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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 380; doi:10.3390/nu9040380

Associations of Dietary Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose with β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Type 2 Diabetes in the Maastricht Study

1
Department of Epidemiology, Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands
2
Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands
3
Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands
4
Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands
5
C N R Institute of Neuroscience, Padova 56124, Italy
6
C N R Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa 56124, Italy
7
Heart and Vascular Centre, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands
8
Department of Social Medicine, Maastricht University, Maastricht MD 6200, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 31 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract

The associations of glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies focusing on early markers of T2DM that provide insight into the process of T2DM progression: impaired pancreatic β-cell function (BCF) and insulin sensitivity. This study evaluated associations cross-sectionally in a population-based cohort consisting of 2818 individuals (mean ± SD age 59.7 ± 8.18, 49.5% male, n = 120 newly diagnosed T2DM). Glucose, fructose, and sucrose intake were assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Glucose metabolism status, insulin sensitivity, and BCF were measured by a seven-points oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive association of glucose intake with insulin sensitivity in the fully adjusted model (standardized beta (95% CI) 0.07 (0.05, 0.14) SD for ≥23 g vs. <10 g of glucose). Fructose and sucrose intake were not associated with insulin sensitivity after full adjustments. In addition, no associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF were detected. In conclusion, higher intake of glucose, not fructose and sucrose, was associated with higher insulin sensitivity, independent of dietary fibre. No convincing evidence was found for associations of dietary glucose, fructose, and sucrose with BCF in this middle-aged population. View Full-Text
Keywords: beta-cell function; diet; fructose; glucose; insulin sensitivity; prediabetes; sucrose; type 2 diabetes beta-cell function; diet; fructose; glucose; insulin sensitivity; prediabetes; sucrose; type 2 diabetes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Biggelaar, L.J.C.J.; Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Sep, S.J.S.; Mari, A.; Ferrannini, E.; Dongen, M.C.J.M.; Denissen, K.F.M.; Wijckmans, N.E.G.; Schram, M.T.; Kallen, C.J.; Koster, A.; Schaper, N.; Henry, R.M.A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Dagnelie, P.C. Associations of Dietary Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose with β-Cell Function, Insulin Sensitivity, and Type 2 Diabetes in the Maastricht Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 380.

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