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Special Issue "Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses"

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A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2011)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Antonio Trincone

Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Comprensorio Olivetti, Edificio 70, Via Campi Flegrei 34, I-80078 Pozzuoli, Napoli, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +39 081 8041770
Interests: biocatalysis; marine enzymes; marine glycosidases; marine biotechnology; oligosaccharides

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marine ecosystem is considered a rather unexplored source of natural bioactive substances with potential therapeutic activity and as consequence it should be also appreciated as a source of enzymes carrying new and surprising catalytic activities to be applied in biocatalysis. Notwithstanding commercial exploitations in marine biotechnology are not familiar as in the whole biotechnology field. The uniqueness of marine biocatalysts could characterize bioprocesses taking advantages by habitat-related properties such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, etc. But novelty brought out by marine enzymes is more pervasive, in fact new characteristics can be discovered at molecular level of catalysis specially concerning the stereochemical asset of products. The analysis of marine bio-processes from chemical and stereochemical viewpoints of catalysis could better reveal the potential of marine sources in biocatalysis. Substrate specificity and affinity play somehow leader roles. Both are evolved properties that are linked to the metabolic functions of the enzymes and to ecological asset related to the natural source. Consequently the range of available relevant catalysts is a key issue. Sources are represented by marine microorganism, plants and animals but great efforts are directed towards extremophiles or symbiotic microorganisms and towards molecular biology tools. The advent of PCR, the advances in recombinant expression systems, and the genomic research in general, allowed the access to new natural and modified enzymes useful for biotechnological purposes. As far as this genetic improvements are considered, attempts were made to enhance the stability and activity of such enzymes, or to increase their specificity for application as efficient catalysts. Setting up bioreactors for marine metabolite production is a key point in marine biotechnology. Special culture conditions and bioengineering including different immobilized cell technologies are of great interest in this field to increase production of natural products or analogs. In this special issue articles or reviews concerning bioprocesses will discuss more recent successes in chemical domain of catalysis with marine biocatalysts for promoting the in-depth knowledge in this field. Sources of enzymes, marine molecular biology tools and study of marine biocatalysis (including enzymatic characteristics such as yields, stereochemistry, special reaction conditions, isolation techniques, downstream aspects, structure of products obtained), will characterize this issue.

The potential of the marine habitat should be thoroughly known and possibly the way for access to an useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day becoming of interest and a future increase in articles dealing with the use of marine enzymes should be expected.

As the Guest Editor, I invite researchers from industry and academia, working with marine enzymes to describe recent advances in the field.

Dr. Antonio Trincone
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • enzymes
  • biocatalysts
  • marine ecology
  • marine biotechnology
  • biocatalysis
  • extremophiles
  • marine microorganisms

Published Papers (23 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle An Aeroplysinin-1 Specific Nitrile Hydratase Isolated from the Marine Sponge Aplysina cavernicola
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(8), 3046-3067; doi:10.3390/md11083046
Received: 2 July 2013 / Revised: 31 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 21 August 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1023 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A nitrile hydratase (NHase) that specifically accepts the nitrile aeroplysinin-1 (1) as a substrate and converts it into the dienone amide verongiaquinol (7) was isolated, partially purified and characterized from the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola; although it is
[...] Read more.
A nitrile hydratase (NHase) that specifically accepts the nitrile aeroplysinin-1 (1) as a substrate and converts it into the dienone amide verongiaquinol (7) was isolated, partially purified and characterized from the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola; although it is currently not known whether the enzyme is of sponge origin or produced by its symbiotic microorganisms. The formation of aeroplysinin-1 and of the corresponding dienone amide is part of the chemical defence system of A. cavernicola. The latter two compounds that show strong antibiotic activity originate from brominated isoxazoline alkaloids that are thought to protect the sponges from invasion of bacterial pathogens. The sponge was shown to contain at least two NHases as two excised protein bands from a non denaturating Blue Native gel showed nitrile hydratase activity, which was not observed for control samples. The enzymes were shown to be manganese dependent, although cobalt and nickel ions were also able to recover the activity of the nitrile hydratases. The temperature and pH optimum of the studied enzymes were found at 41 °C and pH 7.8. The enzymes showed high substrate specificity towards the physiological substrate aeroplysinin-1 (1) since none of the substrate analogues that were prepared either by partial or by total synthesis were converted in an in vitro assay. Moreover de-novo sequencing by mass spectrometry was employed to obtain information about the primary structure of the studied NHases, which did not reveal any homology to known NHases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessArticle Screening of Microorganisms Producing Cold-Active Oxidoreductases to Be Applied in Enantioselective Alcohol Oxidation. An Antarctic Survey
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(5), 889-905; doi:10.3390/md9050889
Received: 20 April 2011 / Revised: 17 May 2011 / Accepted: 20 May 2011 / Published: 24 May 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several microorganisms were isolated from soil/sediment samples of Antarctic Peninsula. The enrichment technique using (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as a carbon source allowed us to isolate 232 psychrophile/psychrotroph microorganisms. We also evaluated the enzyme activity (oxidoreductases) for enantioselective oxidation reactions, by using derivatives of
[...] Read more.
