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Molecules, Volume 23, Issue 8 (August 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare: Chemical Composition and Biological Studies
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2077; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082077 (registering DOI)
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
The biological properties and main phenolic compounds of the O. vulgare L. ssp. vulgare extract are described in the present paper. The polyphenolic compounds were analyzed by chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using several methods: CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing
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The biological properties and main phenolic compounds of the O. vulgare L. ssp. vulgare extract are described in the present paper. The polyphenolic compounds were analyzed by chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using several methods: CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity), FRAP (ferric reducing ability of plasma), inhibition of lipid peroxidation catalyzed by cytochrome c, and superoxide (SO) scavenging assays. The antimicrobial activity of the oregano extract was evaluated by means of agar-well diffusion assay. The hepatoprotective effect of the O. vulgare extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was evaluated in rats. Liver injury was estimated by determination of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase GGT, total protein and albumin concentrations, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA). These values were improved by the administration of oregano extract. A specific phenolic profile was evidenced by these data, with large amounts of rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids. The oregano extract showed very strong antioxidant activity in good agreement with the phenolic content. Antimicrobial activity was good, especially against Salmonella enteritidis and Aspergillus niger strains. The high hepatoprotective, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, along with polyphenol-rich content, can support the use of O. vulgare in therapy. We also expect our results to open new research directions for designing important new drug products, using indigenous plant material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Using XRF and ICP-OES in Biosorption Studies
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082076 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
In this work, a method of recalculation of results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique to Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method was elaborated for biosorption studies. Equations that calibrate XRF to ICP-OES were determined, as a biosorbent strawberry, blackcurrant and raspberry seeds
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In this work, a method of recalculation of results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique to Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method was elaborated for biosorption studies. Equations that calibrate XRF to ICP-OES were determined, as a biosorbent strawberry, blackcurrant and raspberry seeds after supercritical CO2 extraction were used. ICP-OES showed a better precision and lower detection limits than XRF. The latter technique is cheaper, requires minimal sample preparation and gives faster results. Linear regression of the data gave almost 1:1 correlations without additional correction (for Cu r2 = 0.9998, Mn r2 = 0.807, Zn r2 = 0.979). Calibration and quantification of intensities of XRF was obtained using ICP-OES measurements after samples digestion with HNO3 in a microwave system. High positive correlations were estimated for Cu, Mn, Zn. It was demonstrated that XRF technique can be used together with other well established techniques (ICP-OES) to produce quantitative data from biosorption studies. Elaboration of cheap and quick analytical methodology is an important aspect in development of new processes and products based on biosorption process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by Curcumin-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles in a Murine Model of Oral Candidiasis
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2075; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082075 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an alternative method for oral candidiasis (OC), while nanocarriers have been used to improve the water solubility of curcumin (CUR). The aim of this study is to encapsulate CUR in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and to
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Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has been proposed as an alternative method for oral candidiasis (OC), while nanocarriers have been used to improve the water solubility of curcumin (CUR). The aim of this study is to encapsulate CUR in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and to evaluate its photodynamic effects on a murine model of OC. Anionic and cationic CUR-NP is synthesized using poly-lactic acid and dextran sulfate and then characterized. Female mice are immunosuppressed and inoculated with Candida albicans (Ca) to induce OC. aPDT is performed by applying CUR-NP or free CUR on the dorsum of the tongue, followed by blue light irradiation for five consecutive days. Nystatin is used as positive control. Afterward, Ca are recovered and cultivated. Animals are euthanized for histological, immunohistochemical, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) evaluation. Encapsulation in NP improves the water solubility of CUR. Nystatin shows the highest reduction of Ca, followed by aPDT mediated by free CUR, which results in immunolabelling of cytokeratins closer to those observed for healthy animals. Anionic CUR-NP does not show antifungal effect, and cationic CUR-NP reduces Ca even in the absence of light. DNA damage is associated with Ca infection. Consecutive aPDT application is a safe treatment for OC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Phototherapeutic Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperPerspective The Fuzziness of the Molecular World and Its Perspectives
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2074; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082074 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
Scientists want to comprehend and control complex systems. Their success depends on the ability to face also the challenges of the corresponding computational complexity. A promising research line is artificial intelligence (AI). In AI, fuzzy logic plays a significant role because it is
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Scientists want to comprehend and control complex systems. Their success depends on the ability to face also the challenges of the corresponding computational complexity. A promising research line is artificial intelligence (AI). In AI, fuzzy logic plays a significant role because it is a suitable model of the human capability to compute with words, which is relevant when we make decisions in complex situations. The concept of fuzzy set pervades the natural information systems (NISs), such as living cells, the immune and the nervous systems. This paper describes the fuzziness of the NISs, in particular of the human nervous system. Moreover, it traces three pathways to process fuzzy logic by molecules and their assemblies. The fuzziness of the molecular world is useful for the development of the chemical artificial intelligence (CAI). CAI will help to face the challenges that regard both the natural and the computational complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Fuzziness in Molecular, Supramolecular, and Systems Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Antioxidative and UV-Protective Larch Bark Tannin/PVA Composite Membranes
