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Special Issue "Dietary Fructose and Glucose: The Multifacetted Aspects of their Metabolism and Implication for Human Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Luc Tappy

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +021-692-5541
Interests: metabolism of sugars at rest and during exercise; role of fructose in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We welcome the submission of manuscripts, either describing original research, or reviewing scientific literature. Manuscripts should focus on well-defined topics not previously reported extensively in the literature, such as (but not limited to):

  • functional aspects of fructose and glucose metabolism
  • health effects of chronic fructose consumption
  • molecular and mechanistic insights of hexoses-induced adaptations
  • sugars, sweet taste receptors and brain responses
  • intervention studies in humans

Papers covering species comparisons of nutrition/metabolism or evolutionary perspectives, or effects of fructose and glucose in specific physiological conditions (physical activity, pregnancy, growth, etc.) or special tissues (testis, placenta) are welcome.

Prof. Luc Tappy
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fructose
  • added sugars
  • metabolic syndrome
  • glucose production
  • intrahepatic lipids
  • intramyocellular lipids
  • uric acid
  • food intake
  • satiety
  • exercise
  • energy efficiency

Published Papers (38 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Deleterious Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Intake: The Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus kefiri Administration
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 470; doi:10.3390/nu9050470
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 13 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
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Abstract
Modern lifestyle and diets have been associated with metabolic disorders and an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. Probiotics are widely known for their health beneficial properties targeting the gut microbial ecosystem. The aim of our study was to evaluate the preventive effect
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Modern lifestyle and diets have been associated with metabolic disorders and an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. Probiotics are widely known for their health beneficial properties targeting the gut microbial ecosystem. The aim of our study was to evaluate the preventive effect of Lactobacillus kefiri (L. kefiri) administration in a fructose-rich diet (FRD) mice model. Mice were provided with tap water or fructose-added (20% w/v) drinking water supplemented or not with L. kefiri. Results showed that probiotic administration prevented weight gain and epidydimal adipose tissue (EAT) expansion, with partial reversion of the adipocyte hypertrophy developed by FRD. Moreover, the probiotic prevented the increase of plasma triglycerides and leptin, together with the liver triglyceride content. Leptin adipocyte secretion was also improved by L. kefiri, being able to respond to an insulin stimulus. Glucose intolerance was partially prevented by L. kefiri treatment (GTT) and local inflammation (TNFα; IL1β; IL6 and INFγ) was completely inhibited in EAT. L. kefiri supplementation generated an impact on gut microbiota composition, changing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes profiles. Overall, our results indicate that the administration of probiotics prevents the deleterious effects of FRD intake and should therefore be promoted to improve metabolic disorders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Liver Lipid Metabolism in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 476; doi:10.3390/nu9050476
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal
[...] Read more.
We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or solutions containing 13% (w/v) glucose, 13% fructose, or 0.4% aspartame. After 7 weeks, in vivo hepatic dietary lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis were assessed with proton-observed, carbon-13-edited MRS combined with 13C-labeled lipids and 13C-labeled glucose, respectively. The molecular basis of alterations in hepatic liver metabolism was analyzed in detail ex vivo using immunoblotting and targeted quantitative proteomics. Both glucose and fructose feeding increased adiposity, but only fructose induced hepatic lipid accumulation. In vivo MRS showed that this was not caused by increased hepatic uptake of dietary lipids, but could be attributed to an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Stimulation of lipogenesis by fructose was confirmed by a strong upregulation of lipogenic enzymes, which was more potent than with glucose. The non-caloric sweetener aspartame did not significantly affect liver lipid content or metabolism. In conclusion, liquid fructose more severely affected liver lipid metabolism in rats than glucose, while aspartame had no effect. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Sweet Taste Receptor Activation in the Gut Is of Limited Importance for Glucose-Stimulated GLP-1 and GIP Secretion
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 418; doi:10.3390/nu9040418
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 11 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 22 April 2017
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Abstract
Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin secretion from an isolated perfused
[...] Read more.
Glucose stimulates the secretion of the incretin hormones: glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). It is debated whether the sweet taste receptor (STR) triggers this secretion. We investigated the role of STR activation for glucose-stimulated incretin secretion from an isolated perfused rat small intestine and whether selective STR activation by artificial sweeteners stimulates secretion. Intra-luminal administration of the STR agonists, acesulfame K (3.85% w/v), but not sucralose (1.25% w/v) and stevioside (2.5% w/v), stimulated GLP-1 secretion (acesulfame K: 31 ± 3 pmol/L vs. 21 ± 2 pmol/L, p < 0.05, n = 6). In contrast, intra-arterial administration of sucralose (10 mM) and stevioside (10 mM), but not acesulfame K, stimulated GLP-1 secretion (sucralose: 51 ± 6 pmol/L vs. 34 ± 4 pmol/L, p < 0.05; stevioside: 54 ± 6 pmol/L vs. 32 ± 2 pmol/L, p < 0.05, n = 6), while 0.1 mM and 1 mM sucralose did not affect the secretion. Luminal glucose (20% w/v) doubled GLP-1 and GIP secretion, but basolateral STR inhibition by gurmarin (2.5 µg/mL) or the inhibition of the transient receptor potential cation channel 5 (TRPM5) by triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO) (100 µM) did not attenuate the responses. In conclusion, STR activation does not drive GIP/GLP-1 secretion itself, nor does it have a role for glucose-stimulated GLP-1 or GIP secretion. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Endurance Training with or without Glucose-Fructose Ingestion: Effects on Lactate Metabolism Assessed in a Randomized Clinical Trial on Sedentary Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 411; doi:10.3390/nu9040411
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Glucose-fructose ingestion increases glucose and lactate oxidation during exercise. We hypothesized that training with glucose-fructose would induce key adaptations in lactate metabolism. Two groups of eight sedentary males were endurance-trained for three weeks while ingesting either glucose-fructose (GF) or water (C). Effects of
[...] Read more.
