Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(5), 906-921; doi:10.3390/md9050906
Article

Molecular Evolution of Multiple Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT) in Fish

1,* , 2
, 3
 and 1
Received: 17 February 2011; in revised form: 16 May 2011 / Accepted: 17 May 2011 / Published: 24 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [449 KB, uploaded 24 May 2011]
Abstract: Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) to arylalkylamines, including indolethylamines and phenylethylamines. Multiple aanats are present in teleost fish as a result of whole genome and gene duplications. Fish aanat1a and aanat2 paralogs display different patterns of tissue expression and encode proteins with different substrate preference: AANAT1a is expressed in the retina, and acetylates both indolethylamines and phenylethylamines; while AANAT2 is expressed in the pineal gland, and preferentially acetylates indolethylamines. The two enzymes are therefore thought to serve different roles. Here, the molecular changes that led to their specialization were studied by investigating the structure-function relationships of AANATs in the gilthead seabream (sb, Sperus aurata). Acetylation activity of reciprocal mutated enzymes pointed to specific residues that contribute to substrate specificity of the enzymes. Inhibition tests followed by complementary analyses of the predicted three-dimensional models of the enzymes, suggested that both phenylethylamines and indolethylamines bind to the catalytic pocket of both enzymes. These results suggest that substrate selectivity of AANAT1a and AANAT2 is determined by the positioning of the substrate within the catalytic pocket, and its accessibility to catalysis. This illustrates the evolutionary process by which enzymes encoded by duplicated genes acquire different activities and play different biological roles.
Keywords: seabream; serotonin; dopamine; gene duplication seabream; serotonin; dopamine; gene duplication
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Zilberman-Peled, B.; Bransburg-Zabary, S.; Klein, D.C.; Gothilf, Y. Molecular Evolution of Multiple Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT) in Fish. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 906-921.

AMA Style

Zilberman-Peled B, Bransburg-Zabary S, Klein DC, Gothilf Y. Molecular Evolution of Multiple Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT) in Fish. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(5):906-921.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zilberman-Peled, Bina; Bransburg-Zabary, Sharron; Klein, David C.; Gothilf, Yoav. 2011. "Molecular Evolution of Multiple Arylalkylamine N-Acetyltransferase (AANAT) in Fish." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 5: 906-921.


Mar. Drugs EISSN 1660-3397 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert