paeonol-loaded ethosomes were 138.58 ± 9.60 µg/cm2 and 52.60 ± 7.90 µg/cm2, respectively. With reasonable skin tolerance, ethosomes could be a promising vehicle for transdermal delivery of paeonol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High-Resolution PTP1B Inhibition Profiling Combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for Identification of PTP1B Inhibitors from Miconia albicans
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1755; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071755 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 9 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an intracellular enzyme responsible for deactivation of the insulin receptor, and consequently acts as a negative regulator of insulin signal transduction. In recent years, PTP1B has become an important target for controlling insulin resistance and type 2
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Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an intracellular enzyme responsible for deactivation of the insulin receptor, and consequently acts as a negative regulator of insulin signal transduction. In recent years, PTP1B has become an important target for controlling insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In the present study, the ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Miconia albicans (IC50 = 4.92 µg/mL) was assessed by high-resolution PTP1B inhibition profiling combined with HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR for identification of antidiabetic compounds. This disclosed eleven PTP1B inhibitors, including five polyphenolics: 1-O-(E)-caffeoyl-4,6-di-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranose (2), myricetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (3), quercetin 3-O-(2″-galloyl)-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (5), mearnsetin 3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (6), and kaempferol 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside (8) as well as eight triterpenoids: maslinic acid (13), 3-epi-sumaresinolic acid (14), sumaresinolic acid (15), 3-O-cis-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid (16), 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl maslinic acid (17), 3-O-trans-p-coumaroyl 2α-hydroxydulcioic acid (18), oleanolic acid (19), and ursolic acid (20). These results support the use of M. albicans as a traditional medicine with antidiabetic properties and its potential as a source of PTP1B inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Pyrimidine-oxazolidin-2-arylimino Hybrid Molecules as Antibacterial Agents
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1754; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071754 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 July 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Pyrimidine-1,3-oxazolidin-2-arylimino hybrids have been synthesized as a new class of antibacterial agents. The synthetic approach exploits a Cu(II)-catalyzed intramolecular halkoxyhalogenation of alkynyl ureas, followed by a Suzuki coupling reaction with 2,4-dimethoxypyrimidin-5-boronic acid. Biological screenings revealed that most of the compounds showed moderate to
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Pyrimidine-1,3-oxazolidin-2-arylimino hybrids have been synthesized as a new class of antibacterial agents. The synthetic approach exploits a Cu(II)-catalyzed intramolecular halkoxyhalogenation of alkynyl ureas, followed by a Suzuki coupling reaction with 2,4-dimethoxypyrimidin-5-boronic acid. Biological screenings revealed that most of the compounds showed moderate to good activity against two Gram-positive (B. subtilis, S. aureus) and three Gram-negative (P. aeruginosa, S. typhi, K. pneumonia) pathogenic strains. A molecular docking study, performed in the crystal structure of 50S ribosomal unit of Haloarcula marismortui, indicated that pyrimidine-oxazolidin-2-arylimino hybrids 8c and 8h exhibited a high binding affinity (−9.65 and −10.74 kcal/mol), which was in agreement with their good antibacterial activity. The obtained results suggest that the combination of pyrimidine and oxazolidone moieties can be considered as a valid basis to develop new further modifications towards more efficacious antibacterial compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioorganic Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Synthesis and Biological Activity of Sterol 14α-Demethylase and Sterol C24-Methyltransferase Inhibitors
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1753; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071753 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Sterol 14α-demethylase (SDM) is essential for sterol biosynthesis and is the primary molecular target for clinical and agricultural antifungals. SDM has been demonstrated to be a valid drug target for antiprotozoal therapies, and much research has been focused on using SDM inhibitors to
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Sterol 14α-demethylase (SDM) is essential for sterol biosynthesis and is the primary molecular target for clinical and agricultural antifungals. SDM has been demonstrated to be a valid drug target for antiprotozoal therapies, and much research has been focused on using SDM inhibitors to treat neglected tropical diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis. Sterol C24-methyltransferase (24-SMT) introduces the C24-methyl group of ergosterol and is an enzyme found in pathogenic fungi and protozoa but is absent from animals. This difference in sterol metabolism has the potential to be exploited in the development of selective drugs that specifically target 24-SMT of invasive fungi or protozoa without adversely affecting the human or animal host. The synthesis and biological activity of SDM and 24-SMT inhibitors are reviewed herein. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-glycation, Carbonyl Trapping and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Chrysin Derivatives