Glucose-fructose ingestion increases glucose and lactate oxidation during exercise. We hypothesized that training with glucose-fructose would induce key adaptations in lactate metabolism. Two groups of eight sedentary males were endurance-trained for three weeks while ingesting either glucose-fructose (GF) or water (C). Effects of glucose-fructose on lactate appearance, oxidation, and clearance were measured at rest and during exercise, pre-training, and post-training. Pre-training, resting lactate appearance was 3.6 ± 0.5 vs. 3.6 ± 0.4 mg·kg−1·min−1 in GF and C, and was increased to 11.2 ± 1.4 vs. 8.8 ± 0.7 mg·kg−1·min−1 by exercise (Exercise: p < 0.01). Lactate oxidation represented 20.6% ± 1.0% and 17.5% ± 1.7% of lactate appearance at rest, and 86.3% ± 3.8% and 86.8% ± 6.6% during exercise (Exercise: p < 0.01) in GF and C, respectively. Training with GF increased resting lactate appearance and oxidation (Training × Intervention: both p < 0.05), but not during exercise (Training × Intervention: both p > 0.05). Training with GF and C had similar effects to increase lactate clearance during exercise (+15.5 ± 9.2 and +10.1 ± 5.9 mL·kg−1·min−1; Training: p < 0.01; Training × Intervention: p = 0.97). The findings of this study show that in sedentary participants, glucose-fructose ingestion leads to high systemic lactate appearance, most of which is disposed non-oxidatively at rest and is oxidized during exercise. Training with or without glucose-fructose increases lactate clearance, without altering lactate appearance and oxidation during exercise. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Differential Effect of Sucrose and Fructose in Combination with a High Fat Diet on Intestinal Microbiota and Kidney Oxidative Stress
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 393; doi:10.3390/nu9040393
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 16 April 2017
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Abstract
There is controversial information about the adverse effect of sucrose (S) or fructose (F) in the development of obesity. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of S or F in a high fat diet (HF) on gut microbiota
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There is controversial information about the adverse effect of sucrose (S) or fructose (F) in the development of obesity. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of S or F in a high fat diet (HF) on gut microbiota and renal oxidative stress. Rats were fed for four months with either high-fat + sucrose (HFS) or high-fat + fructose (HFF) or a control diet (C). Half of the HFS or HFF groups were maintained with the same diet and the other half were switched to the consumption of C. HFS and HFF groups increased 51% and 19% body weight, respectively, compared with the C group. Body fat mass, metabolic inflexibility, glucose intolerance, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), insulin, renal reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), Nadphox, and Srebp-1 were significantly higher and antioxidant enzymes and lean body mass were significantly lower in the HFS group with respect to the HF-F group. Change in the consumption of HFS or HFF to a C diet ameliorated the insulin and glucose intolerance. The type of carbohydrate differentially modified the microbiota composition, however, both groups significantly decreased C. eutactus with respect to the C group. Thus, metabolic alterations with the HFS diet had a more detrimental effect than HFF. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Associations of Dietary Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose with β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Type 2 Diabetes in the Maastricht Study
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 380; doi:10.3390/nu9040380
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
The associations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies focusing on early markers of T2DM that provide insight into the process of T2DM progression: impaired pancreatic β-cell function
[...] Read more.
The associations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies focusing on early markers of T2DM that provide insight into the process of T2DM progression: impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin sensitivity. This study evaluated associations cross-sectionally in a population-based cohort consisting of 2818 individuals (mean ± SD age 59.7 ± 8.18, 49.5% male, n = 120 newly diagnosed T2DM). Glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Glucose metabolism status, insulin sensitivity, and BCF were measured by a seven-points oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive association of glucose intake with insulin sensitivity in the fully adjusted model (standardized beta (95% CI) 0.07 (0.05, 0.14) SD for ≥23 g vs. <10 g of glucose). Fructose and sucrose intake were not associated with insulin sensitivity after full adjustments. In addition, no associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF were detected. In conclusion, higher intake of glucose, not fructose and sucrose, was associated with higher insulin sensitivity, independent of dietary fibre. No convincing evidence was found for associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF in this middle-aged population. Full article
Open AccessArticle Metabolic Impact of Light Phase-Restricted Fructose Consumption Is Linked to Changes in Hypothalamic AMPK Phosphorylation and Melatonin Production in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 332; doi:10.3390/nu9040332
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 27 March 2017
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Abstract
Recent studies show that the metabolic effects of fructose may vary depending on the phase of its consumption along with the light/dark cycle. Here, we investigated the metabolic outcomes of fructose consumption by rats during either the light (LPF) or the dark (DPF)
[...] Read more.
Recent studies show that the metabolic effects of fructose may vary depending on the phase of its consumption along with the light/dark cycle. Here, we investigated the metabolic outcomes of fructose consumption by rats during either the light (LPF) or the dark (DPF) phases of the light/dark cycle. This experimental approach was combined with other interventions, including restriction of chow availability to the dark phase, melatonin administration or intracerebroventricular inhibition of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) with Compound C. LPF, but not DPF rats, exhibited increased hypothalamic AMPK phosphorylation, glucose intolerance, reduced urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-S-Mel) (a metabolite of melatonin) and increased corticosterone levels. LPF, but not DPF rats, also exhibited increased chow ingestion during the light phase. The mentioned changes were blunted by Compound C. LPF rats subjected to dark phase-restricted feeding still exhibited increased hypothalamic AMPK phosphorylation but failed to develop the endocrine and metabolic changes. Moreover, melatonin administration to LPF rats reduced corticosterone and prevented glucose intolerance. Altogether, the present data suggests that consumption of fructose during the light phase results in out-of-phase feeding due to increased hypothalamic AMPK phosphorylation. This shift in spontaneous chow ingestion is responsible for the reduction of 6-S-Mel and glucose intolerance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lifetime Exposure to a Constant Environment Amplifies the Impact of a Fructose-Rich Diet on Glucose Homeostasis during Pregnancy
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 327; doi:10.3390/nu9040327
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
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Abstract
The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a
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The need to refine rodent models of human-related disease is now being recognized, in particular the rearing environment that can profoundly modulate metabolic regulation. Most studies on pregnancy and fetal development purchase and transport young females into the research facility, which after a short period of acclimation are investigated (Gen0). We demonstrate that female offspring (Gen1) show an exaggerated hyperinsulinemic response to pregnancy when fed a standard diet and with high fructose intake, which continues throughout pregnancy. Markers of maternal hepatic metabolism were differentially influenced, as the gene expression of acetyl-CoA-carboxylase was raised in Gen1 given fructose and controls, whereas glucose transporter 5 and fatty acid synthase expression were only raised with fructose. Gen1 rats weighed more than Gen0 throughout the study, although fructose feeding raised the percent body fat but not body weight. We show that long-term habituation to the living environment has a profound impact on the animal’s metabolic responses to nutritional intervention and pregnancy. This has important implications for interpreting many studies investigating the influence of maternal consumption of fructose on pregnancy outcomes and offspring to date. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fructose-Rich Diet Affects Mitochondrial DNA Damage and Repair in Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 323; doi:10.3390/nu9040323
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 24 March 2017
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Abstract
Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in
[...] Read more.
