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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 1st Symposium on Marine Enzymes and Polysaccharides"

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A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Antonio Trincone (Website)

Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Comprensorio Olivetti, Edificio 70, Via Campi Flegrei 34, I-80078 Pozzuoli, Napoli, Italy
Fax: +39 081 8041770
Interests: biocatalysis; marine enzymes; marine glycosidases; marine biotechnology; oligosaccharides
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Tatyana N. Zvyagintseva

G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far-Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (PIBOC FEBRAS), 159, prospekt 100-let Vladivostoku, Vladivostok, Russia
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Bui Minh Ly

Nhatrang Institute of Technology Research and Application, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology ( NITRA- VAST), 02 Hung Vuong St., Nhatrang City, Vietnam
Fax: +84 583 521 847
Interests: marine oligo- and polysaccharides; marine glucosidases; marine enzymes; marine bioactive substances; marine biotechnology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The 1st Symposium on Marine Enzymes and Polysaccharides will provide a new level of direct interaction between the leaders in the scientific field, the strategic partners and the attending delegates. Emphasis will be placed on the latest unpublished technical and scientific results and discussions. The MEP'12 will explore recent advances and future trends in understanding the relationship between structure and properties or uses of marine enzymes and polysaccharides. Lectures and posters will be organized into seven topical areas:

- Marine Enzyme Structure, Functionality Screening and Regulation
- Protein Engineering for Marine Enzyme expression
- Enzymatic Transformation of Polysaccharides and other Marine Natural Compounds
- Structure and Biological Activities of Polysaccharides and other Marine Natural Compounds
- Biodegradation of Polysaccharides
- Marine Enzymes for Nucleic Acids Processing and Modification
- Marine Biotechnology

The MEP'12 will take place in NhaTrang, one of the 29 most beautiful bays over the world and well-known by its pristine beaches, excellent scuba diving and others facilities.

Scientific committe organized a special issue of Marine Drugs dedicated to this Symposium entitled "Selected Papers from the 1st Symposium on Marine Enzymes and Polysaccharides". We kindly invite you to participate to this special issue.

Conference Website: http://piboc.dvo.ru/sy/index.php

Dr. Antonio Trincone
Prof. Dr. Tatyana N. Zvyagintseva
Prof. Dr. Bui Minh Ly
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs).