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2073; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082073 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
In order to prepare functional materials for antioxidant and ultraviolet (UV)-protective green food packaging, condensed tannin, previously extracted from larch bark, was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and then the mixture was used to cast composite membranes. An antioxidative assay using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)—a
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In order to prepare functional materials for antioxidant and ultraviolet (UV)-protective green food packaging, condensed tannin, previously extracted from larch bark, was mixed with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and then the mixture was used to cast composite membranes. An antioxidative assay using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)—a free radical scavenger—and starch–potassium iodide oxidation–discoloration analyses showed that the composite membranes have good antioxidative activities. The low UV transmission and protective effect of the composite films on vitamin E indicated the UV protection ability of the composite membranes. Both larch bark tannin and PVA are rich in hydroxyl groups; scanning electron microscopy analysis demonstrated their compatibility. Also, the mechanical and crystallization properties of the composite membranes did not significantly decrease with the addition of larch bark tannin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antihyperalgesic Activity of Atomoxetine on Diabetes-Induced Neuropathic Pain: Contribution of Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Systems
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2072; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082072 (registering DOI)
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
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Abstract
Atomoxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor drug. Based on the knowledge that agents increasing monoamine levels in the central nervous system have therapeutic potential for neuropathic pain, it is planned to investigate the possible efficacy of atomoxetine on diabetes-induced hyperalgesia, in this
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Atomoxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor drug. Based on the knowledge that agents increasing monoamine levels in the central nervous system have therapeutic potential for neuropathic pain, it is planned to investigate the possible efficacy of atomoxetine on diabetes-induced hyperalgesia, in this study. Randall-Selitto (mechanical noxious stimuli) and Hargreaves (thermal noxious stimuli) tests were used to evaluate nociceptive perception of rats. Obtained data indicated that streptozotocin-induced diabetes causes significant decreases in the paw withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency values of the animals, respectively. However, atomoxetine administered at 3 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days improved these diabetes-induced hyperalgesia responses. Furthermore, antihyperalgesic activity was antagonized with α-methyl-para-tyrosine methyl ester, phentolamine, propranolol, and sulpiride pre-treatments. The same effect was not reversed, however, by SCH 23390. These findings demonstrated, for the first time, that atomoxetine possesses significant antihyperalgesic activity on diabetes-induced neuropathic pain and this effect seems to be mediated by α- and β-adrenergic and D2/D3 dopaminergic receptors. Results of this present study seem to offer a new indication for an old drug; atomoxetine, but these preclinical data should first be confirmed with further well-designed clinical trials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Green Tea Catechin Is an Alternative Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor that Inhibits PD-L1 Expression and Lung Tumor Growth
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082071 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
The anticancer activity of immune checkpoint inhibitors is attracting attention in various clinical sites. Since green tea catechin has cancer-preventive activity in humans, whether green tea catechin supports the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors was studied. We here report that (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
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The anticancer activity of immune checkpoint inhibitors is attracting attention in various clinical sites. Since green tea catechin has cancer-preventive activity in humans, whether green tea catechin supports the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors was studied. We here report that (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) inhibited programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in non–small-cell lung cancer cells, induced by both interferon (IFN)-γ and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The mRNA and protein levels of IFN-γ–induced PD-L1 were reduced 40–80% after pretreatment with EGCG and green tea extract (GTE) in A549 cells, via inhibition of JAK2/STAT1 signaling. Similarly, EGF-induced PD-L1 expression was reduced about 37–50% in EGCG-pretreated Lu99 cells through inhibition of EGF receptor/Akt signaling. Furthermore, 0.3% GTE in drinking water reduced the average number of tumors per mouse from 4.1 ± 0.5 to 2.6 ± 0.4 and the percentage of PD-L1 positive cells from 9.6% to 2.9%, a decrease of 70%, in lung tumors of A/J mice given a single intraperitoneal injection of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). In co-culture experiments using F10-OVA melanoma cells and tumor-specific CD3+ T cells, EGCG reduced PD-L1 mRNA expression about 30% in F10-OVA cells and restored interleukin-2 mRNA expression in tumor-specific CD3+ T cells. The results show that green tea catechin is an immune checkpoint inhibitor. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Valorization of Olive Pomace-Based Nutraceuticals as Antioxidants in Chemical, Food, and Biological Models
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2070; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082070 (registering DOI)
Received: 28 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Waste remaining after the production of olive oil (olive pomace) is known to contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds that exert different types of biological activities, primarily acting as antioxidants. In this work, a sustainable approach that combines ultrasound-assisted extraction with food-grade solvents