Evidence indicates that many forms of fructose-induced metabolic disturbance are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are prominent targets of oxidative damage; however, it is not clear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and/or its lack of repair are events involved in metabolic disease resulting from a fructose-rich diet. In the present study, we evaluated the degree of oxidative damage to liver mtDNA and its repair, in addition to the state of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet. We used male rats feeding on a high-fructose or control diet for eight weeks. Our results showed an increase in mtDNA damage in the liver of rats fed a high-fructose diet and this damage, as evaluated by the expression of DNA polymerase γ, was not repaired; in addition, the mtDNA copy number was found to be significantly reduced. A reduction in the mtDNA copy number is indicative of impaired mitochondrial biogenesis, as is the finding of a reduction in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, a fructose-rich diet leads to mitochondrial and mtDNA damage, which consequently may have a role in liver dysfunction and metabolic diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Addition of Liquid Fructose to a Western-Type Diet in LDL-R−/− Mice Induces Liver Inflammation and Fibrogenesis Markers without Disrupting Insulin Receptor Signalling after an Insulin Challenge
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 278; doi:10.3390/nu9030278
Received: 2 February 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract
A high consumption of fat and simple sugars, especially fructose, has been related to the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms involved in the effects of these nutrients are not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of a Western-type diet and
[...] Read more.
A high consumption of fat and simple sugars, especially fructose, has been related to the development of insulin resistance, but the mechanisms involved in the effects of these nutrients are not fully understood. This study investigates the effects of a Western-type diet and liquid fructose supplementation, alone and combined, on insulin signalling and inflammation in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient mice (LDL-R−/−). LDL-R−/− mice were fed chow or Western diet ±15% fructose solution for 12 weeks. Plasma glucose and insulin, and the expression of genes related to inflammation in the liver and visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT), were analysed. V-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-2 (Akt) activation was measured in the liver of the mice after a single injection of saline or insulin. None of the dietary interventions caused inflammation in vWAT, whereas the Western diet induced hepatic inflammation, which was further enhanced by liquid fructose, leading also to a significant increase in fibrogenesis markers. However, there was no change in plasma glucose or insulin, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. In conclusion, hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis markers induced by a Western diet supplemented with liquid fructose in LDL-R−/− mice are not associated with a significant impairment of hepatic insulin signalling. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Short-Term Dietary Fructose Supplementation on Gastric Emptying Rate and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 258; doi:10.3390/nu9030258
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract
This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the 13C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the 13C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in accelerated gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. No differences in GIP, GLP-1, or insulin incremental area under curve (iAUC) were found between control and supplement trials for either fructose or glucose ingestion. However, a trend for lower ghrelin iAUC was observed for FS compared to FC. In addition, a trend of lower GHR concentration was observed at 45 min for FS compared to FC and GHR concentration for GS was greater than GC at 10 min. The accelerated gastric emptying rate of fructose following short-term supplementation with fructose may be partially explained by subtle changes in delayed postprandial ghrelin suppression. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Effects of Replacing Sugar-Sweetened Beverages with Artificially-Sweetened Beverages in Overweight Subjects with or without Hepatic Steatosis: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 202; doi:10.3390/nu9030202
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 27 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Objective: Addition of fructose to the diet of normal weight and overweight subjects can increase postprandial plasma triglyceride and uric acid concentration. We, therefore, assessed whether replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) with artificially-sweetened beverages (ASB) in the diet of overweight and obese subjects would
[...] Read more.
Objective: Addition of fructose to the diet of normal weight and overweight subjects can increase postprandial plasma triglyceride and uric acid concentration. We, therefore, assessed whether replacing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) with artificially-sweetened beverages (ASB) in the diet of overweight and obese subjects would decrease these parameters. Methods: Twenty-six participants of the REDUCS study, which assessed the effects of replacing SSB by ASB over 12 weeks on intra-hepatocellular lipid concentration, were included in this sub-analysis. All were studied after a four-week run-in period during which they consumed their usual diet and SSBs, and after a 12-week intervention in which they were randomly assigned to replace their SSBs with ASBs (ASB arm) or to continue their usual diet and SSBs (control arm, CTRL). At the end of run-in (week 4) and again at the end of intervention (week 16), they took part in an 8.5 h metabolic investigation during which their plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, triglyceride (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and uric acid concentrations were measured over a 30 min fasting period (−30–0 min), then every 2 h over 480 min. with ingestion of standard breakfast at time 0 min and a standard lunch at time 240 min. Breakfast and lunch were consumed together with a 3.3 dL SSB at week 4 and with either an ASB (ASB arm) or a SSB (CTRL arm) at week 16. After analyzing the whole group, a secondary analysis was performed on 14 subjects with hepatic steatosis (seven randomized to ASB, seven to CTRL) and 12 subjects without hepatic steatosis (six randomized to ASB and six to CTRL). Results: Ingestion of meals increased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, lactate, and TG concentrations and decreased NEFA concentrations, but with no significant difference of integrated postprandial responses between week 4 and week 16 in both ASB and CTRL, except for a slightly decreased glucagon response in ASB. There was, however, no significant postprandial increase in uric acid concentration in both arms. In the secondary analysis, replacing SSBs with ASBs did not significantly change postprandial TG and uric acid concentrations irrespective of the presence or not of hepatic steatosis, Conclusions: In overweight, high SSB consumers, replacing SSBs with ASBs during 12 weeks did not significantly alter post-prandial TG and uric acid concentration, in spite of the lower energy and fructose content of the meals. These effects were globally the same in subjects without and with hepatic steatosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Metabolic Effects of Glucose-Fructose Co-Ingestion Compared to Glucose Alone during Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 164; doi:10.3390/nu9020164
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
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Abstract
This paper aims to compare the metabolic effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion (GLUFRU) with glucose alone (GLU) in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifteen male individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0% ± 0.6% (53 ± 7 mmol/mol)) underwent a 90 min
[...] Read more.