Several microorganisms were isolated from soil/sediment samples of Antarctic Peninsula. The enrichment technique using (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as a carbon source allowed us to isolate 232 psychrophile/psychrotroph microorganisms. We also evaluated the enzyme activity (oxidoreductases) for enantioselective oxidation reactions, by using derivatives of (RS)-1-(phenyl)ethanol as substrates. Among the studied microorganisms, 15 psychrophile/psychrotroph strains contain oxidoreductases that catalyze the (S)-enantiomer oxidation from racemic alcohols to their corresponding ketones. Among the identified microorganisms, Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp. showed excellent enzymatic activity. These new bacteria strains were selected for optimization study, in which the (RS)-1-(4-methyl-phenyl)ethanol oxidation was evaluated in several reaction conditions. From these studies, it was observed that Flavobacterium sp. has an excellent enzymatic activity at 10 °C and Arthrobacter sp. at 15 and 25 °C. We have also determined the growth curves of these bacteria, and both strains showed optimum growth at 25 °C, indicating that these bacteria are psychrotroph. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessArticle Molecular Evolution of Multiple Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT) in Fish
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(5), 906-921; doi:10.3390/md9050906
Received: 17 February 2011 / Revised: 16 May 2011 / Accepted: 17 May 2011 / Published: 24 May 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to arylalkylamines, including indolethylamines and phenylethylamines. Multiple aanats are present in teleost fish as a result of whole genome and gene duplications. Fish aanat1a and aanat2 paralogs
[...] Read more.
Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to arylalkylamines, including indolethylamines and phenylethylamines. Multiple aanats are present in teleost fish as a result of whole genome and gene duplications. Fish aanat1a and aanat2 paralogs display different patterns of tissue expression and encode proteins with different substrate preference: AANAT1a is expressed in the retina, and acetylates both indolethylamines and phenylethylamines; while AANAT2 is expressed in the pineal gland, and preferentially acetylates indolethylamines. The two enzymes are therefore thought to serve different roles. Here, the molecular changes that led to their specialization were studied by investigating the structure-function relationships of AANATs in the gilthead seabream (sb, Sperus aurata). Acetylation activity of reciprocal mutated enzymes pointed to specific residues that contribute to substrate specificity of the enzymes. Inhibition tests followed by complementary analyses of the predicted three-dimensional models of the enzymes, suggested that both phenylethylamines and indolethylamines bind to the catalytic pocket of both enzymes. These results suggest that substrate selectivity of AANAT1a and AANAT2 is determined by the positioning of the substrate within the catalytic pocket, and its accessibility to catalysis. This illustrates the evolutionary process by which enzymes encoded by duplicated genes acquire different activities and play different biological roles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
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Open AccessArticle Coccolithophores: Functional Biodiversity, Enzymes and Bioprospecting
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 586-602; doi:10.3390/md9040586
Received: 15 March 2011 / Revised: 1 April 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 11 April 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emiliania huxleyi is a single celled, marine phytoplankton with global distribution. As a key species for global biogeochemical cycling, a variety of strains have been amassed in various culture collections. Using a library consisting of 52 strains of E. huxleyi and an ‘in
[...] Read more.
Emiliania huxleyi is a single celled, marine phytoplankton with global distribution. As a key species for global biogeochemical cycling, a variety of strains have been amassed in various culture collections. Using a library consisting of 52 strains of E. huxleyi and an ‘in house‘ enzyme screening program, we have assessed the functional biodiversity within this species of fundamental importance to global biogeochemical cycling, whilst at the same time determining their potential for exploitation in biocatalytic applications. Here, we describe the screening of E. huxleyi strains, as well as a coccolithovirus infected strain, for commercially relevant biocatalytic enzymes such as acid/alkali phosphodiesterase, acid/alkali phosphomonoesterase, EC1.1.1-type dehydrogenase, EC1.3.1-type dehydrogenase and carboxylesterase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
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Open AccessArticle Bacterial Diversity and Bioprospecting for Cold-Active Hydrolytic Enzymes from Culturable Bacteria Associated with Sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(2), 184-195; doi:10.3390/md9020184
Received: 17 December 2010 / Revised: 4 January 2011 / Accepted: 14 January 2011 / Published: 31 January 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The diversity and cold-active hydrolytic enzymes of culturable bacteria associated with sandy sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica (69°22′6″ S, 76°21′45″ E) was investigated. A total of 33 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated at 4 °C. These bacterial isolates could be sorted
[...] Read more.