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Waste remaining after the production of olive oil (olive pomace) is known to contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds that exert different types of biological activities, primarily acting as antioxidants. In this work, a sustainable approach that combines ultrasound-assisted extraction with food-grade solvents and encapsulation with different types of cyclodextrins was used to prepare olive pomace-based polyphenol rich extracts that were tested as antioxidants in various chemical, food, and biological model systems. Encapsulation with cyclodextrins had a significant positive impact on the chemical composition of obtained extracts and it positively affected their antioxidant activity. Observed effects can be explained by an increased content of polyphenols in the formulations, specific physical properties of encapsulated compounds improving their antioxidant activity in complex food/physiological environment, and enhanced interaction with natural substrates. Depending on the applied model, the tested samples showed significant antioxidant protection in the concentration range 0.1–3%. Among the investigated cyclodextrins, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrin encapsulated extracts showed particularly good antioxidant activity and were especially potent in oil-in-water emulsion systems (1242 mg/g and 1422 mg/g of Trolox equivalents, respectively), showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than Trolox (reference antioxidant). In other models, they provided antioxidant protection comparable to commonly used synthetic antioxidants at concentration levels of 2–3%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals and Their Medicinal Importance)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Activity as Biomarker of Honey Variety
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2069; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082069 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 18 August 2018
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Abstract
Honey variety is commonly defined by beekeepers based on nectar flow availability and the only laboratory method to provide verification is the melissopalynological analysis. Therefore, a quick and simple method for accurate assessment of honey variety is still being researched. The aim of
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Honey variety is commonly defined by beekeepers based on nectar flow availability and the only laboratory method to provide verification is the melissopalynological analysis. Therefore, a quick and simple method for accurate assessment of honey variety is still being researched. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of honey as an indicator of variety through the use of multivariate statistical analysis. Materials for the study consisted of 90 samples of varietal Polish honeys (rape-12, tilia-10, goldenrod-11, dandelion-5, buckwheat-6, multifloral-17, nectar-honeydew-8 and coniferous honeydew-16 and leafy honeydew-5) obtained directly from apiaries. Honeys were investigated in aspect of antioxidant capacity by photochemiluminescence (PCL) methods using standard ACW and ACL kits. As the reference FRAP and DPPH methods were used. The total phenolics content (TPC) was determined through the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strongest antioxidant activity was found for buckwheat, while the weakest was found for rape honeys regardless of the used method. Results of the used methods were positively correlated (r = 0.42 to 0.94). Analysis conducted by PCL method confirmed that the minor fraction of honey antioxidants exhibits hydrophobic properties. Clear separation of honey varieties using PCA and Clustering method indicate that antioxidant activity can be a useful parameter for determining the botanical origin of honey. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants Chemistry and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Beneficial Effect of Herbal Formulation KM1608 on Inflammatory Bowl Diseases: A Preliminary Experimental Study
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2068; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082068 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Aucklandia lappa DC., Terminalia chebula Retz and Zingiber officinale Roscoe have been traditionally used in east Asia to treat chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain. This study aimed to evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of KM1608, which is composed of three natural herbs in a
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Aucklandia lappa DC., Terminalia chebula Retz and Zingiber officinale Roscoe have been traditionally used in east Asia to treat chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain. This study aimed to evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of KM1608, which is composed of three natural herbs in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis. The anti-inflammatory activity and underlying mechanism were assessed in vitro using LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. The in vivo effect of KM1608 on DSS-induced colitis was examined after oral administration in mice. KM1608 significantly inhibited the inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of KM1608 was attributed to the reduction of Akt phosphorylation in the LPS-treated cells. In the mouse model, oral administration of KM1608 significantly improved DSS-induced colitis symptoms, such as disease activity index (DAI), colon length, and colon weight, as well as suppressed the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the DSS-induced colitis tissues. Taken together, KM1608 improved colitis through the regulation of inflammatory responses, suggesting that KM1608 has potential therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Spectroscopic Analysis and Assessment of the Biological Activity of New Hydrazine and Hydrazide Derivatives of 3-Formylchromone
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2067; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082067 (registering DOI)
Received: 11 July 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
The hydrazine and hydrazide derivatives of benzo-γ-pyrones with fluorine substituents remain an unexplored group of chemical compounds. This preliminary study reports the synthesis, structural assessment, initial microbiological screening and biological testing of the synthesized compounds on cell lines using the XTT-assay. A series
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The hydrazine and hydrazide derivatives of benzo-γ-pyrones with fluorine substituents remain an unexplored group of chemical compounds. This preliminary study reports the synthesis, structural assessment, initial microbiological screening and biological testing of the synthesized compounds on cell lines using the XTT-assay. A series of 10 novel hydrazine and hydrazide derivatives of 3-formylchromone were synthesized and their structures determined. Structural assessment consisted of elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS and crystallographic studies. Antimicrobial activity was tested on standard strains representing different groups of microorganisms. The tested compounds were found to inhibit microbial growth. Concentrations of 0.01–1250 µmol/L were found to influence cell proliferation, demonstrating antiproliferative and stimulation of proliferation against two cell lines: the L929 cell line (mouse fibroblast cell line) and the EA.hy926 cell line (the human umbilical vein, somatic cell hybrid). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle A Polyphenol Rich Extract from Solanum melongena L. DR2 Peel Exhibits Antioxidant Properties and Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity In Vitro
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082066 (registering DOI)
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
DR2B and DR2C extracts, obtained by ethanolic maceration of peel from commercially and physiologically ripe aubergine berries, were studied for the antioxidative cytoprotective properties and anti-HSV-1 activity, in line with the evidence that several antioxidants can impair viral replication by maintaining reducing conditions
[...] Read more.