This paper aims to compare the metabolic effects of glucose-fructose co-ingestion (GLUFRU) with glucose alone (GLU) in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Fifteen male individuals with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 7.0% ± 0.6% (53 ± 7 mmol/mol)) underwent a 90 min iso-energetic continuous cycling session at 50% VO2max while ingesting combined glucose-fructose (GLUFRU) or glucose alone (GLU) to maintain stable glycaemia without insulin adjustment. GLUFRU and GLU were labelled with 13C-fructose and 13C-glucose, respectively. Metabolic assessments included measurements of hormones and metabolites, substrate oxidation, and stable isotopes. Exogenous carbohydrate requirements to maintain stable glycaemia were comparable between GLUFRU and GLU (p = 0.46). Fat oxidation was significantly higher (5.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.6 ± 1.2 mg·kg−1·min−1, p < 0.001) and carbohydrate oxidation lower (18.1 ± 0.8 vs. 24.5 ± 0.8 mg·kg−1·min−1 p < 0.001) in GLUFRU compared to GLU, with decreased muscle glycogen oxidation in GLUFRU (10.2 ± 0.9 vs. 17.5 ± 1.0 mg·kg−1·min−1, p < 0.001). Lactate levels were higher (2.2 ± 0.2 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1 mmol/L, p = 0.012) in GLUFRU, with comparable counter-regulatory hormones between GLUFRU and GLU (p > 0.05 for all). Glucose and insulin levels, and total glucose appearance and disappearance were comparable between interventions. Glucose-fructose co-ingestion may have a beneficial impact on fuel metabolism in exercising individuals with type 1 diabetes without insulin adjustment, by increasing fat oxidation whilst sparing glycogen. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 167; doi:10.3390/nu9020167
Received: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co‐ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose
[...] Read more.
Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g∙min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co‐ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co‐ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL∙kg−1∙min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g∙min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g∙min−1 glucose + 0.6 g∙min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g∙min−1 glucose + 1.2 g∙min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g∙min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g∙min−1: p < 0.05). In line, exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g∙min−1, respectively, p < 0.05). We conclude that fructose co‐ingestion (0.6 g∙min−1) with glucose (1.2 g∙min−1) provided either as a monosaccharide or as sucrose strongly increases exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Individual Diet Modeling Shows How to Balance the Diet of French Adults with or without Excessive Free Sugar Intakes
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 162; doi:10.3390/nu9020162
Received: 22 November 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
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Abstract
Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed
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Dietary changes needed to achieve nutritional adequacy for 33 nutrients were determined for 1719 adults from a representative French national dietary survey. For each individual, an iso-energy nutritionally adequate diet was generated using diet modeling, staying as close as possible to the observed diet. The French food composition table was completed with free sugar (FS) content. Results were analyzed separately for individuals with FS intakes in their observed diets ≤10% or >10% of their energy intake (named below FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS, respectively). The FS-EXCESS group represented 41% of the total population (average energy intake of 14.2% from FS). Compared with FS-ACCEPTABLE individuals, FS-EXCESS individuals had diets of lower nutritional quality and consumed more energy (2192 vs. 2123 kcal/day), particularly during snacking occasions (258 vs. 131 kcal/day) (all p-values < 0.01). In order to meet nutritional targets, for both FS-ACCEPTABLE and FS-EXCESS individuals, the main dietary changes in optimized diets were significant increases in fresh fruits, starchy foods, water, hot beverages and plain yogurts; and significant decreases in mixed dishes/sandwiches, meat/eggs/fish and cheese. For FS-EXCESS individuals only, the optimization process significantly increased vegetables and significantly decreased sugar-sweetened beverages, sweet products and fruit juices. The diets of French adults with excessive intakes of FS are of lower nutritional quality, but can be optimized via specific dietary changes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 146; doi:10.3390/nu9020146
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 16 February 2017
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Abstract
Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother–infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at
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Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother–infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Acute Effects of Simple Sugar Ingestion on Appetite, Gut-Derived Hormone Response, and Metabolic Markers in Men
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 135; doi:10.3390/nu9020135
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
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Abstract
This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose
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This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), and 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C), in a randomised order. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, lactate, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and d-3 hydroxybutyrate, were measured for 60 min. Appetite was measured using visual analogue scales (VAS). The ingestion of F and S resulted in a lower GIP incremental area under the curve (iAUC) compared to the ingestion of G (p < 0.05). No differences in the iAUC for GLP-1 or ghrelin were present between the trials, nor for insulin between the sugars. No differences in appetite ratings or hepatic metabolism measures were found, except for lactate, which was greater following the ingestion of F, S, and C, when compared to W and G (p < 0.05). The acute ingestion of typical amounts of fructose, in a variety of forms, results in marked differences in circulating GIP and lactate concentration, but no differences in appetite ratings, triglyceride concentration, indicative lipolysis, or NEFA metabolism, when compared to glucose. Full article
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Open AccessArticle High Dietary Fructose Intake on Cardiovascular Disease Related Parameters in Growing Rats
Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 11; doi:10.3390/nu9010011
Received: 29 October 2016 / Revised: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 26 December 2016
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a high-fructose diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related parameters in growing rats. Three-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; a regular diet group (RD: fed regular diet based
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The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a high-fructose diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related parameters in growing rats. Three-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups; a regular diet group (RD: fed regular diet based on AIN-93G, n = 8), a high-fructose diet group (30Frc: fed regular diet with 30% fructose, n = 8), a high-fat diet group (45Fat: fed regular diet with 45 kcal% fat, n = 8) or a high fructose with high-fat diet group (30Frc + 45Fat, fed diet 30% fructose with 45 kcal% fat, n = 8). After an eight-week treatment period, the body weight, total-fat weight, serum glucose, insulin, lipid profiles and pro-inflammatory cytokines, abdominal aortic wall thickness, and expressions of eNOS and ET-1 mRNA were analyzed. The result showed that total-fat weight was higher in the 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups compared to the RD group (p < 0.05). Serum triglyceride (TG) levels were highest in the 30Frc group than the other groups (p < 0.05). The abdominal aorta of 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups had higher wall thickness than the RD group (p < 0.05). Abdominal aortic eNOS mRNA level was decreased in 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups compared to the RD group (p < 0.05), and also 45Fat and 30Frc + 45Fat groups had decreased mRNA expression of eNOS compared to the 30Frc group (p < 0.05). ET-1 mRNA level was higher in 30Frc, 45Fat, and 30Frc + 45Fat groups than the RD group (p < 0.05). Both high fructose consumption and high fat consumption in growing rats had similar negative effects on CVD-related parameters. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 743; doi:10.3390/nu9070743
Received: 22 April 2017 / Revised: 3 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
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Abstract
Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories
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Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey. Full article
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Open AccessReview Sugars, Sweet Taste Receptors, and Brain Responses
Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 653; doi:10.3390/nu9070653
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 20 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
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Abstract
Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the
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Sweet taste receptors are composed of a heterodimer of taste 1 receptor member 2 (T1R2) and taste 1 receptor member 3 (T1R3). Accumulating evidence shows that sweet taste receptors are ubiquitous throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract as well as the hypothalamus. These sweet taste receptors are heavily involved in nutrient sensing, monitoring changes in energy stores, and triggering metabolic and behavioral responses to maintain energy balance. Not surprisingly, these pathways are heavily regulated by external and internal factors. Dysfunction in one or more of these pathways may be important in the pathogenesis of common diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Full article
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Open AccessReview Targeting Overconsumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages vs. Overall Poor Diet Quality for Cardiometabolic Diseases Risk Prevention: Place Your Bets!