The diversity and cold-active hydrolytic enzymes of culturable bacteria associated with sandy sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica (69°22′6″ S, 76°21′45″ E) was investigated. A total of 33 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated at 4 °C. These bacterial isolates could be sorted into 18 phylotypes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence belonging to four phyla, namely Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Only seven isolates were psychrophilic, 15 isolates were moderately psychrophilic, and 11 isolates were psychrotolerant. More than 72% of the isolates required sodium chloride to grow. Esterase, b-glucosidase and proteases activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 45% of the strains while approximately 21%, 15% and 12% of the strains possessed lipase, amylase and chitinase, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively high culturable bacterial diversity is present within marine sediment of Nella Fjord and it could serve as an ideal candidate region for bioprospecting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessArticle Purification and Characterization of a Bifunctional Alginate Lyase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM0524
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(1), 109-123; doi:10.3390/md9010109
Received: 2 January 2011 / Revised: 15 January 2011 / Accepted: 19 January 2011 / Published: 21 January 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An alginate lyase-producing bacterial strain, Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM0524, was screened from marine rotten kelp. In an optimized condition, the production of alginate lyase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM0524 reached 62.6 U/mL, suggesting that strain SM0524 is a good producer of alginate lyases. The bifunctional
[...] Read more.
An alginate lyase-producing bacterial strain, Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM0524, was screened from marine rotten kelp. In an optimized condition, the production of alginate lyase from Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM0524 reached 62.6 U/mL, suggesting that strain SM0524 is a good producer of alginate lyases. The bifunctional alginate lyasealy-SJ02 secreted by strain SM0524 was purified. Aly-SJ02 had an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa. The optimal temperature and pH of aly-SJ02 toward sodium alginate was 50 °C and 8.5, respectively. The half life period of aly-SJ02 was 41 min at 40 °C and 20 min at 50 °C. Aly-SJ02 was most stable at pH 8.0. N-terminal sequence analysis suggested that aly-SJ02 may be an alginate lyase of polysaccharide lyase family 18. Aly-SJ02 showed activities toward both polyG (α-L-guluronic acid) and polyM (β-D-mannuronic acid), indicating that it is a bifunctional alginate lyase. Aly-SJ02 had lower Km toward polyG than toward polyM and sodium alginate. Thin layer chromatography and ESI-MS analyses showed that aly-SJ02 mainly released dimers and trimers from polyM and alginate, and trimers and tetramers from polyG, which suggests that aly-SJ02 may be a good tool to produce dimers and trimers from alginate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessArticle Leucine Aminopeptidase, β-Glucosidase and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Rates and Their Significance in Nutrient Cycles in Some Coastal Mediterranean Sites
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(4), 916-940; doi:10.3390/md8040916
Received: 20 February 2010 / Revised: 19 March 2010 / Accepted: 26 March 2010 / Published: 29 March 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (466 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In aquatic microbial ecology, knowledge of the processes involved in the turnover of organic matter is of utmost importance to understand ecosystem functioning. Microorganisms are major players in the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) and carbon, thanks to their enzymatic activities (leucine aminopeptidase,
[...] Read more.