DR2B and DR2C extracts, obtained by ethanolic maceration of peel from commercially and physiologically ripe aubergine berries, were studied for the antioxidative cytoprotective properties and anti-HSV-1 activity, in line with the evidence that several antioxidants can impair viral replication by maintaining reducing conditions in host cells. The antioxidative cytoprotective effects against tBOOH-induced damage were assessed in Caco2 cells, while antiviral activity was studied in Vero cells; polyphenolic fingerprints were characterized by integrated phytochemical methods. Results highlighted different compositions of the extracts, with chlorogenic acid and delphinidin-3-rutinoside as the major constituents; other peculiar phytochemicals were also identified. Both samples reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and exhibited scavenging and chelating properties. DR2C partly counteracted the tBOOH-induced cytotoxicity, with a remarkable lowering of lactate metabolism under both normoxia and hypoxia; interestingly, it increased intracellular GSH levels. Furthermore, DR2C inhibited the HSV-1 replication when added for 24 h after viral adsorption, as also confirmed by the reduction of many viral proteins’ expression. Since DR2C was able to reduce NOX4 expression during HSV-1 infection, its antiviral activity may be correlated to its antioxidant properties. Although further studies are needed to better characterize DR2C activity, the results suggest this extract as a promising new anti-HSV-1 agent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Active Agents Against Bacteria, Fungi and Parasites)
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Open AccessArticle Two Classes of Pigments, Carotenoids and C-Phycocyanin, in Spirulina Powder and Their Antioxidant Activities
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2065; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082065 (registering DOI)
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Arthrospira platensis is the widely available source of spirulina that contains distinctive natural pigments, including carotenoids and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). In this study, the major carotenoid and C-PC contents were determined in seven commercially available spirulina powder products and laboratory-prepared A. platensis trichomes (AP-1)
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Arthrospira platensis is the widely available source of spirulina that contains distinctive natural pigments, including carotenoids and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). In this study, the major carotenoid and C-PC contents were determined in seven commercially available spirulina powder products and laboratory-prepared A. platensis trichomes (AP-1) by an LC-DAD method and UV-Visible spectrometry, respectively. The correlation of these two pigment content levels with Hunter color coordinates and antioxidant activity was also evaluated. The L* value failed to show a significant correlation with pigment content, but a positive correlation was observed between a* values and the contents of total carotenoid and C-PC. As b* values decreased, the chlorophyll a and C-PC contents increased. AP-1 exhibited the highest content of total carotenoids, chlorophyll a and C-PC, and antioxidant activities among the samples. This observation could be related to degradation of these pigments during the mass production process. The carotenoid profiles suggested that the commercial spirulina powders originated from two different sources, A. platensis and A. maxima. Total carotenoid and C-PC content exhibited positive significant correlations with antioxidant activities measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays. These results provide a strong scientific foundation for the establishment of standards for the commercial distribution of quality spirulina products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Gelatin as a Photosensitive Material
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2064; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082064 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 4 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Because this issue journal is dedicated to Gelatin, here we present a few applications of gelatin in the field of optics. Optics is the science that studies the production, propagation, interaction and detection of light. Various materials sensitive to light (photosensitive) are used
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Because this issue journal is dedicated to Gelatin, here we present a few applications of gelatin in the field of optics. Optics is the science that studies the production, propagation, interaction and detection of light. Various materials sensitive to light (photosensitive) are used for detection of light, such as photomultipliers, CCDs, crystals, two dimensional (2D) materials and more. Among the 2D materials, the most popular for several centuries has been gelatin based photographic emulsion, which records spatial distributions of light. More recently (1970), films made of Gelatin with Dichromate (DCG) and dyes have been used. We describe some characteristics and applications of these two photosensitive materials. We also describe examples where gelatin is used as a Relative Humidity (RH) sensor and in the fabrication of optical elements based on gelatin. This article is intended for researchers outside the optics community. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gelatin: Chemistry, Characterization, Application)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Volatile Organic Chemicals in Chrysanthemum indicum Linné on Blood Pressure and Electroencephalogram
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2063; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082063 (registering DOI)
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
This study identified the volatile organic compounds in the essential oils that are extracted from Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (C. indicum Linné) and investigated the effects of the inhalation of these compounds. We detected a total of 41 volatile organic compounds, including 32
[...] Read more.