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Fucoidans as Potential Inhibitors of HIV-1
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(8), 3000-3014; doi:10.3390/md11083000
Received: 10 May 2013 / Revised: 26 June 2013 / Accepted: 31 July 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The antiviral activity of different structure fucoidans (α-l-fucans and galactofucans) was studied using two model viral systems based on a lentiviral vectors and a replication competent Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV). It was found that investigated fucoidans have no cytotoxic effects on [...] Read more.
The antiviral activity of different structure fucoidans (α-l-fucans and galactofucans) was studied using two model viral systems based on a lentiviral vectors and a replication competent Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV). It was found that investigated fucoidans have no cytotoxic effects on Jurkat and SC-1cell at the concentration range of 0.001–100 µg/mL. Fucoidans with different efficiency suppressed transduction of Jurkat cell line by pseudo-HIV-1 particles carrying the envelope protein of HIV-1 and infection of SC-1 cells by Mo-MuLV. According to our data, all natural fucoidans can be considered as potential anti-HIV agents regardless of their carbohydrate backbone and degree of sulfating, since their activity is shown at low concentrations (0.001–0.05 µg/mL). High molecular weight fucoidans isolated from Saccharina cichorioides (1.3-α-l-fucan), and S. japonica (galactofucan) were the most effective inhibitors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Structure of Fucoidan from Brown Seaweed Turbinaria ornata as Studied by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESIMS) and Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) Techniques
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(7), 2431-2443; doi:10.3390/md11072431
Received: 25 April 2013 / Revised: 4 June 2013 / Accepted: 17 June 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to elucidate both the chemical and conformational structure of an unfractionated fucoidan extracted from brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata collected at Nha-trang bay, Vietnam. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for determining the chemical structure and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to elucidate both the chemical and conformational structure of an unfractionated fucoidan extracted from brown seaweed Turbinaria ornata collected at Nha-trang bay, Vietnam. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for determining the chemical structure and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) provided conformational of the structure at the molecular level. The results showed that the fucoidan has a sulfate content of 25.6% and is mainly composed of fucose and galactose residues (Fuc:Gal ≈ 3:1). ESIMS analysis suggested that the fucoidan has a backbone of 3-linked α-l-Fucp residues with branches, →4)-Galp(1→ at C-4 of the fucan chain. Sulfate groups are attached mostly at C-2 and sometimes at C-4 of both fucose and galactose residues. A molecular model of the fucoidan was built based on obtained chemical structure and scattering curves estimated from molecular model and observed SAXS measurement were fitted. The results indicated that fucoidan under study has a rod-like bulky chain conformation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Fucoidans on Hemostatic System
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(7), 2444-2458; doi:10.3390/md11072444
Received: 22 April 2013 / Revised: 20 May 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 12 July 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three structurally different fucoidans from the brown seaweeds Saccharina latissima (SL), Fucus vesiculosus (FV), and Cladosiphon okamuranus (CO), two chemically modified fucoidans with a higher degree of sulfation (SL-S, CO-S), and a synthetic totally sulfated octasaccharide (OS), related to fucoidans, were assessed [...] Read more.
Three structurally different fucoidans from the brown seaweeds Saccharina latissima (SL), Fucus vesiculosus (FV), and Cladosiphon okamuranus (CO), two chemically modified fucoidans with a higher degree of sulfation (SL-S, CO-S), and a synthetic totally sulfated octasaccharide (OS), related to fucoidans, were assessed on anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities in different in vitro experiments. The effects were shown to depend on the structural features of the compounds tested. Native fucoidan SL with a degree of sulfation (DS) of 1.3 was found to be the most active sample, fucoidan FV (DS 0.9) demonstrated moderate activity, while the polysaccharide CO (DS 0.4) was inactive in all performed experiments, even at high concentrations. Additional introduction of sulfate groups into fucoidan SL slightly decreased the anticoagulant effect of SL-S, while sulfation of CO, giving rise to the preparation CO-S, increased the activity dramatically. The high level of anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides SL, SL-S, and CO-S was explained by their ability to form ternary complexes with ATIII-Xa and ATIII-IIa, as well as to bind directly to thrombin. Synthetic per-O-sulfated octasaccharide OS showed moderate anticoagulant effect, determined mainly by the interaction of OS with the factor Xa in the presence of ATIII. Comparable tendencies were observed in the antithrombotic properties of the compounds tested. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hydrolysis of Fucoidan by Fucoidanase Isolated from the Marine Bacterium, Formosa algae
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(7), 2413-2430; doi:10.3390/md11072413
Received: 24 May 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 25 June 2013 / Published: 11 July 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (806 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Intracellular fucoidanase was isolated from the marine bacterium, Formosa algae strain KMM 3553. The first appearance of fucoidan enzymatic hydrolysis products in a cell-free extract was detected after 4 h of bacterial growth, and maximal fucoidanase activity was observed after 12 h [...] Read more.