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 600; doi:10.3390/nu9060600
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
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Abstract
Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is amongst the dietary factors most consistently found to be associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in large epidemiological studies. Intervention studies have shown that SSB overconsumption increases intra-abdominal obesity and
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Chronic overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is amongst the dietary factors most consistently found to be associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in large epidemiological studies. Intervention studies have shown that SSB overconsumption increases intra-abdominal obesity and ectopic lipid deposition in the liver, and also exacerbates cardiometabolic risk. Similar to the prevalence of obesity and T2D, national surveys of food consumption have shown that chronic overconsumption of SSBs is skyrocketing in many parts of the world, yet with marked heterogeneity across countries. SSB overconsumption is also particularly worrisome among children and adolescents. Although the relationships between SSB overconsumption and obesity, T2D, and CVD are rather consistent in epidemiological studies, it has also been shown that SSB overconsumption is part of an overall poor dietary pattern and is particularly prevalent among subgroups of the population with low socioeconomic status, thereby questioning the major focus on SSBs to target/prevent cardiometabolic diseases. Public health initiatives aimed specifically at decreasing SSB overconsumption will most likely be successful in influencing SSB consumption per se. However, comprehensive strategies targeting poor dietary patterns and aiming at improving global dietary quality are likely to have much more impact in addressing the unprecedented public health challenges that we are currently facing. Full article
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Open AccessReview Chronic Fructose Ingestion as a Major Health Concern: Is a Sedentary Lifestyle Making It Worse? A Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 549; doi:10.3390/nu9060549
Received: 21 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 28 May 2017
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Abstract
Obesity contributes to metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, all of which are risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. The growing prevelance of metabolic syndrome seems to be an end result of our current lifestyle which promotes high
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Obesity contributes to metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose intolerance, all of which are risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. The growing prevelance of metabolic syndrome seems to be an end result of our current lifestyle which promotes high caloric, high-fat foods and minimal physical activity, resulting in a state of positive energy balance. Increased adiposity and physical inactivity may represent the beginning of the appearance of these risk factors. Understanding the metabolic and cardiovascular disturbances associated with diet and exercise habits is a crucial step towards reducing the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Although considerable research has been conducted linking chronic fructose ingestion to the increased prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome risk factors, these studies have mainly been performed on animals, and/or in a post-absorptive state. Further, the magnitude of the effect of fructose may depend on other aspects of the diet, including the total amount of carbohydrates and fats in the diet and the overall consumption of meals. Therefore, the overall aim of this review paper is to examine the effects of a diet high in fructose on postprandial lipidemia, inflammatory markers and glucose tolerance, all risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, an objective is to investigate whether increased physical activity can alter such effects. Full article
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Open AccessReview The “Metabolic Memory” Theory and the Early Treatment of Hyperglycemia in Prevention of Diabetic Complications
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 437; doi:10.3390/nu9050437
Received: 2 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
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Abstract
Several epidemiological and prospective studies suggest that an early intensive control of hyperglycaemia is able to decrease the risk of diabetic micro- and macro-vascular complications. A growing body of experimental evidence supports the concept that the risk for diabetes complications may be linked
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Several epidemiological and prospective studies suggest that an early intensive control of hyperglycaemia is able to decrease the risk of diabetic micro- and macro-vascular complications. A growing body of experimental evidence supports the concept that the risk for diabetes complications may be linked to oxidative stress, non-enzymatic glycation of proteins, epigenetic changes, and chronic inflammation, laying the foundation for the “metabolic memory” theory. From a clinical point of view, this theory supports the need for a very early aggressive treatment, with the goal of normalizing metabolic control as soon as possible. It may also prove beneficial to introduce therapeutic agents that are able to reduce reactive species and glycation, in addition to presenting better control of glucose levels in patients with diabetes, in order to minimize long-term diabetes complications. In this review, we evaluate the effect of glucose intake and metabolism in the light of this theory. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fructose, Glucocorticoids and Adipose Tissue: Implications for the Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 426; doi:10.3390/nu9050426
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2017 / Accepted: 20 April 2017 / Published: 26 April 2017
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Abstract
The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake
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The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake when combined with overeating and adiposity promotes adverse metabolic health effects including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and inflammation. Similarly, elevated glucocorticoid levels, especially the enhanced generation of active glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue due to increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, have been associated with metabolic diseases. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that fructose stimulates the 11β-HSD1-mediated glucocorticoid activation by enhancing the availability of its cofactor NADPH. In adipocytes, fructose was found to stimulate 11β-HSD1 expression and activity, thereby promoting the adipogenic effects of glucocorticoids. This article aims to highlight the interconnections between overwhelmed fructose metabolism, intracellular glucocorticoid activation in adipose tissue, and their metabolic effects on the progression of the metabolic syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fructose Consumption in the Development of Obesity and the Effects of Different Protocols of Physical Exercise on the Hepatic Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 405; doi:10.3390/nu9040405