This study identified the volatile organic compounds in the essential oils that are extracted from Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (C. indicum Linné) and investigated the effects of the inhalation of these compounds. We detected a total of 41 volatile organic compounds, including 32 hydrocarbons, four acids, three alcohols, two ketones, and one aldehyde. In a sniffing test, seven types of volatile organic compounds were identified. Furthermore, the volatile organic compounds in C. indicum Linné that were identified were found to be derived from 1,8-cineole and camphor. After inhalation of the essential oils, the subjects’ systolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased. This indicates that inhalation of the essential oils extracted from C. indicum Linné provides mental and physical relaxation. We examined the changes in electroencephalogram findings that are observed after C. indicum Linné essential oil inhalation. An increase in theta and alpha waves, which usually appear during relaxation, as well as a decrease in beta and gamma waves, which appear during brain activity such as excessive attention, were noted. These results indicate that C. indicum Linné essential oil inhalation helps to reduce blood pressure and may provide mental and physical relaxation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Product Isolation, Identification and Biological Activity)
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Open AccessArticle UPLC-QTOF/MS-Based Metabolomics Applied for the Quality Evaluation of Four Processed Panax ginseng Products
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082062 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
In the food industry and herbal markets, it is critical to control the quality of processed Panax ginseng products. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS)-based metabolomics was applied for the quality evaluation of white
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In the food industry and herbal markets, it is critical to control the quality of processed Panax ginseng products. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS)-based metabolomics was applied for the quality evaluation of white ginseng (WG), tae-geuk ginseng (TG), red ginseng (RG), and black ginseng (BG). Diverse metabolites including ginsenosides were profiled by UPLC-QTOF/MS, and the datasets of WG, TG, RG, and BG were then subjected to multivariate analyses. In principal component analysis (PCA), four processed ginseng products were well-differentiated, and several ginsenosides were identified as major components of each product. S-plot also characterized the metabolic changes between two processed ginseng products, and the major ginsenosides of each product were found as follows: WG (M-Rb1, M-Rb2, M-Rc, Re, Rg1), TG (Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1), RG (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rg1), and BG (Rd, Rk1, Rg5, Rg3). Furthermore, the quantitative contents of ginsenosides were evaluated from the four processed ginseng products. Finally, it was indicated that the proposed metabolomics approach was useful for the quality evaluation and control of processed ginseng products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology for Natural Products Research)
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Open AccessArticle Aromatic Thioacetal-Bridged ROS-Responsive Nanoparticles as Novel Gene Delivery Vehicles
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082061 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
In this report, a series of polycations are designed and synthesized by conjugating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive thioacetal-linkers to low molecular weight (LMW) polyethylenimine (PEI) via ring-opening polymerization. Their structure–activity relationships (SARs) as gene delivery vectors are systematically studied. Although the MWs of
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In this report, a series of polycations are designed and synthesized by conjugating reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive thioacetal-linkers to low molecular weight (LMW) polyethylenimine (PEI) via ring-opening polymerization. Their structure–activity relationships (SARs) as gene delivery vectors are systematically studied. Although the MWs of the target polymers are only ~9 KDa, they show good DNA binding ability. The formed polyplexes, which are stable toward serum but decomposed under ROS-conditions, have appropriate sizes (180~300 nm) and positive zeta-potentials (+35~50 mV). In vitro experiments reveal that these materials have low cytotoxicity, and higher transfection efficiency (TE) than controls. Furthermore, the title polymers exhibit excellent serum tolerance. With the present of 10% serum, the TE of the polymers even increases up to 10 times higher than 25 KDa PEI and 9 times higher than Lipofectamine 2000. The SAR studies also reveal that electron-withdrawing groups on the aromatic ring in 4a may benefit to balance between the DNA condensation and release for efficient gene transfection. Full article
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Open AccessReview Turning Stem Cells Bad: Generation of Clinically Relevant Models of Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia through Gene Delivery- or Genome Editing-Based Approaches
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2060; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082060 (registering DOI)
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute leukemia in the adult, is believed to arise as a consequence of multiple molecular events that confer on primitive hematopoietic progenitors unlimited self-renewal potential and cause defective differentiation. A number of genetic aberrations, among which
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute leukemia in the adult, is believed to arise as a consequence of multiple molecular events that confer on primitive hematopoietic progenitors unlimited self-renewal potential and cause defective differentiation. A number of genetic aberrations, among which a variety of gene fusions, have been implicated in the development of a transformed phenotype through the generation of dysfunctional molecules that disrupt key regulatory mechanisms controlling survival, proliferation, and differentiation in normal stem and progenitor cells. Such genetic aberrations can be recreated experimentally to a large extent, to render normal hematopoietic stem cells “bad”, analogous to the leukemic stem cells. Here, we wish to provide a brief outline of the complementary experimental approaches, largely based on gene delivery and more recently on gene editing, employed over the last two decades to gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying AML development and progression and on the prospects that their applications offer for the discovery and validation of innovative therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gene Delivery)
Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Properties of Spent Hops Extracts, Flavonoids Isolated Therefrom, and Their Derivatives
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2059; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082059 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Hop cones preparations possess a wide range of biological activities including antimicrobial properties. In this work, we evaluated the effect of various organic extracts obtained from spent hops, as well as six hops flavonoids and their twenty natural and synthetic derivatives on human