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1752; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071752 (registering DOI)
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of this study was searching anti-glycation, carbonyl trapping and anti-inflammatory activities of chrysin derivatives. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) was investigated by trapping methylglyoxal (MGO), and MGO-conjugated adducts of chrysin were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The mono-
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The aim of this study was searching anti-glycation, carbonyl trapping and anti-inflammatory activities of chrysin derivatives. The inhibitory effect of chrysin on advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) was investigated by trapping methylglyoxal (MGO), and MGO-conjugated adducts of chrysin were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. The mono- or di-MGO-conjugated adducts of chrysin were present at 63.86 and 29.69% upon 48 h of incubation at a chrysin:MGO ratio of 1:10. The MGO adducted positions on chrysin were at carbon 6 or 6 & 8 in the A ring by classic aldol condensation. To provide applicable knowledge for developing chrysin derivatives as AGE inhibitors, we synthesized several O-alkyl or ester derivatives of chrysin and compared their AGE formation inhibitory, anti-inflammatory, and water solubility characteristics. The results showed that 5,7-di-O-acetylchrysin possessed higher AGE inhibitory and water solubility qualities than original chrysin, and retained the anti-inflammation activity. These results suggested that 5,7-di-O-acetylchrysin could be a potent functional food ingredient as an AGE inhibitor and anti-inflammatory agent, and promotes the development of the use of chrysin in functional foods. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Antiulcer Agents: From Plant Extracts to Phytochemicals in Healing Promotion
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071751 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
In this narrative review, we have comprehensively reviewed the plant sources used as antiulcer agents. From traditional uses as herbal remedies, we have moved on to preclinical evidence, critically discussing the in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on plant extracts and even
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In this narrative review, we have comprehensively reviewed the plant sources used as antiulcer agents. From traditional uses as herbal remedies, we have moved on to preclinical evidence, critically discussing the in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on plant extracts and even isolated phytochemicals with antiulcerogenic potential. A particular emphasis was also paid to Helicobacter pylori activity, with emphasis on involved mechanisms of action. Lastly, the issue of safety profile of these plant products has also been addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Plant Compounds for Sustainable Health)
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Open AccessArticle TRPA1 Modulating C14 Polyacetylenes from the Iranian Endemic Plant Echinophora platyloba
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1750; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071750 (registering DOI)
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Phytochemical investigation of the apolar extract obtained from aerial parts of the Iranian endemic plant Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae) resulted in the characterization of the polyacetylene fraction of this plant. This resulted to be composed of the known echinophorins A and B, embedding
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Phytochemical investigation of the apolar extract obtained from aerial parts of the Iranian endemic plant Echinophora platyloba DC (Apiaceae) resulted in the characterization of the polyacetylene fraction of this plant. This resulted to be composed of the known echinophorins A and B, embedding the very rare α-pyrone terminal, and of the new echinophorin D (3), including also three conjugated triple bonds. The chemical structures of these compounds were secured by detailed inspection of MS and 1D/2D NMR spectra. The isolated polyacteylenes were evaluated for their modulation of six thermo-TRP channels and they revealed a selective activity on TRPA1, an ion channel involved in the mediation of neuropathic and inflammatory pain. This is the first report on the activity of plant polyacetylenes on transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Immunogenicity and Induction of Functional Antibodies in Rabbits Immunized with a Trivalent Typhoid-Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Glycoconjugate Formulation
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1749; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071749 (registering DOI)
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Typhoid fever due to Salmonella Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections caused by serovars Enteritidis (SE) and Typhimurium (STm) are major pediatric health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Typhoid has high complication rates, and iNTS infections have high case fatality rates; moreover, emerging