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 3 April 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 20 April 2017
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Abstract
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context,
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Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes, and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance. However, physical exercise has been indicated for the treatment of several chronic diseases. In this review, we show how each exercise protocol (aerobic, strength, or a combination of both) promote improvements in the obesogenic state created by fructose consumption as an improvement in the serum and liver lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein (HDL) increase and decrease triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels) and a reduction of markers of inflammation caused by an excess of fructose. Therefore, it is concluded that the practice of aerobic physical exercise, strength training, or a combination of both is essential for attenuating the complications developed by the consumption of fructose. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fructose Intake, Serum Uric Acid, and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Critical Review
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 395; doi:10.3390/nu9040395
Received: 26 February 2017 / Revised: 7 April 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
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Abstract
There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular
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There is a direct relationship between fructose intake and serum levels of uric acid (UA), which is the final product of purine metabolism. Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that chronic hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. It is probably also an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease, Type 2 diabetes, and cognitive decline. These relationships have been observed for high serum UA levels (>5.5 mg/dL in women and >6 mg/dL in men), but also for normal to high serum UA levels (5–6 mg/dL). In this regard, blood UA levels are much higher in industrialized countries than in the rest of the world. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors can reduce UA and seem to minimize its negative effects on vascular health. Other dietary and pathophysiological factors are also related to UA production. However, the role of fructose-derived UA in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders has not yet been fully clarified. Here, we critically review recent research on the biochemistry of UA production, the relationship between fructose intake and UA production, and how this relationship is linked to cardiometabolic disorders. Full article
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Open AccessReview Dietary Sugars and Endogenous Formation of Advanced Glycation Endproducts: Emerging Mechanisms of Disease
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 385; doi:10.3390/nu9040385
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
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Abstract
The rapid increase in metabolic diseases, which occurred in the last three decades in both industrialized and developing countries, has been related to the rise in sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages consumption. An emerging topic in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to
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The rapid increase in metabolic diseases, which occurred in the last three decades in both industrialized and developing countries, has been related to the rise in sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages consumption. An emerging topic in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to modern nutrition is the role of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs). AGEs can be ingested with high temperature processed foods, but also endogenously formed as a consequence of a high dietary sugar intake. Animal models of high sugar consumption, in particular fructose, have reported AGE accumulation in different tissues in association with peripheral insulin resistance and lipid metabolism alterations. The in vitro observation that fructose is one of the most rapid and effective glycating agents when compared to other sugars has prompted the investigation of the in vivo fructose-induced glycation. In particular, the widespread employment of fructose as sweetener has been ascribed by many experimental and observational studies for the enhancement of lipogenesis and intracellular lipid deposition. Indeed, diet-derived AGEs have been demonstrated to interfere with many cell functions such as lipid synthesis, inflammation, antioxidant defences, and mitochondrial metabolism. Moreover, emerging evidence also in humans suggest that this impact of dietary AGEs on different signalling pathways can contribute to the onset of organ damage in liver, skeletal and cardiac muscle, and the brain, affecting not only metabolic control, but global health. Indeed, the most recent reports on the effects of high sugar consumption and diet-derived AGEs on human health reviewed here suggest the need to limit the dietary sources of AGEs, including added sugars, to prevent the development of metabolic diseases and related comorbidities. Full article
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Open AccessReview Low Glycemic Index Prototype Isomaltulose—Update of Clinical Trials
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 381; doi:10.3390/nu9040381
Received: 12 February 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
Low glycemic index diets are supposed to achieve a more beneficial effect on blood glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus and may also provide metabolic benefits for the general population. A prototype of a low-glycemic index carbohydrate is the natural occurring disaccharide
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Low glycemic index diets are supposed to achieve a more beneficial effect on blood glucose control in people with diabetes mellitus and may also provide metabolic benefits for the general population. A prototype of a low-glycemic index carbohydrate is the natural occurring disaccharide isomaltulose that can be commercially produced from sucrose (beet sugar) to industrial scale. It is currently used in various food and drink applications as well as special and clinical nutrition feeds and formula diet as a food ingredient and alternative sugar. Here we provide an overview on clinical trials with isomaltulose including an analysis of its effects on glycemia and fat oxidation as compared to high glycemic index sugars and carbohydrates. In addition, we discuss recent reports on beneficial effects in weight-loss maintenance and pregnancy. Full article
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Open AccessReview Inborn Errors of Fructose Metabolism. What Can We Learn from Them?