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Hop cones preparations possess a wide range of biological activities including antimicrobial properties. In this work, we evaluated the effect of various organic extracts obtained from spent hops, as well as six hops flavonoids and their twenty natural and synthetic derivatives on human and plant microbial pathogens. Methylene chloride, acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanol were used as extractants. Seven flavonoids, among them two natural (α,β-dihydroxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin) showed significant activity against methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis strains with the lowest MIC80 value of 0.5 µg/mL. The crude ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts from the spent hops exhibited antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, F. culmorum, and F. semitectum with the lowest MIC50 of 0.5 mg/mL, while the methylene chloride extract exerted antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea with the MIC50 of 1 mg/mL. The preparation obtained after the removal of xanthohumol from the spent hops crude extracts retained up to 95% of activity. These findings suggest that various spent hops extracts may be effective agents for the control of plant pathogens of economic importance, like Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum, while some compounds from spent hops or their derivatives may become useful for staphylococcal infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Aqueous-Methanol Extracts of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Ameliorate Oxidative Stress and Modulate Type 2 Diabetes Associated Genes in Insulin Resistant C2C12 Cells
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2058; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082058 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 June 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Edible plants such as sweet potato are sources of natural antioxidants that can be exploited in the management and treatment of insulin resistance. This present study investigated the effects of the extracts of an orange-fleshed sweet potato on oxidative stress biomarkers (glutathione status
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Edible plants such as sweet potato are sources of natural antioxidants that can be exploited in the management and treatment of insulin resistance. This present study investigated the effects of the extracts of an orange-fleshed sweet potato on oxidative stress biomarkers (glutathione status and lipid peroxidation) and activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, CAT and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in palmitate-induced insulin resistant C2C12 cells. The intracellular antioxidant status of the cells was also measured using Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Furthermore, this study determined the effect of the extracts on the regulation of some type 2 diabetes associated genes; glucose transporter 4 (glut4), Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (nrf1), Myocyte enhanced factor 2A (mef2a), Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (cpt1) and Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (acc2). The results showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in intracellular GSH level, a significant reduction in the level of malonaldehyde and a significant improvement in the intracellular antioxidant status upon treatment of the insulin resistant cells with the extracts. The extracts were also able to positively modulate the expression levels of the type 2 diabetes associated genes. On the other hand, HPLC-MS analysis of the extracts showed the presence of polyphenols which could have contributed to the bioactivity of the extracts through their antioxidant effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Antioxidant Capacities of Natural Products)
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Open AccessArticle Hepatoprotective Effects of MHY3200 on High-Fat, Diet-Induced, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Rats
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2057; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082057
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
This study investigated the effects of 2-(4-(5-chlorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)phenoxy)-2,2-difluoroacetic acid (MHY3200) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. The measurement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α activity by using a luciferase assay indicated that MHY3200 was more potent than a known PPARα
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This study investigated the effects of 2-(4-(5-chlorobenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)phenoxy)-2,2-difluoroacetic acid (MHY3200) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. The measurement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α activity by using a luciferase assay indicated that MHY3200 was more potent than a known PPARα agonist, WY14643, in AC2F cells. Six-month-old male SD rats were fed chow or HFD for 1 month, and after, with or without added MHY3200 (1 or 2 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. The oral administration of MHY3200 caused a significant decrease in serum triglyceride (TG), glucose, alanine aminotransferase, and insulin, as well as a slight decrease in the level of free fatty acid and aspartate transaminase. No weight gain was detected when compared with HFD rats, and hepatic TG content was also attenuated by the administration of MHY3200. Furthermore, phosphorylation of the ER stress marker, inositol-requiring kinase 1 and its downstream gene, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, in addition to serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 were suppressed by MHY3200. Consistent with these results, MHY3200 administration reduced the levels of activation of protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Our results suggested that MHY3200 ameliorated HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation, and improved insulin resistance through PPARα activation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Simple Mannose-Coated Poly (p-Phenylene Ethynylene) for Qualitative Bacterial Capturing
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2056; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082056
Received: 21 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
A mannose-functionalized poly (p-phenylene ethynylene) was rationally designed to achieve selective detection of bacteria. The polymer was constructed as a signaling unit and was modified by attaching aminoethyl mannose using the carboxylic acid group at the end of the linker. Incubation
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A mannose-functionalized poly (p-phenylene ethynylene) was rationally designed to achieve selective detection of bacteria. The polymer was constructed as a signaling unit and was modified by attaching aminoethyl mannose using the carboxylic acid group at the end of the linker. Incubation of Escherichia coli with the polymer yielded fluorescent bacteria aggregates through polyvalent interactions. The utility of the mannose functionalized polymer to detect E. coli expressing functional FimH mannose-specific lectin on their surface was also demonstrated. The sugar units displayed on the surface of the polymer retained their functional ability to interact with mannose-binding lectin. To determine the optimum binding time, we measured the fluorescence intensity of the polymer-bacteria suspension at intervals. Our results showed that binding in this system will reach an optimum level within 30 min of incubation. The polymer’s affinity for bacteria has been demonstrated and bacteria with a concentration of 103 CFU mL−1 can be detected by this system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Analytical Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synstable Fusion: A Network-Based Algorithm for Estimating Driver Genes in Fusion Structures
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2055; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082055
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Gene fusion structure is a class of common somatic mutational events in cancer genomes, which are often formed by chromosomal mutations. Identifying the driver gene(s) in a fusion structure is important for many downstream analyses and it contributes to clinical practices. Existing computational