Intracellular fucoidanase was isolated from the marine bacterium, Formosa algae strain KMM 3553. The first appearance of fucoidan enzymatic hydrolysis products in a cell-free extract was detected after 4 h of bacterial growth, and maximal fucoidanase activity was observed after 12 h of growth. The fucoidanase displayed maximal activity in a wide range of pH values, from 6.5 to 9.1. The presence of Mg2+, Ca2+ and Ba2+ cations strongly activated the enzyme; however, Cu2+ and Zn2+ cations had inhibitory effects on the enzymatic activity. The enzymatic activity of fucoidanase was considerably reduced after prolonged (about 60 min) incubation of the enzyme solution at 45 °C. The fucoidanase catalyzed the hydrolysis of fucoidans from Fucus evanescens and Fucus vesiculosus, but not from Saccharina cichorioides. The fucoidanase also did not hydrolyze carrageenan. Desulfated fucoidan from F. evanescens was hydrolysed very weakly in contrast to deacetylated fucoidan, which was hydrolysed more actively compared to the native fucoidan from F. evanescens. Analysis of the structure of the enzymatic products showed that the marine bacteria, F. algae, synthesized an α-l-fucanase with an endo-type action that is specific for 1→4-bonds in a polysaccharide molecule built up of alternating three- and four-linked α-l-fucopyranose residues sulfated mainly at position 2. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Glycoside Hydrolases Activities from Phylogenetically Diverse Marine Bacteria of the Genus Arenibacter
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(6), 1977-1998; doi:10.3390/md11061977
Received: 29 March 2013 / Revised: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 27 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A total of 16 marine strains belonging to the genus Arenibacter, recovered from diverse microbial communities associated with various marine habitats and collected from different locations, were evaluated in degradation of natural polysaccharides and chromogenic glycosides. Most strains were affiliated with [...] Read more.
A total of 16 marine strains belonging to the genus Arenibacter, recovered from diverse microbial communities associated with various marine habitats and collected from different locations, were evaluated in degradation of natural polysaccharides and chromogenic glycosides. Most strains were affiliated with five recognized species, and some presented three new species within the genus Arenibacter. No strains contained enzymes depolymerizing polysaccharides, but synthesized a wide spectrum of glycosidases. Highly active β-N-acetylglucosaminidases and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidases were the main glycosidases for all Arenibacter. The genes, encoding two new members of glycoside hydrolyses (GH) families, 20 and 109, were isolated and characterized from the genomes of Arenibacter latericius. Molecular genetic analysis using glycosidase-specific primers shows the absence of GH27 and GH36 genes. A sequence comparison with functionally-characterized GH20 and GH109 enzymes shows that both sequences are closest to the enzymes of chitinolytic bacteria Vibrio furnissii and Cellulomonas fimi of marine and terrestrial origin, as well as human pathogen Elisabethkingia meningoseptica and simbionts Akkermansia muciniphila, gut and non-gut Bacteroides, respectively. These results revealed that the genus Arenibacter is a highly taxonomic diverse group of microorganisms, which can participate in degradation of natural polymers in marine environments depending on their niche and habitat adaptations. They are new prospective candidates for biotechnological applications due to their production of unique glycosidases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Structural Characteristics and Anticancer Activity of Fucoidan from the Brown Alga Sargassum mcclurei
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(5), 1456-1476; doi:10.3390/md11051456
Received: 11 February 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 23 April 2013 / Published: 6 May 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (702 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Three different fucoidan fractions were isolated and purified from the brown alga, Sargassum mcclurei. The SmF1 and SmF2 fucoidans are sulfated heteropolysaccharides that contain fucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucose. The SmF3 fucoidan is highly sulfated (35%) galactofucan, and the main [...] Read more.
Three different fucoidan fractions were isolated and purified from the brown alga, Sargassum mcclurei. The SmF1 and SmF2 fucoidans are sulfated heteropolysaccharides that contain fucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and glucose. The SmF3 fucoidan is highly sulfated (35%) galactofucan, and the main chain of the polysaccharide contains a →3)-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3)-(1→3)-α-l-Fucp(2,4SO3)-(1→ motif with 1,4-linked 3-sulfated α-l-Fucp inserts and 6-linked galactose on reducing end. Possible branching points include the 1,2,6- or 1,3,6-linked galactose and/or 1,3,4-linked fucose residues that could be glycosylated with terminal β-d-Galp residues or chains of alternating sulfated 1,3-linked α-l-Fucp and 1,4-linked β-d-Galp residues, which have been identified in galactofucans for the first time. Both α-l-Fucp and β-d-Galp residues are sulfated at C-2 and/or C-4 (and some C-6 of β-d-Galp) and potentially the C-3 of terminal β-d-Galp, 1,4-linked β-d-Galp and 1,4-linked α-l-Fucp residues. All fucoidans fractions were less cytotoxic and displayed colony formation inhibition in colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Therefore, these fucoidan fractions are potential antitumor agents. Full article
Open AccessArticle Neuritogenic and Neuroprotective Effects of Polar Steroids from the Far East Starfishes Patiria pectinifera and Distolasterias nipon
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(5), 1440-1455; doi:10.3390/md11051440