In aquatic microbial ecology, knowledge of the processes involved in the turnover of organic matter is of utmost importance to understand ecosystem functioning. Microorganisms are major players in the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) and carbon, thanks to their enzymatic activities (leucine aminopeptidase, LAP, alkaline phosphatase, AP, and β-glucosidase, β-GLU) on organic polymers (proteins, organic phosphates and polysaccharides, respectively). Estimates of the decomposition rates of organic polymers are performed using fluorogenic compounds, whose hydrolysis rate allow us to obtain information on the “potential” metabolic activity of the prokaryotic community. This paper refers the enzyme patterns measured during recent oceanographic cruises performed in some coastal Mediterranean sites, not yet fully investigated in terms of microbial biogeochemical processes. Mean enzyme activity rates ranged from 5.24 to 5558.1 nM/h, from 12.68 to 244.73 nM/h and from 0.006 to 9.51 nM/h for LAP, AP and β-GLU, respectively. The highest LAP and AP activity rates were measured in the Gulf of Milazzo (Tyrrhenian Sea) and in the Straits of Messina, in association with the lowest bacterioplankton abundance; in contrast, the lowest ones were found in the northern Adriatic Sea. β-GLU was more active in the Straits of Messina. Activity rates were analysed in relation to the main environmental variables. Along the northern Adriatic coastal side affected by the Po river, significant inverse relationships linked LAP and AP with salinity, pointing out that fluvial inputs provided organic substrates for microbial metabolism. Both in the Gulf of Manfredonia and in the Straits of Messina, LAP and AP levels were inversely related with the concentration of nitrate and inorganic phosphorus, respectively. In the Gulf of Milazzo, high cell-specific AP measured in spite of phosphorus availability suggested the role of this enzyme not only in phosphorus, but also in carbon release. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
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Open AccessArticle Seasonal Variations of the Activity of Antioxidant Defense Enzymes in the Red Mullet (Mullus barbatus l.) from the Adriatic Sea
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 413-428; doi:10.3390/md8030413
Received: 28 December 2009 / Revised: 1 February 2010 / Accepted: 5 February 2010 / Published: 26 February 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities: total, manganese, copper zinc containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn SOD, CuZn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and
[...] Read more.
This study investigated seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities: total, manganese, copper zinc containing superoxide dismutase (Tot SOD, Mn SOD, CuZn SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and biotransformation phase II enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the liver and white muscle of red mullet (Mullus barbatus). The investigations were performed in winter and spring at two localities: Near Bar (NB) and Estuary of the River Bojana (EB) in the Southern Adriatic Sea. At both sites, Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST activities decreased in the liver in spring. In the white muscle, activities of Mn SOD, GSH-Px, GR and GST in NB decreased in spring. GR decreased in spring in EB, while CAT activity was higher in spring at both sites. The results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on correlations indicated a clear separation of various sampling periods for both investigated tissues and a marked difference between two seasons. Our study is the first report on antioxidant defense enzyme activities in the red mullet in the Southern Adriatic Sea. It indicates that seasonal variations of antioxidant defense enzyme activities should be used in further biomonitoring studies in fish species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
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Open AccessArticle Natural Occurrence of 2′,5′-Linked Heteronucleotides in Marine Sponges
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(2), 235-254; doi:10.3390/md8020235
Received: 23 December 2009 / Revised: 18 January 2010 / Accepted: 1 February 2010 / Published: 2 February 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) as a component of mammalian interferon-induced antiviral enzymatic system catalyze the oligomerization of cellular ATP into 2′,5′-linked oligoadenylates (2-5A). Though vertebrate OASs have been characterized as 2′-nucleotidyl transferases under in vitro conditions, the natural occurrence of 2′,5′-oligonucleotides other than 2-5A
[...] Read more.
2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) as a component of mammalian interferon-induced antiviral enzymatic system catalyze the oligomerization of cellular ATP into 2′,5′-linked oligoadenylates (2-5A). Though vertebrate OASs have been characterized as 2′-nucleotidyl transferases under in vitro conditions, the natural occurrence of 2′,5′-oligonucleotides other than 2-5A has never been demonstrated. Here we have demonstrated that OASs from the marine sponges Thenea muricata and Chondrilla nucula are able to catalyze in vivo synthesis of 2-5A as well as the synthesis of a series 2′,5′-linked heteronucleotides which accompanied high levels of 2′,5′-diadenylates. In dephosphorylated perchloric acid extracts of the sponges, these heteronucleotides were identified as A2′p5′G, A2′p5′U, A2′p5′C, G2′p5′A and G2′p5′U. The natural occurrence of 2′-adenylated NAD+ was also detected. In vitro assays demonstrated that besides ATP, GTP was a good substrate for the sponge OAS, especially for OAS from C. nucula. Pyrimidine nucleotides UTP and CTP were also used as substrates for oligomerization, giving 2′,5′-linked homo-oligomers. These data refer to the substrate specificity of sponge OASs that is remarkably different from that of vertebrate OASs. Further studies of OASs from sponges may help to elucidate evolutionary and functional aspects of OASs as proteins of the nucleotidyltransferase family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessArticle Oyster (Crassostrea gigas) Hydrolysates Produced on a Plant Scale Have Antitumor Activity and Immunostimulating Effects in BALB/c Mice
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(2), 255-268; doi:10.3390/md8020255
Received: 14 December 2009 / Revised: 23 January 2010 / Accepted: 25 January 2010 / Published: 2 February 2010
Cited by 32 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011
[...] Read more.