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Typhoid fever due to Salmonella Typhi and invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) infections caused by serovars Enteritidis (SE) and Typhimurium (STm) are major pediatric health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Typhoid has high complication rates, and iNTS infections have high case fatality rates; moreover, emerging antimicrobial resistance is diminishing treatment options. Vi capsule-based typhoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV™), licensed in India and pre-qualified by the World Health Organization, elicits durable immunity when administered to infants, but no iNTS vaccines are licensed or imminent. We have developed monovalent SE and STm glycoconjugate vaccines based on coupling lipopolysaccharide-derived core-O polysaccharide (COPS) to phase 1 flagellin protein (FliC) from the homologous serovar. Herein, we report the immunogenicity of multivalent formulations of iNTS COPS:FliC conjugates with Typbar-TCV™. Rabbits immunized with the trivalent typhoid-iNTS glycoconjugate vaccine generated high titers of serum IgG antibody to all three polysaccharide antigens for which anti-COPS IgG antibodies were directed primarily against serogroup-specific OPS epitopes. Responses to SE and STm FliC were lower relative to anti-COPS titers. Post-vaccination rabbit sera mediated bactericidal activity in-vitro, and protected mice after passive transfer against challenge with virulent SE or STm Malian blood isolates. These results support accelerated progression to clinical trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conjugate Vaccines from Carbohydrate Antigens)
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Open AccessArticle Authentication of Herbal Medicines Dipsacus asper and Phlomoides umbrosa Using DNA Barcodes, Chloroplast Genome, and Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) Marker
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1748; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071748 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Dried roots of Dipsacus asper (Caprifoliaceae) are used as important traditional herbal medicines in Korea. However, the roots are often used as a mixture or contaminated with Dipsacus japonicus in Korean herbal markets. Furthermore, the dried roots of Phlomoides umbrosa (Lamiaceae) are used
[...] Read more.
Dried roots of Dipsacus asper (Caprifoliaceae) are used as important traditional herbal medicines in Korea. However, the roots are often used as a mixture or contaminated with Dipsacus japonicus in Korean herbal markets. Furthermore, the dried roots of Phlomoides umbrosa (Lamiaceae) are used indiscriminately with those of D. asper, with the confusing Korean names of Sok-Dan and Han-Sok-Dan for D. asper and P. umbrosa, respectively. Although D. asper and P. umbrosa are important herbal medicines, the molecular marker and genomic information available for these species are limited. In this study, we analysed DNA barcodes to distinguish among D. asper, D. japonicus, and P. umbrosa and sequenced the chloroplast (CP) genomes of D. asper and D. japonicus. The CP genomes of D. asper and D. japonicus were 160,530 and 160,371 bp in length, respectively, and were highly divergent from those of the other Caprifoliaceae species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a monophyletic group within Caprifoliaceae. We also developed a novel sequence characterised amplified region (SCAR) markers to distinguish among D. asper, D. japonicus, and P. umbrosa. Our results provide important taxonomic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary information on the Dipsacus species. The SCAR markers developed here will be useful for the authentication of herbal medicines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation, Characterization, Pharmacokinetics and Biodistribution of Baicalin-Loaded Liposome on Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion after i.v. Administration in Rats
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1747; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071747 (registering DOI)
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
The dry root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has traditionally been applied in the treatment of cerebral ischemia in Chinese clinics. Baicalin (BA) is considered the key ingredient in it for the brain protection effects. The bioavailability of BA is very low because of
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The dry root of Scutellaria baicalensis, has traditionally been applied in the treatment of cerebral ischemia in Chinese clinics. Baicalin (BA) is considered the key ingredient in it for the brain protection effects. The bioavailability of BA is very low because of its poor lipid and water solubility, which limits the therapeutic effects and clinical application. The aim of the present study was to develop a novel BA-loaded liposome (BA-LP) formulation to improve the drug lipophilicity and further to enhance the drug-concentration in the brain tissues. This study is also designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of BA in the pathological conditions of stroke and evaluate the pharmacokinetic differences of BA caused by stroke after intravenous administration with BA and BA-LP. In this study, the novel BA-LP prepared in early stage were characterized by morphology, size, zeta potential, encapsulation rate and the in vitro release. The pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of BA and BA-LP were investigated by intravenous administration in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model and normal group respectively. BA-LP had a mean particle size of 160–190 nm, zeta potential of −5.7 mV, and encapsulation efficiency of 42 ± 1%. The BA-LP showed a sustained-release behavior, the in vitro drug-release kinetic model of BA-LP fit well with the biphasic dynamic model equation: Q = 1 − (60.12e0.56t − 59.08e0.0014t). Pharmacokinetic behavior in MCAO rats is not consistent with that of normal rats. The middle cerebral artery occlusion rats got higher Cmax and AUC0–t, which were about 1.5–2 times to normal rats both in BA and liposome groups. In addition, it got especially higher distribution in brain, while BA were not detected in brain tissues on normal rats. The Cmax and AUC0–t values were significantly greater with liposome than BA on both normal and MCAO rats. The tissue distribution behavior was significantly altered in the case of liposome administrated in comparison with BA, which the concentrations in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs and brain were all increased after administrated liposome, but decreased in kidneys. The TI values showed that the target of liposome was improved especially to heart, spleen and brain, and the brain’s target was higher in striatum and cerebellum. In conclusion, BA-LP might be a potential drug delivery system to improve the therapeutic efficacy of BA. In addition, these results also suggest that the pathological damages of ischemia-reperfusion have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic traits of BA. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Oxidative Stability of Selected Edible Oils
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1746; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071746 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to examine and compare oxidative stability of refined (peanut, corn, rice bran, grapeseed, and rapeseed) oils. The oils were subject a Schaal Oven Test (temperature 63 ± 1 °C) and a Rancimat test (temperature 120 °C) and
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The aim of the study was to examine and compare oxidative stability of refined (peanut, corn, rice bran, grapeseed, and rapeseed) oils. The oils were subject a Schaal Oven Test (temperature 63 ± 1 °C) and a Rancimat test (temperature 120 °C) and their stability was compared at the 1st and 12th month of storage. Changes in the peroxide (PV) and anisidine (AnV) values in the thermostat test were the fastest in rapeseed oil and grapeseed oil. The best quality was preserved by peanut and corn oils both in the first and the twelfth month of storage. The induction times for the rice bran, corn, peanut, and rapeseed oils were similar from 4.77 h to 5.02 h in the first month and from 3.22 h to 3.77 h in the twelfth month. The shortest induction times were determined for grapeseed oil: 2.4 h and 1.6 h, respectively. A decrease of oxidative stability of about 30% was found in all the oils after 12 months of storage. The PV of 10, determined in the thermostat and Rancimat tests, were achieved at the latest in corn oil and the fastest in rice bran oil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessCommunication Structural Divergence in O-GlcNAc Glycans Displayed on Epidermal Growth Factor-like Repeats of Mammalian Notch1
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071745 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Extracellular O-GlcNAc is a novel class of modification catalyzed by epidermal growth factor-like (EGF)-domain specific O-GlcNAc transferase (EOGT). In mammals, EOGT is required for ligand-mediated Notch signaling for vascular development. Previous studies have revealed that O-GlcNAc in mammalian cultured cells
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Extracellular O-GlcNAc is a novel class of modification catalyzed by epidermal growth factor-like (EGF)-domain specific O-GlcNAc transferase (EOGT). In mammals, EOGT is required for ligand-mediated Notch signaling for vascular development. Previous studies have revealed that O-GlcNAc in mammalian cultured cells is subject to subsequent glycosylation, which may impose additional layers of regulation. This study aimed to analyze the O-GlcNAc glycans of Drosophila EGF20 as model substrates and mouse Notch1 EGF repeats by mass-spectrometry. The analysis of Drosophila EGF20 expressed in HEK293T cells revealed that the majority of the proteins are modified with an elongated form of O-GlcNAc glycan comprising terminal galactose or sialic acid residues. In contrast, recombinant Notch1 EGF repeats isolated from HEK293T cells revealed structural divergence of O-GlcNAc glycans among the different EGF domains. Although the majority of Notch1 EGF2 and EGF20 domains contained the extended forms of the glycan, the O-GlcNAc in many other domains mostly existed as a monosaccharide irrespective of the exogenous EOGT expression. Our results raised a hypothesis that an array of O-GlcNAc monosaccharides may impact the structure and function of Notch receptors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Roles of Protein O-Glycosylation)
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Open AccessArticle Analytical and Sample Preparation Protocol for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of 12 Thiopurine Metabolites Related to Clinical Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071744 (registering DOI)
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 15 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Thiopurines (TP) represent an important therapeutic tool for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in the current situation of rising incidence and health care costs. The results of multiple clinical studies aimed at finding correlations between levels of TP metabolites and response