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 18 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 3 May 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of six starfish polar steroids, asterosaponin Р1, (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β,4β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-octaol, and (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-heptaol (13) from the starfish Patiria pectinifera and distolasterosides D1–D3 (46) [...] Read more.
The neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities of six starfish polar steroids, asterosaponin Р1, (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β,4β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-octaol, and (25S)-5α-cholestane-3β,6α,7α,8,15α,16β,26-heptaol (13) from the starfish Patiria pectinifera and distolasterosides D1–D3 (46) from the starfish Distolasterias nipon were analyzed using the mouse neuroblastoma (NB) C-1300 cell line and an organotypic rat hippocampal slice culture (OHSC). All of these compounds enhanced neurite outgrowth in NB cells. Dose-dependent responses to compounds 13 were observed within the concentration range of 10–100 nM, and dose-dependent responses to glycosides 46 were observed at concentrations of 1–50 nM. All the tested substances exhibited notable synergistic effects with trace amounts of nerve growth factor (NGF, 1 ng/mL) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, 0.1 ng/mL). Using NB cells and OHSCs, it was shown for the first time that starfish steroids 16 act as neuroprotectors against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) by increasing the number of surviving cells. Altogether, these results suggest that neurotrophin-like neuritogenic and neuroprotective activities are most likely common properties of starfish polyhydroxysteroids and the related glycosides, although the magnitude of the effect depended on the particular compound structure. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Sulfated (1→3)-α-l-Fucan from the Brown Alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe on Resveratrol-Induced Apoptosis in Colon Carcinoma Cells
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(1), 194-212; doi:10.3390/md11010194
Received: 1 December 2012 / Revised: 6 January 2013 / Accepted: 14 January 2013 / Published: 21 January 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Accumulating data clearly indicate that the induction of apoptosis by nontoxic natural compounds is a potent defense against the development and progression of many malignancies, including colon cancer. Resveratrol and the fucoidans have been shown to possess potent anti-tumor activity in vitro [...] Read more.
Accumulating data clearly indicate that the induction of apoptosis by nontoxic natural compounds is a potent defense against the development and progression of many malignancies, including colon cancer. Resveratrol and the fucoidans have been shown to possess potent anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the combination of a fucoidan from the brown alga Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe and resveratrol would be an effective preventive and/or therapeutic strategy against colon cancer. Based on NMR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF analysis, the fucoidan isolated and purified from Saccharina cichorioides Miyabe was (1→3)-α-l-fucan with sulfate groups at C2 and C4 of the α-l-fucopyranose residues. The fucoidan enhanced the antiproliferative activity of resveratrol at nontoxic doses and facilitated resveratrol-induced apoptosis in the HCT 116 human colon cancer cell line. Apoptosis was realized by the activation of initiator caspase-9 and effector caspase-7 and -3, followed by the cleavage of PARP. Furthermore, significant inhibition of HCT 116 colony formation was associated with the sensitization of cells to resveratrol by the fucoidan. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the combination of the algal fucoidan with resveratrol may provide a potential therapy against human colon cancer. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Silaffins of Diatoms: From Applied Biotechnology to Biomedicine
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(9), 3155-3167; doi:10.3390/md11093155
Received: 13 May 2013 / Revised: 29 July 2013 / Accepted: 12 August 2013 / Published: 26 August 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (657 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Silaffins are involved in the formation of the cell walls of diatoms. It is known that silaffins can precipitate silica in vitro, forming nano- and micro-particles in the shape of spheres and plates containing many pores. It is important to note [...] Read more.
Silaffins are involved in the formation of the cell walls of diatoms. It is known that silaffins can precipitate silica in vitro, forming nano- and micro-particles in the shape of spheres and plates containing many pores. It is important to note that the deposition of silica and the particle morphology in the presence of silaffins affects chemical and physical agents (e.g., peptides, polyamines, phosphate, nitrogen, and the mechanical changes of the reaction mixture). It is believed that silaffins act as an organic matrix for silica-genesis and that silica pore size should reflect the pattern of a matrix. Here, biotechnology related to silaffins is discussed in the context of “a hypothesis of silaffin matrix” and “the LCPA-phosphate model”. We discuss the most promising area of silaffin biotechnology—the development of production methods for silicon structures with desired shapes and nanostructural properties that can be used to create biocompatible materials. Full article
Open AccessReview Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis
Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(6), 2216-2229; doi:10.3390/md11062216
Received: 23 April 2013 / Revised: 24 May 2013 / Accepted: 7 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of [...] Read more.
This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs)). Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents. Full article

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