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 356; doi:10.3390/nu9040356
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 3 April 2017
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Abstract
Fructose is one of the main sweetening agents in the human diet and its ingestion is increasing globally. Dietary sugar has particular effects on those whose capacity to metabolize fructose is limited. If intolerance to carbohydrates is a frequent finding in children, inborn
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Fructose is one of the main sweetening agents in the human diet and its ingestion is increasing globally. Dietary sugar has particular effects on those whose capacity to metabolize fructose is limited. If intolerance to carbohydrates is a frequent finding in children, inborn errors of carbohydrate metabolism are rare conditions. Three inborn errors are known in the pathway of fructose metabolism; (1) essential or benign fructosuria due to fructokinase deficiency; (2) hereditary fructose intolerance; and (3) fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency. In this review the focus is set on the description of the clinical symptoms and biochemical anomalies in the three inborn errors of metabolism. The potential toxic effects of fructose in healthy humans also are discussed. Studies conducted in patients with inborn errors of fructose metabolism helped to understand fructose metabolism and its potential toxicity in healthy human. Influence of fructose on the glycolytic pathway and on purine catabolism is the cause of hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis and hyperuricemia. The discovery that fructose-mediated generation of uric acid may have a causal role in diabetes and obesity provided new understandings into pathogenesis for these frequent diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview Role of the Enterocyte in Fructose-Induced Hypertriglyceridaemia
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 349; doi:10.3390/nu9040349
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 21 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 1 April 2017
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Abstract
Dietary fructose has been linked to an increased post-prandial triglyceride (TG) level; which is an established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although much research has focused on the effects of fructose consumption on liver-derived very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL); emerging evidence also suggests
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Dietary fructose has been linked to an increased post-prandial triglyceride (TG) level; which is an established independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although much research has focused on the effects of fructose consumption on liver-derived very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL); emerging evidence also suggests that fructose may raise post-prandial TG levels by affecting the metabolism of enterocytes of the small intestine. Enterocytes have become well recognised for their ability to transiently store lipids following a meal and to thus control post-prandial TG levels according to the rate of chylomicron (CM) lipoprotein synthesis and secretion. The influence of fructose consumption on several aspects of enterocyte lipid metabolism are discussed; including de novo lipogenesis; apolipoprotein B48 and CM-TG production; based on the findings of animal and human isotopic tracer studies. Methodological issues affecting the interpretation of fructose studies conducted to date are highlighted; including the accurate separation of CM and VLDL. Although the available evidence to date is limited; disruption of enterocyte lipid metabolism may make a meaningful contribution to the hypertriglyceridaemia often associated with fructose consumption. Full article
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Open AccessReview Glucose Plus Fructose Ingestion for Post-Exercise Recovery—Greater than the Sum of Its Parts?
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 344; doi:10.3390/nu9040344
Received: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
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Abstract
Carbohydrate availability in the form of muscle and liver glycogen is an important determinant of performance during prolonged bouts of moderate- to high-intensity exercise. Therefore, when effective endurance performance is an objective on multiple occasions within a 24-h period, the restoration of endogenous
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Carbohydrate availability in the form of muscle and liver glycogen is an important determinant of performance during prolonged bouts of moderate- to high-intensity exercise. Therefore, when effective endurance performance is an objective on multiple occasions within a 24-h period, the restoration of endogenous glycogen stores is the principal factor determining recovery. This review considers the role of glucose–fructose co-ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen repletion following prolonged exercise. Glucose and fructose are primarily absorbed by different intestinal transport proteins; by combining the ingestion of glucose with fructose, both transport pathways are utilised, which increases the total capacity for carbohydrate absorption. Moreover, the addition of glucose to fructose ingestion facilitates intestinal fructose absorption via a currently unidentified mechanism. The co-ingestion of glucose and fructose therefore provides faster rates of carbohydrate absorption than the sum of glucose and fructose absorption rates alone. Similar metabolic effects can be achieved via the ingestion of sucrose (a disaccharide of glucose and fructose) because intestinal absorption is unlikely to be limited by sucrose hydrolysis. Carbohydrate ingestion at a rate of ≥1.2 g carbohydrate per kg body mass per hour appears to maximise post-exercise muscle glycogen repletion rates. Providing these carbohydrates in the form of glucose–fructose (sucrose) mixtures does not further enhance muscle glycogen repletion rates over glucose (polymer) ingestion alone. In contrast, liver glycogen repletion rates are approximately doubled with ingestion of glucose–fructose (sucrose) mixtures over isocaloric ingestion of glucose (polymers) alone. Furthermore, glucose plus fructose (sucrose) ingestion alleviates gastrointestinal distress when the ingestion rate approaches or exceeds the capacity for intestinal glucose absorption (~1.2 g/min). Accordingly, when rapid recovery of endogenous glycogen stores is a priority, ingesting glucose–fructose mixtures (or sucrose) at a rate of ≥1.2 g·kg body mass−1·h−1 can enhance glycogen repletion rates whilst also minimising gastrointestinal distress. Full article
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Open AccessReview High Dietary Fructose: Direct or Indirect Dangerous Factors Disturbing Tissue and Organ Functions
Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 335; doi:10.3390/nu9040335
Received: 6 February 2017 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
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Abstract
High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG), free
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High dietary fructose is a major contributor to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, disturbing tissue and organ functions. Fructose is mainly absorbed into systemic circulation by glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) and GLUT5, and metabolized in liver to produce glucose, lactate, triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), uric acid (UA) and methylglyoxal (MG). Its extrahepatic absorption and metabolism also take place. High levels of these metabolites are the direct dangerous factors. During fructose metabolism, ATP depletion occurs and induces oxidative stress and inflammatory response, disturbing functions of local tissues and organs to overproduce inflammatory cytokine, adiponectin, leptin and endotoxin, which act as indirect dangerous factors. Fructose and its metabolites directly and/or indirectly cause oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, autophagy and increased intestinal permeability, and then further aggravate the metabolic syndrome with tissue and organ dysfunctions. Therefore, this review addresses fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, and the disturbance effects of direct and/or indirect dangerous factors on the functions of liver, adipose, pancreas islet, skeletal muscle, kidney, heart, brain and small intestine. It is important to find the potential correlations between direct and/or indirect risk factors and healthy problems under excess dietary fructose consumption. Full article
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Open AccessReview Fructose and NAFLD: The Multifaceted Aspects of  Fructose Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 230; doi:10.3390/nu9030230
Received: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Among various factors, such as an unhealthy diet or a sedentarity lifestyle, excessive fructose consumption is known to favor nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as fructose is both a substrate and an inducer of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The present review presents some
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Among various factors, such as an unhealthy diet or a sedentarity lifestyle, excessive fructose consumption is known to favor nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), as fructose is both a substrate and an inducer of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. The present review presents some well‐established mechanisms and new clues to better understand the pathophysiology of fructose‐induced NAFLD. Beyond its lipogenic effect, fructose intake is also at the onset of hepatic inflammation and cellular stress, such as oxidative and endoplasmic stress, that are key factors contributing to the progression of simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Beyond its hepatic effects, this carbohydrate may exert direct and indirect effects at the peripheral level. Excessive fructose consumption is associated, for example, with the release by the liver of several key mediators leading to alterations in the communication between the liver and the gut, muscles, and adipose tissue and to disease aggravation. These multifaceted aspects of fructose properties are in part specific to fructose, but are also shared in part with sucrose and glucose present in energy– dense beverages and foods. All these aspects must be taken into account in the development of new therapeutic strategies and thereby to better prevent NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Role of Carbohydrate Response Element Binding Protein in Intestinal and Hepatic Fructose Metabolism
