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Nutrients 2017, 9(2), 135; doi:10.3390/nu9020135

The Acute Effects of Simple Sugar Ingestion on Appetite, Gut-Derived Hormone Response, and Metabolic Markers in Men

1
School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, Greater Manchester M1 5GD, UK
2
Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, Greater Manchester M13 9PT, UK
3
School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Co Londonderry BT52 1SA, UK
4
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
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Abstract

This pilot study aimed to investigate the effect of simple sugar ingestion, in amounts typical of common ingestion, on appetite and the gut-derived hormone response. Seven healthy men ingested water (W) and equicaloric solutions containing 39.6 g glucose monohydrate (G), 36 g fructose (F), 36 g sucrose (S), and 19.8 g glucose monohydrate + 18 g fructose (C), in a randomised order. Serum concentrations of ghrelin, glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, lactate, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and d-3 hydroxybutyrate, were measured for 60 min. Appetite was measured using visual analogue scales (VAS). The ingestion of F and S resulted in a lower GIP incremental area under the curve (iAUC) compared to the ingestion of G (p < 0.05). No differences in the iAUC for GLP-1 or ghrelin were present between the trials, nor for insulin between the sugars. No differences in appetite ratings or hepatic metabolism measures were found, except for lactate, which was greater following the ingestion of F, S, and C, when compared to W and G (p < 0.05). The acute ingestion of typical amounts of fructose, in a variety of forms, results in marked differences in circulating GIP and lactate concentration, but no differences in appetite ratings, triglyceride concentration, indicative lipolysis, or NEFA metabolism, when compared to glucose. View Full-Text
Keywords: glucose; fructose; sucrose; sugar ingestion; appetite; gut hormones; ghrelin; GLP-1; hepatic metabolism glucose; fructose; sucrose; sugar ingestion; appetite; gut hormones; ghrelin; GLP-1; hepatic metabolism
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yau, A.M.W.; McLaughlin, J.; Gilmore, W.; Maughan, R.J.; Evans, G.H. The Acute Effects of Simple Sugar Ingestion on Appetite, Gut-Derived Hormone Response, and Metabolic Markers in Men. Nutrients 2017, 9, 135.

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