Oyster extracts have been reported to have many bioactive peptides. But the function of oyster peptides produced by proteolysis is still unknown. In this study, the oligopeptide-enriched hydrolysates from oyster (Crassostrea gigas) were produced using the protease from Bacillus sp. SM98011 at laboratory level, and scaled up to pilot (100 L) and plant (1,000 L) levels with the same conditions. And the antitumor activity and immunostimulating effects of the oyster hydrolysates in BALB/c mice were investigated. The growth of transplantable sarcoma-S180 was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in BALB/c mice given the oyster hydrolysates. Mice receiving 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/g of body weight by oral gavage had 6.8%, 30.6% and 48% less tumor growth, respectively. Concurrently, the weight coefficients of the thymus and the spleen, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, the spleen proliferation of lymphocytes and the phagocytic rate of macrophages in S180-bearing mice significantly increased after administration of the oyster hydrolysates. These results demonstrated that oyster hydrolysates produced strong immunostimulating effects in mice, which might result in its antitumor activity. The antitumor and immunostimulating effects of oyster hydrolysates prepared in this study reveal its potential for tumor therapy and as a dietary supplement with immunostimulatory activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessArticle Recovery of Proteolytic and Collagenolytic Activities from Viscera By-products of Rayfish (Raja clavata)
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(4), 803-815; doi:10.3390/md7040803
Received: 19 November 2009 / Revised: 10 December 2009 / Accepted: 14 December 2009 / Published: 15 December 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the recovery of proteolytic and collagenolytic activities from rayfish (Raja clavata) viscera wastes. Initially, different parts of the gastrointestinal tract by-products (stomach, duodenum section including pancreas, final intestine) were evaluated. The extracts from
[...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the recovery of proteolytic and collagenolytic activities from rayfish (Raja clavata) viscera wastes. Initially, different parts of the gastrointestinal tract by-products (stomach, duodenum section including pancreas, final intestine) were evaluated. The extracts from proximal intestine yielded the highest values of both enzymatic activities. Optimal conditions for protease activity quantification were established at pH = 6, T = 40 °C and incubation time ≤20 min. The mathematical equation used to model the joint effect of pH and temperature led to maximum activity at pH = 8.66 and 59.4 °C, respectively. Overcooled acetone was found to be best option for recovery of enzymatic activities in comparison with ethanol, PEG-4000, ammonium sulphate and ultrafiltration system. Finally, a simple and systematic protocol of partial purification and total recovery of proteases and collagenases was defined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessArticle Effects and Interactions of Medium Components on Laccase from a Marine-Derived Fungus Using Response Surface Methodology
Mar. Drugs 2009, 7(4), 672-688; doi:10.3390/md7040672
Received: 8 October 2009 / Revised: 30 October 2009 / Accepted: 2 November 2009 / Published: 25 November 2009
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of various synthetic medium components and their interactions with each other ultimately impact laccase production in fungi. This was studied using a laccasehyper-producing marine-derived basidiomycete, Cerrena unicolor MTCC 5159. Inducible laccases were produced in the idiophase only after addition of an
[...] Read more.
The effects of various synthetic medium components and their interactions with each other ultimately impact laccase production in fungi. This was studied using a laccasehyper-producing marine-derived basidiomycete, Cerrena unicolor MTCC 5159. Inducible laccases were produced in the idiophase only after addition of an inducer such as CuSO4. Concentration of carbon and nitrogen acted antagonistically with respect to laccase production. A combination of low nitrogen and high carbon concentration favored both biomass and laccase production. The most favorable combination resulted in 917 U L-1 of laccase. After sufficient growth had occurred, addition of a surfactant such as Tween 80 positively impacted biomass and increased the laccase activity to around 1,300 U L-1. Increasing the surface to volume ratio of the culture vessel further increased its activity to almost 2,000 U L-1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Digestive Enzymes of the Crustaceans Munida and Their Application in Cheese Manufacturing: A Review
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(7), 1220-1231; doi:10.3390/md9071220
Received: 27 May 2011 / Revised: 27 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 June 2011 / Published: 7 July 2011
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crustaceans Munida (fam. Galatheideae, ord. Decapodi) were fished in the Southern Adriatic Sea and their proteolytic activities were characterized and tested for potential application in cheese manufacturing. Enzymes extracted from whole crustaceans, mainly serine proteases, showed high caseinolytic and moderate clotting
[...] Read more.
Crustaceans Munida (fam. Galatheideae, ord. Decapodi) were fished in the Southern Adriatic Sea and their proteolytic activities were characterized and tested for potential application in cheese manufacturing. Enzymes extracted from whole crustaceans, mainly serine proteases, showed high caseinolytic and moderate clotting activities. Analysis by 2D zymography of the digestive enzymes extracted from Munida hepatopancreas, showed the presence of several isotrypsin- and isochymotrypsin-like enzymes in the range of 20–34 kDa and 4.1–5.8 pI. Moreover, specific enzymatic assays showed the presence of aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases A and B. Overall, optimum activity was achieved at pH 7.5 and 40–45 °C. Caseinolytic activity, determined both spectrophotometrically and by SDS gel electrophoresis, indicated higher activity on β-casein than on α-casein. Miniature cheddar-type cheeses and Pecorino-type cheeses were manufactured by adding starter, rennet and Munida extracts to milk. Reverse-phase HPLC and MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry showed a more complex pattern of proteolytic products in cheeses made using Munida instead of chymosin. Munida extracts were found to degrade the chymosin-derived β-casein fragment f193–209, one of the peptides associated with bitterness in cheese. In conclusion, Munida digestive enzymes represent a promising tool for development of new cheese products and shorten cheese ripening when used either alone or in addition to calf rennet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessReview The Biological Deep Sea Hydrothermal Vent as a Model to Study Carbon Dioxide Capturing Enzymes
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(5), 719-738; doi:10.3390/md9050719
Received: 20 March 2011 / Revised: 14 April 2011 / Accepted: 20 April 2011 / Published: 28 April 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises
[...] Read more.
Deep sea hydrothermal vents are located along the mid-ocean ridge system, near volcanically active areas, where tectonic plates are moving away from each other. Sea water penetrates the fissures of the volcanic bed and is heated by magma. This heated sea water rises to the surface dissolving large amounts of minerals which provide a source of energy and nutrients to chemoautotrophic organisms. Although this environment is characterized by extreme conditions (high temperature, high pressure, chemical toxicity, acidic pH and absence of photosynthesis) a diversity of microorganisms and many animal species are specially adapted to this hostile environment. These organisms have developed a very efficient metabolism for the assimilation of inorganic CO2 from the external environment. In order to develop technology for the capture of carbon dioxide to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, enzymes involved in CO2 fixation and assimilation might be very useful. This review describes some current research concerning CO2 fixation and assimilation in the deep sea environment and possible biotechnological application of enzymes for carbon dioxide capture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessReview Carbohydrase Systems of Saccharophagus degradans Degrading Marine Complex Polysaccharides
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 645-665; doi:10.3390/md9040645
Received: 4 March 2011 / Revised: 1 April 2011 / Accepted: 13 April 2011 / Published: 21 April 2011
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (435 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 is a γ-subgroup proteobacterium capable of using many of the complex polysaccharides found in the marine environment for growth. To utilize these complex polysaccharides, this bacterium produces a plethora of carbohydrases dedicated to the processing of a carbohydrate class. Aiding
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Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 is a γ-subgroup proteobacterium capable of using many of the complex polysaccharides found in the marine environment for growth. To utilize these complex polysaccharides, this bacterium produces a plethora of carbohydrases dedicated to the processing of a carbohydrate class. Aiding in the identification of the contributing genes and enzymes is the known genome sequence for this bacterium. This review catalogs the genes and enzymes of the S. degradans genome that are likely to function in the systems for the utilization of agar, alginate, α- and β-glucans, chitin, mannans, pectins, and xylans and discusses the cell biology and genetics of each system as it functions to transfer carbon back to the bacterium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessReview Marine Biocatalysts: Enzymatic Features and Applications
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(4), 478-499; doi:10.3390/md9040478
Received: 9 February 2011 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 23 March 2011 / Published: 25 March 2011
Cited by 62 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity
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In several recent reports related to biocatalysis the enormous pool of biodiversity found in marine ecosystems is considered a profitable natural reservoir for acquiring an inventory of useful biocatalysts. These enzymes are characterized by well-known habitat-related features such as salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity and cold adaptivity. In addition, their novel chemical and stereochemical characteristics increase the interest of biocatalysis practitioners both in academia and research industry. In this review, starting from the analysis of these featuring habitat-related properties, important examples of marine enzymes in biocatalysis will be reported. Completion of this report is devoted to the analysis of novel chemical and stereochemical biodiversity offered by marine biocatalysts with particular emphasis on current or potential applications of these enzymes in chemical and pharmaceutical fields. The analysis of literature cited here and the many published patent applications concerning the use of marine enzymes supports the view that these biocatalysts are just waiting to be discovered, reflecting the importance of the marine environment. The potential of this habitat should be thoroughly explored and possibly the way to access useful biocatalysts should avoid destructive large-scale collections of marine biomass for enzyme production. These two aspects are day by day increasing in interest and a future increase in the use of marine enzymes in biocatalysis should be expected. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
