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Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 258; doi:10.3390/nu9030258

The Effect of Short-Term Dietary Fructose Supplementation on Gastric Emptying Rate and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Men

1
School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, Greater Manchester M1 5GD, UK
2
Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, Greater Manchester M13 9PT, UK
3
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK
4
School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, Co Londonderry BT52 1SA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
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Abstract

This study aimed to examine gastric emptying rate and gastrointestinal hormone responses to fructose and glucose ingestion following 3 days of dietary fructose supplementation. Using the 13C-breath test method, gastric emptying rates of equicaloric fructose and glucose solutions were measured in 10 healthy men with prior fructose supplementation (fructose supplement, FS; glucose supplement, GS) and without prior fructose supplementation (fructose control, FC; glucose control, GC). In addition, circulating concentrations of acylated ghrelin (GHR), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were determined, as well as leptin, lactate, and triglycerides. Increased dietary fructose ingestion resulted in accelerated gastric emptying rate of a fructose solution but not a glucose solution. No differences in GIP, GLP-1, or insulin incremental area under curve (iAUC) were found between control and supplement trials for either fructose or glucose ingestion. However, a trend for lower ghrelin iAUC was observed for FS compared to FC. In addition, a trend of lower GHR concentration was observed at 45 min for FS compared to FC and GHR concentration for GS was greater than GC at 10 min. The accelerated gastric emptying rate of fructose following short-term supplementation with fructose may be partially explained by subtle changes in delayed postprandial ghrelin suppression. View Full-Text
Keywords: fructose supplementation; glucose; fructose; sugar ingestion; gastric emptying; gastrointestinal adaptation; gastrointestinal hormones fructose supplementation; glucose; fructose; sugar ingestion; gastric emptying; gastrointestinal adaptation; gastrointestinal hormones
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yau, A.M.W.; McLaughlin, J.; Maughan, R.J.; Gilmore, W.; Evans, G.H. The Effect of Short-Term Dietary Fructose Supplementation on Gastric Emptying Rate and Gastrointestinal Hormone Responses in Healthy Men. Nutrients 2017, 9, 258.

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