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Gene fusion structure is a class of common somatic mutational events in cancer genomes, which are often formed by chromosomal mutations. Identifying the driver gene(s) in a fusion structure is important for many downstream analyses and it contributes to clinical practices. Existing computational approaches have prioritized the importance of oncogenes by incorporating prior knowledge from gene networks. However, different methods sometimes suffer different weaknesses when handling gene fusion data due to multiple issues such as fusion gene representation, network integration, and the effectiveness of the evaluation algorithms. In this paper, Synstable Fusion (SYN), an algorithm for computationally evaluating the fusion genes, is proposed. This algorithm uses network-based strategy by incorporating gene networks as prior information, but estimates the driver genes according to the destructiveness hypothesis. This hypothesis balances the two popular evaluation strategies in the existing studies, thereby providing more comprehensive results. A machine learning framework is introduced to integrate multiple networks and further solve the conflicting results from different networks. In addition, a synchronous stability model is established to reduce the computational complexity of the evaluation algorithm. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, we conduct a series of experiments on both artificial and real datasets. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs well on different configurations and is robust when altering the internal parameter settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Computing and Bioinformatics)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Coordination Behavior of a Flexible Bis(phosphinoferrocene) Ligand
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2054; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082054
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 15 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
A symmetrical flexible bis(phosphinoferrocene) derivative, viz. bis[1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]methane (1), was prepared and studied as a ligand in Pd(II) and Au(I) complexes. The reactions of 1 with [PdCl2(cod)] (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene) and [Pd(μ-Cl)(LNC)]2 (LNC = [2-(dimethylamino-κN
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A symmetrical flexible bis(phosphinoferrocene) derivative, viz. bis[1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]methane (1), was prepared and studied as a ligand in Pd(II) and Au(I) complexes. The reactions of 1 with [PdCl2(cod)] (cod = cycloocta-1,5-diene) and [Pd(μ-Cl)(LNC)]2 (LNC = [2-(dimethylamino-κN)methyl]phenyl-κC1) produced bis(phosphine) complex trans-[PdCl2(12P,P′)] (4), wherein the ligand spans trans positions in the square-planar coordination sphere of Pd(II) and the tetranuclear, P,P-bridged complex [(μ(P,P′)-1){PdCl(LNC)}2] (5), respectively. In reactions with the Au(I) precursors [AuCl(tht)] and [Au(tht)2][SbF6] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene), ligand 1 gave rise to tetranuclear Au2Fe2 complex [(μ(P,P′)-1)(AuCl)2] (6) and to symmetrical macrocyclic tetramer [Au4(μ(P,P′)-1)4][SbF6]4 (7). All compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods. In addition, the structures of compound 1, its synthetic precursor bis[1′-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]methanone (3), and all aforementioned Pd(II) and Au(I) complexes were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis (some in solvated form). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ferrocene and Ferrocene-Containing Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Biopesticide Activity from Drimanic Compounds to Control Tomato Pathogens
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2053; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082053
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Tomato crops can be affected by several infectious diseases produced by bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Four phytopathogens are of special concern because of the major economic losses they generate worldwide in tomato production; Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato,
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Tomato crops can be affected by several infectious diseases produced by bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Four phytopathogens are of special concern because of the major economic losses they generate worldwide in tomato production; Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, causative agents behind two highly destructive diseases, bacterial canker and bacterial speck, respectively; fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici that causes Fusarium Wilt, which strongly affects tomato crops; and finally, Phytophthora spp., which affect both potato and tomato crops. Polygodial (1), drimenol (2), isonordrimenone (3), and nordrimenone (4) were studied against these four phytopathogenic microorganisms. Among them, compound 1, obtained from Drimys winteri Forst, and synthetic compound 4 are shown here to have potent activity. Most promisingly, the results showed that compounds 1 and 4 affect Clavibacter michiganensis growth at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values of 16 and 32 µg/mL, respectively, and high antimycotic activity against Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora spp. with MIC of 64 µg/mL. The results of the present study suggest novel treatment alternatives with drimane compounds against bacterial and fungal plant pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Active Agents Against Bacteria, Fungi and Parasites)
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Open AccessArticle Characterization of Nanospheres Containing Zanthoxylum riedelianum Fruit Essential Oil and Their Insecticidal and Deterrent Activities against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2052; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082052
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
The aim of our study was to produce and characterize poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanospheres containing essential oils from Zanthoxylum riedelianum fruit and to evaluate their stability gains as well as their insecticidal and deterrent activities against whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). The PCL nanospheres
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The aim of our study was to produce and characterize poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanospheres containing essential oils from Zanthoxylum riedelianum fruit and to evaluate their stability gains as well as their insecticidal and deterrent activities against whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). The PCL nanospheres exhibited a homogeneous spherical morphology, with particle diameters between 106.7 nm and 129.2 nm, pH of approximately 6, zeta potential (ZP) lower than −19.0 mV and encapsulation efficiency higher than 98%. Only 43% of the nanoencapsulated essential oil (NSEO) was degraded in response to ultraviolet light, whereas the essential oil (EO) degraded by 76% over the same period. In a free-choice test, the NSEO and EO reduced the number of whitefly eggs by approximately 70%. NSEO and EO at 1.5% killed 82.87% and 91.23% of 2nd-instar nymphs of whitefly, respectively. Although NSEO displayed lower insecticidal activity, it offers a greater advantage over the free EO, due to protection conferred by polymer against photodegradation. Therefore, its usage may optimize the maintenance of essential oils in the field through photoprotection and controlled release. Our results suggest that the EO of Z. riedelianum fruit can be used for B. tabaci management strategy; nevertheless, the benefits of NSEO require further evaluation at the field level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessCommunication Suzuki-Type Cross-Coupling Reaction of Unprotected 3-Iodoindazoles with Pinacol Vinyl Boronate: An Expeditive C-3 Vinylation of Indazoles under Microwave Irradiation
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2051; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082051
Received: 7 July 2018 / Revised: 11 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Herein we report an expeditive C-3 vinylation of unprotected 3-iodoindazoles under microwave irradiation. Ten C-5 substituted 3-vinylindazole derivatives, nine of them novel, were synthesized through this method, which proceeds in moderate to excellent yields starting from C-5 substituted 3-iodoindazole derivatives. In all cases,
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Herein we report an expeditive C-3 vinylation of unprotected 3-iodoindazoles under microwave irradiation. Ten C-5 substituted 3-vinylindazole derivatives, nine of them novel, were synthesized through this method, which proceeds in moderate to excellent yields starting from C-5 substituted 3-iodoindazole derivatives. In all cases, the C-3 vinylated derivative was the only isolated product. This methodology allows access to 3-vinylated indazoles selectively and directly without the need of N-protection. 3-Vinylindazoles could be interesting synthetic intermediates allowing access to biologically active molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Nitrogen-Containing Aromatic Heterocycles)
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Open AccessReview Graphene and Graphene-Based Nanomaterials for DNA Detection: A Review
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2050; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082050
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
DNA detection with high sensitivity and specificity has tremendous potential as molecular diagnostic agents. Graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials, such as graphene nanopore, graphene nanoribbon, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide, graphene-nanoparticle composites, were demonstrated to have unique properties, which have attracted increasing interest
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DNA detection with high sensitivity and specificity has tremendous potential as molecular diagnostic agents. Graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials, such as graphene nanopore, graphene nanoribbon, graphene oxide, and reduced graphene oxide, graphene-nanoparticle composites, were demonstrated to have unique properties, which have attracted increasing interest towards the application of DNA detection with improved performance. This article comprehensively reviews the most recent trends in DNA detection based on graphene and graphene-related nanomaterials. Based on the current understanding, this review attempts to identify the future directions in which the field is likely to thrive, and stimulate more significant research in this subject. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene Nanocomposites)
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Open AccessArticle An In Vitro Estimation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Root Extract from Leonurus sibiricus L. Overexpressing AtPAP1 against Different Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2049; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082049
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 12 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
As the current cancer treatment success rate is not sufficient, interest has grown in plants as possible sources of anti-cancer compounds. One such plant with a broad spectrum of activity is Lenourus sibiricus of the family Lamiaceae. This study investigates for the first
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As the current cancer treatment success rate is not sufficient, interest has grown in plants as possible sources of anti-cancer compounds. One such plant with a broad spectrum of activity is Lenourus sibiricus of the family Lamiaceae. This study investigates for the first time both the genotoxic and cytotoxic activities of TR (transformed) and AtPAP1 TR (with over-expression of transcriptional factor) root extracts of Lenourus sibiricus against various cancer cell lines (CCRF-CEM, K-562 and A549). Both tested extracts showed a cytotoxic effect on CCRF-CEM and K-562 cell lines, but strongest activity was observed for the AtPAP1 TR extract. No cytotoxic effect was observed against the A549 cell line in the tested concentration range, and it was found that both tested extracts may induce apoptosis by decreasing mitochondrial membrane potential and inducing nDNA damage lesion in the TP53 region and mtDNA in ND1 (mitochondrially encoded NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 1) and ND5 (mitochondrially encoded NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase core subunit 5) regions in K-562 and CCRF-CEM. Our results confirmed that TR and AtPAP1 TR root extracts from L. sibiricus are cytotoxic and genotoxic against different model cell lines (CCRF-CEM and K-562). However, the observed genotoxicity of both extracts needs to be confirmed by additional studies. These preclinical observations support the use of L. sibiricus with other pharmacological purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Herbal Medicine Research)
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Open AccessArticle Putative Iron Acquisition Systems in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
Molecules 2018, 23(8), 2048; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23082048
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 22 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Iron has been shown to regulate biofilm formation, oxidative stress response and several pathogenic mechanisms in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Thus, the present study is aimed at identifying various iron acquisition systems and iron sources utilized during iron starvation in S. maltophilia. The
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Iron has been shown to regulate biofilm formation, oxidative stress response and several pathogenic mechanisms in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Thus, the present study is aimed at identifying various iron acquisition systems and iron sources utilized during iron starvation in S. maltophilia. The annotations of the complete genome of strains K279a, R551-3, D457 and JV3 through Rapid Annotations using Subsystems Technology (RAST) revealed two putative subsystems to be involved in iron acquisition: the iron siderophore sensor and receptor system and the heme, hemin uptake and utilization systems/hemin transport system. Screening for these acquisition systems in S. maltophilia showed the presence of all tested functional genes in clinical isolates, but only a few in environmental isolates. NanoString nCounter Elements technology, applied to determine the expression pattern of the genes under iron-depleted condition, showed significant expression for FeSR (6.15-fold), HmuT (12.21-fold), Hup (5.46-fold), ETFb (2.28-fold), TonB (2.03-fold) and Fur (3.30-fold). The isolates, when further screened for the production and chemical nature of siderophores using CAS agar diffusion (CASAD) and Arnows’s colorimetric assay, revealed S. maltophilia to produce catechol-type siderophore. Siderophore production was also tested through liquid CAS assay and was found to be greater in the clinical isolate (30.8%) compared to environmental isolates (4%). Both clinical and environmental isolates utilized hemoglobin, hemin, transferrin and lactoferrin as iron sources. All data put together indicates that S. maltophilia utilizes siderophore-mediated and heme-mediated systems for iron acquisition during iron starvation. These data need to be further confirmed through several knockout studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Computing and Bioinformatics)
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