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Open AccessReview Marine Bacterial Sialyltransferases
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(11), 2781-2794; doi:10.3390/md8112781
Received: 20 September 2010 / Revised: 25 October 2010 / Accepted: 2 November 2010 / Published: 5 November 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sialyltransferases transfer N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from the common donor substrate of these enzymes, cytidine 5’-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac), to acceptor substrates. The enzymatic reaction products including sialyl‑glycoproteins, sialyl-glycolipids and sialyl-oligosaccharides are important molecules in various biological and physiological processes, such as
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Sialyltransferases transfer N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) from the common donor substrate of these enzymes, cytidine 5’-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac), to acceptor substrates. The enzymatic reaction products including sialyl‑glycoproteins, sialyl-glycolipids and sialyl-oligosaccharides are important molecules in various biological and physiological processes, such as cell-cell recognition, cancer metastasis, and virus infection. Thus, sialyltransferases are thought to be important enzymes in the field of glycobiology. To date, many sialyltransferases and the genes encoding them have been obtained from various sources including mammalian, bacterial and viral sources. During the course of our research, we have detected over 20 bacteria that produce sialyltransferases. Many of the bacteria we isolated from marine environments are classified in the genus Photobacterium or the closely related genus Vibrio. The paper reviews the sialyltransferases obtained mainly from marine bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessReview Research and Application of Marine Microbial Enzymes: Status and Prospects
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1920-1934; doi:10.3390/md8061920
Received: 10 May 2010 / Revised: 15 June 2010 / Accepted: 22 June 2010 / Published: 23 June 2010
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over billions of years, the ocean has been regarded as the origin of life on Earth. The ocean includes the largest range of habitats, hosting the most life-forms. Competition amongst microorganisms for space and nutrients in the marine environment is a powerful selective
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Over billions of years, the ocean has been regarded as the origin of life on Earth. The ocean includes the largest range of habitats, hosting the most life-forms. Competition amongst microorganisms for space and nutrients in the marine environment is a powerful selective force, which has led to evolution. The evolution prompted the marine microorganisms to generate multifarious enzyme systems to adapt to the complicated marine environments. Therefore, marine microbial enzymes can offer novel biocatalysts with extraordinary properties. This review deals with the research and development work investigating the occurrence and bioprocessing of marine microbial enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessReview Bioprocessing Data for the Production of Marine Enzymes
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(4), 1323-1372; doi:10.3390/md8041323
Received: 5 March 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 12 April 2010 / Published: 19 April 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (373 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review is a synopsis of different bioprocess engineering approaches adopted for the production of marine enzymes. Three major modes of operation: batch, fed-batch and continuous have been used for production of enzymes (such as protease, chitinase, agarase, peroxidase) mainly from marine bacteria
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This review is a synopsis of different bioprocess engineering approaches adopted for the production of marine enzymes. Three major modes of operation: batch, fed-batch and continuous have been used for production of enzymes (such as protease, chitinase, agarase, peroxidase) mainly from marine bacteria and fungi on a laboratory bioreactor and pilot plant scales. Submerged, immobilized and solid-state processes in batch mode were widely employed. The fed-batch process was also applied in several bioprocesses. Continuous processes with suspended cells as well as with immobilized cells have been used. Investigations in shake flasks were conducted with the prospect of large-scale processing in reactors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessReview Structure and Function of Lactate Dehydrogenase from Hagfish
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 594-607; doi:10.3390/md8030594
Received: 8 January 2010 / Revised: 3 February 2010 / Accepted: 11 March 2010 / Published: 15 March 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) in hagfish have been estimated to be the prototype of those in higher vertebrates. The effects of high hydrostatic pressure from 0.1 to 100 MPa on LDH activities from three hagfishes were examined. The LDH activities of Eptatretus burgeri
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The lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs) in hagfish have been estimated to be the prototype of those in higher vertebrates. The effects of high hydrostatic pressure from 0.1 to 100 MPa on LDH activities from three hagfishes were examined. The LDH activities of Eptatretus burgeri, living at 45–60 m, were completely lost at 5 MPa. In contrast, LDH-A and -B in Eptatretus okinoseanus maintained 70% of their activities even at 100 MPa. These results show that the deeper the habitat, the higher the tolerance to pressure. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms for adaptation to high pressure, we compared the amino acid sequences and three-dimensional structures of LDHs in these hagfish. There were differences in six amino acids (6, 10, 20, 156, 269, and 341). These amino acidresidues are likely to contribute to the stability of the E. okinoseanus LDH under high-pressure conditions. The amino acids responsible for the pressure tolerance of hagfish are the same in both human and hagfish LDHs, and one substitution that occurred as an adaptation during evolution is coincident with that observed in a human disease. Mutation of these amino acids can cause anomalies that may be implicated in the development of human diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessReview Marine Metagenomics: New Tools for the Study and Exploitation of Marine Microbial Metabolism