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 181; doi:10.3390/nu9020181
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
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Abstract
Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation,
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Many articles have discussed the relationship between fructose consumption and the incidence of obesity and related diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the intestine and metabolized in the liver to glucose, lactate, glycogen, and, to a lesser extent, lipids. Unabsorbed fructose causes bacterial fermentation, resulting in irritable bowl syndrome. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP) is a glucose-activated transcription factor that controls approximately 50% of de novo lipogenesis in the liver. ChREBP target genes are involved in glycolysis (Glut2, liver pyruvate kinase), fructolysis (Glut5, ketohexokinase), and lipogenesis (acetyl CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase). ChREBP gene deletion protects against high sucrose diet-induced and leptin-deficient obesity, because Chrebp−/− mice cannot consume fructose or sucrose. Moreover, ChREBP contributes to some of the physiological effects of fructose on sweet taste preference and glucose production through regulation of ChREBP target genes, such as fibroblast growth factor-21 and glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. Thus, ChREBP might play roles in fructose metabolism. Restriction of excess fructose intake will be beneficial for preventing not only metabolic syndrome but also irritable bowl syndrome. Full article
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Open AccessReview Effects of Natural Products on Fructose-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)
Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 96; doi:10.3390/nu9020096
Received: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 31 January 2017
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Abstract
As a sugar additive, fructose is widely used in processed foods and beverages. Excessive fructose consumption can cause hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. Recent research revealed that fructose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to several
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As a sugar additive, fructose is widely used in processed foods and beverages. Excessive fructose consumption can cause hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome. Recent research revealed that fructose-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is related to several pathological processes, including: (1) augmenting lipogenesis; (2) leading to mitochondrial dysfunction; (3) stimulating the activation of inflammatory pathways; and (4) causing insulin resistance. Cellular signaling research indicated that partial factors play significant roles in fructose-induced NAFLD, involving liver X receptor (LXR)α, sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1/1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor α (PPARα), leptin nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Until now, a series of natural products have been reported as regulators of NAFLD in vivo and in vitro. This paper reviews the natural products (e.g., curcumin, resveratrol, and (−)-epicatechin) and their mechanisms of ameliorating fructose-induced NAFLD over the past years. Although, as lead compounds, natural products usually have fewer activities compared with synthesized compounds, it will shed light on studies aiming to discover new drugs for NAFLD. Full article
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Open AccessReview Maternal Fructose Intake Affects Transcriptome Changes and Programmed Hypertension in Offspring in Later Life
Nutrients 2016, 8(12), 757; doi:10.3390/nu8120757
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 1 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
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Abstract
Hypertension originates from early-life insults by so-called “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Studies performed in the previous few decades indicate that fructose consumption is associated with an increase in hypertension rate. It is emerging field that tends to unfold the nutrient–gene
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Hypertension originates from early-life insults by so-called “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Studies performed in the previous few decades indicate that fructose consumption is associated with an increase in hypertension rate. It is emerging field that tends to unfold the nutrient–gene interactions of maternal high-fructose (HF) intake on the offspring which links renal programming to programmed hypertension. Reprogramming interventions counteract disturbed nutrient–gene interactions induced by maternal HF intake and exert protective effects against developmentally programmed hypertension. Here, we review the key themes on the effect of maternal HF consumption on renal transcriptome changes and programmed hypertension. We have particularly focused on the following areas: metabolic effects of fructose on hypertension and kidney disease; effects of maternal HF consumption on hypertension development in adult offspring; effects of maternal HF consumption on renal transcriptome changes; and application of reprogramming interventions to prevent maternal HF consumption-induced programmed hypertension in animal models. Provision of personalized nutrition is still a faraway goal. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand early-life nutrient–gene interactions and to develop effective reprogramming strategies for treating hypertension and other HF consumption-related diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview Relationship between Added Sugars Consumption and Chronic Disease Risk Factors: Current Understanding
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 697; doi:10.3390/nu8110697
Received: 17 August 2016 / Revised: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
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Abstract
Added sugars are a controversial and hotly debated topic. Consumption of added sugars has been implicated in increased risk of a variety of chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as cognitive decline and even
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Added sugars are a controversial and hotly debated topic. Consumption of added sugars has been implicated in increased risk of a variety of chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as cognitive decline and even some cancers. Support for these putative associations has been challenged, however, on a variety of fronts. The purpose of the current review is to summarize high impact evidence including systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in an attempt to provide an overview of current evidence related to added sugars and health considerations. This paper is an extension of a symposium held at the Experimental Biology 2015 conference entitled “Sweeteners and Health: Current Understandings, Controversies, Recent Research Findings and Directions for Future Research”. We conclude based on high quality evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT), systematic reviews and meta-analyses of cohort studies that singling out added sugars as unique culprits for metabolically based diseases such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease appears inconsistent with modern, high quality evidence and is very unlikely to yield health benefits. While it is prudent to consume added sugars in moderation, the reduction of these components of the diet without other reductions of caloric sources seems unlikely to achieve any meaningful benefit. Full article
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Open AccessReview Early Life Fructose Exposure and Its Implications for Long-Term Cardiometabolic Health in Offspring
Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 685; doi:10.3390/nu8110685
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 1 November 2016
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Abstract
It has become increasingly clear that maternal nutrition can strongly influence the susceptibility of adult offspring to cardiometabolic disease. For decades, it has been thought that excessive intake of fructose, such as sugar-sweetened beverages and foods, has been linked to increased risk of
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It has become increasingly clear that maternal nutrition can strongly influence the susceptibility of adult offspring to cardiometabolic disease. For decades, it has been thought that excessive intake of fructose, such as sugar-sweetened beverages and foods, has been linked to increased risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in various populations. These deleterious effects of excess fructose consumption in adults are well researched, but limited data are available on the long-term effects of high fructose exposure during gestation, lactation, and infancy. This review aims to examine the evidence linking early life fructose exposure during critical periods of development and its implications for long-term cardiometabolic health in offspring. Full article
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