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Thiopurines (TP) represent an important therapeutic tool for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in the current situation of rising incidence and health care costs. The results of multiple clinical studies aimed at finding correlations between levels of TP metabolites and response of IBD patients to the treatment are, however, often controversial due to variability in analytical and sample preparation procedures among these studies. In this work, therefore, an updated analytical and sample preparation procedure for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of TP metabolites in blood samples obtained from patients with IBD was proposed to establish a unified protocol. An advanced analytical method based on ion-exchange liquid chromatography hyphenated with tandem mass spectrometry (IEC-ESI-MS/MS) was used for the determination of the profiles of 12 individual TP metabolites in the particular steps of sample preparation procedure including blood collection, red blood cells (RBC) isolation, lysis, and storage. Favorable performance parameters of the IEC-ESI-MS/MS method (LLOQs 1–10 nmol/L, accuracy 95–105%, intra-day and inter-day precision < 10%, selectivity demonstrated via no sample matrix interferences) and acceptable stability (peak area fluctuations < 15%) of clinical samples under the proposed sample preparation conditions {(i) EDTA anticoagulant tube for the blood collection; (ii) 4 °C and 4 h between the sample collection and RBC isolation; (iii) phosphate-buffered saline for RBC washing and re-suspendation; (iv) −20 °C for RBC lysis and short-term storage; (v) 50 mmol/L phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 10 mmol/L DTT as a stabilizing medium for TPN in RBC lysates} demonstrated the suitability of such protocol for a well-defined and reliable routine use in studies on thiopurines TDM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Inactivation, Aggregation and Conformational Changes of Polyphenol Oxidase from Quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) Juice Subjected to Thermal and High-Pressure Carbon Dioxide Treatment
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1743; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071743 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 12 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) causes the browning reaction in fruits and vegetables and deteriorates the quality. Thermal treatment for enzyme inactivation may result in defects as opposed to high pressure CO2 (HPCD) processing. In this study, the changes in activity, dissociation, aggregation and
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Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) causes the browning reaction in fruits and vegetables and deteriorates the quality. Thermal treatment for enzyme inactivation may result in defects as opposed to high pressure CO2 (HPCD) processing. In this study, the changes in activity, dissociation, aggregation and conformation of purified PPO from thermal and HPCD treated juice were investigated. HPCD exhibited inactivation of PPO at 55–65 °C whereas thermal processing alone at the same temperature resulted in PPO still showing activity. Under thermal treatment at 25 and 65 °C, the browning degree was higher (0.39 and 0.24) than for HPCD-treated juice (0.23 and 0.12). Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectral results indicated that HPCD induced large decreases in intensities, revealing a rearrangement of the secondary structure and destruction of the native configuration of the PPO molecule. The particle size distribution (PSD) pattern revealed structural modification leading to initial dissociation and subsequent aggregation of PPO after HPCD treatment. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis exhibited that molecular size of protein was 40 kDa. In conclusion, the HPCD method was found to be more effective than thermal treatment to inactivate PPO. Structural modifications provided better insights into the phenomena of activation and inactivation of PPO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Studies of Food and Beverages)
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Open AccessReview Anomeric O-Functionalization of Carbohydrates for Chemical Conjugation to Vaccine Constructs
Molecules 2018, 23(7), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23071742 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Carbohydrates mediate a wide range of biological interactions, and understanding these processes benefits the development of new therapeutics. Isolating sufficient quantities of glycoconjugates from biological samples remains a significant challenge. With advances in chemical and enzymatic carbohydrate synthesis, the availability of complex carbohydrates
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Carbohydrates mediate a wide range of biological interactions, and understanding these processes benefits the development of new therapeutics. Isolating sufficient quantities of glycoconjugates from biological samples remains a significant challenge. With advances in chemical and enzymatic carbohydrate synthesis, the availability of complex carbohydrates is increasing and developing methods for stereoselective conjugation these polar head groups to proteins and lipids is critically important for pharmaceutical applications. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of commonly employed strategies for installing a functionalized linker at the anomeric position as well as examples of further transformations that have successfully led to glycoconjugation to vaccine constructs for biological evaluation as carbohydrate-based therapeutics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conjugate Vaccines from Carbohydrate Antigens)
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