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Nutrients 2017, 9(5), 476; doi:10.3390/nu9050476

An In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Liver Lipid Metabolism in Rats

1
Biomedical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
2
Center for Liver, Digestive and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
3
Systems Biology Centre for Energy Metabolism and Ageing, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands
4
Department of Pharmacy, Analytical Biochemistry, University of Groningen, Antonius Deusinglaan, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands
5
Computational Biology, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
In memory of Professor Klaas Nicolay, who deceased before publication of this work. His expertise was crucial for the design and conduct of this study.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract

We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or solutions containing 13% (w/v) glucose, 13% fructose, or 0.4% aspartame. After 7 weeks, in vivo hepatic dietary lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis were assessed with proton-observed, carbon-13-edited MRS combined with 13C-labeled lipids and 13C-labeled glucose, respectively. The molecular basis of alterations in hepatic liver metabolism was analyzed in detail ex vivo using immunoblotting and targeted quantitative proteomics. Both glucose and fructose feeding increased adiposity, but only fructose induced hepatic lipid accumulation. In vivo MRS showed that this was not caused by increased hepatic uptake of dietary lipids, but could be attributed to an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Stimulation of lipogenesis by fructose was confirmed by a strong upregulation of lipogenic enzymes, which was more potent than with glucose. The non-caloric sweetener aspartame did not significantly affect liver lipid content or metabolism. In conclusion, liquid fructose more severely affected liver lipid metabolism in rats than glucose, while aspartame had no effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; fatty liver disease; hepatic steatosis; carbohydrate; glucose; fructose; aspartame obesity; fatty liver disease; hepatic steatosis; carbohydrate; glucose; fructose; aspartame
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MDPI and ACS Style

Janssens, S.; Ciapaite, J.; Wolters, J.C.; van Riel, N.A.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J. An In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Liver Lipid Metabolism in Rats. Nutrients 2017, 9, 476.

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