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 608-628; doi:10.3390/md8030608
Received: 20 January 2010 / Revised: 4 February 2010 / Accepted: 12 March 2010 / Published: 15 March 2010
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (608 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The marine environment is extremely diverse, with huge variations in pressure and temperature. Nevertheless, life, especially microbial life, thrives throughout the marine biosphere and microbes have adapted to all the divergent environments present. Large scale DNA sequence based approaches have recently been used
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The marine environment is extremely diverse, with huge variations in pressure and temperature. Nevertheless, life, especially microbial life, thrives throughout the marine biosphere and microbes have adapted to all the divergent environments present. Large scale DNA sequence based approaches have recently been used to investigate the marine environment and these studies have revealed that the oceans harbor unprecedented microbial diversity. Novel gene families with representatives only within such metagenomic datasets represent a large proportion of the ocean metagenome. The presence of so many new gene families from these uncultured and highly diverse microbial populations represents a challenge for the understanding of and exploitation of the biology and biochemistry of the ocean environment. The application of new metagenomic and single cell genomics tools offers new ways to explore the complete metabolic diversity of the marine biome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessReview Finding New Enzymes from Bacterial Physiology: A Successful Approach Illustrated by the Detection of Novel Oxidases in Marinomonas mediterranea
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(3), 519-541; doi:10.3390/md8030519
Received: 10 February 2010 / Revised: 21 February 2010 / Accepted: 22 February 2010 / Published: 5 March 2010
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The identification and study of marine microorganisms with unique physiological traits can be a very powerful tool discovering novel enzymes of possible biotechnological interest. This approach can complement the enormous amount of data concerning gene diversity in marine environments offered by metagenomic analysis,
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The identification and study of marine microorganisms with unique physiological traits can be a very powerful tool discovering novel enzymes of possible biotechnological interest. This approach can complement the enormous amount of data concerning gene diversity in marine environments offered by metagenomic analysis, and can help to place the activities associated with those sequences in the context of microbial cellular metabolism and physiology. Accordingly, the detection and isolation of microorganisms that may be a good source of enzymes is of great importance. Marinomonas mediterranea, for example, has proven to be one such useful microorganism. This Gram-negative marine bacterium was first selected because of the unusually high amounts of melanins synthesized in media containing the amino acid L-tyrosine. The study of its molecular biology has allowed the cloning of several genes encoding oxidases of biotechnological interest, particularly in white and red biotechnology. Characterization of the operon encoding the tyrosinase responsible for melanin synthesis revealed that a second gene in that operon encodes a protein, PpoB2, which is involved in copper transfer to tyrosinase. This finding made PpoB2 the first protein in the COG5486 group to which a physiological role has been assigned. Another enzyme of interest described in M. mediterranea is a multicopper oxidase encoding a membrane-associated enzyme that shows oxidative activity on a wide range of substrates typical of both laccases and tyrosinases. Finally, an enzyme very specific for L-lysine, which oxidises this amino acid in epsilon position and that has received a new EC number (1.4.3.20), has also been described for M. mediterranea. Overall, the studies carried out on this bacterium illustrate the power of exploring the physiology of selected microorganisms to discover novel enzymes of biotechnological relevance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
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Open AccessReview Agarase: Review of Major Sources, Categories, Purification Method, Enzyme Characteristics and Applications
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(1), 200-218; doi:10.3390/md8010200
Received: 6 January 2010 / Revised: 21 January 2010 / Accepted: 25 January 2010 / Published: 26 January 2010
Cited by 86 | PDF Full-text (290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Agarases are the enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of agar. They are classified into α-agarase (E.C. 3.2.1.158) and β-agarase (E.C. 3.2.1.81) according to the cleavage pattern. Several agarases have been isolated from different genera of bacteria found in seawater and marine sediments, as
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Agarases are the enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of agar. They are classified into α-agarase (E.C. 3.2.1.158) and β-agarase (E.C. 3.2.1.81) according to the cleavage pattern. Several agarases have been isolated from different genera of bacteria found in seawater and marine sediments, as well as engineered microorganisms. Agarases have wide applications in food industry, cosmetics, and medical fields because they produce oligosaccharides with remarkable activities. They are also used as a tool enzyme for biological, physiological, and cytological studies. The paper reviews the category, source, purification method, major characteristics, and application fields of these native and gene cloned agarases in the past, present, and future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)

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